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FLAT-BOTTOM type ship

For Sail Amsterdam 1985 the Dutch Post issued one stamp of 70c which shows us the rigging of a flat-bodem ship. By looking at the design a botter rigging has been used, see viewtopic.php?f=2&t=10692&p=11282&hilit=botter#p11282
The envelope was used during Operation Sail 1986 from 3 – 6 July 1986 in New York in which 35 flat-bottem vessel from the Netherlands took part. The USA stamp was issued for the 100th Anniversary of the Statue of Liberty.
A flat bottom is - strictly - a ship with a flat bottom but usually this means an historical sailing vessels from the low countries that do not have, or almost have no keel. A flat bottom is also referred to as a flat-bottemed vessel - especially in earlier years.
The features are a flat or substantially flat bottom and a keel that does not or barely stick beneath the bottom. A flat bottom has leeboards instead of a keel .
Platbodems have little draught and they can sit on the bottom without any problems. In tidal waters , they can wait during low tide on a sandbank till the water raise again.
In the Wadden Sea and the Zeeland waters this was often done by, for example, the shell, kelp and oysters fishermen. Their ships were equipped with a heavily constructed bottoms. In Zeeland: the hoogaars and the hengst, in the Wadden Sea: the Wieringeraak and various bolschepen . The smaller flat-bottoms were used for fishing and transport on the relatively shallow inland waters. In the province of Friesland, flat-bottom (mostly tjalks and barges ) were used to transport their cargo (peat, manure and mound earth) through shallow waters from Friesland to the Westland and the Randstad.
Original flat-bottom yachts are usually registered in the registry of round and flat-bottom yachts . The ships of the type of round-bottom, such as the Lemsteraak , Staverse jol and the boyer, belong to the family of flat bottom ships.
Distribution area
Flat-bodems are very suitable for the wadden areas and shallow estuarines of rivers. In Western Europe, they therefore occur in an area that extends from the Baltic Sea through the Frisian language area (including North Germany ), the Low Countries (including Belgium) and South-East England to the Thames River.
Current use
Many Dutch flatbottoms, especially former sailing iron cargo ships, have been retained due to the rise of the tourist charter market , in the commenly named the Brown Fleet . They are then adapted for the reception of passengers, as a sailing holiday home (sometimes partyschip) with which cruises are held. This usually leads, but not always, to concessions related to the authenticity of the original ship. Fortunately, there are various, nicely refurbished larger ships. A number of things have also been developed on these ships, whether or not using modern materials. So some things can also be placed in modern times. These ships must fully comply with modern regulations and their owners want to earn their bread as before. This requires adjustments sometimes seen as non authentic.
Meanwhile, a number of ships have been built which have nothing to do with traditional or authentic. These drive the emotions of customers who want extreme comfort or a pirate ship.
They are sometimes acclaimed with brand names, while the words "authentic" and "original" are sometimes used in a very dubious way.
Monumental Company Ship
Another group of skipper/owners has returned its ships in old state as a sailing company vessel, with minimal necessary adjustments related to safety. These ships are often registered in the Netherlands as a Sailing monument in the National Register of Sailing Monuments . The owners are often members of the National Association for Conservation of the Historic Business Ship, the LVBHB. These flat-bottoms sometimes make trips, even fishing is possible. The proceeds of this form of rental are used to preserve the ship as a cultural heritage .
Pleasure craft
Some are also used as a pleasure craft. The owners of these last two groups often spend a lot of time, effort and money to keep their ships in good original condition.
Several municipalities with a port along the former Zuiderzee have recently shown that providing a berth to such ships is a good thing for the hospatality industry and shops, and that the ships greatly improves the view of the port and the city.
A large number of former flat-bottoms are used as houseboats. They are moored with people as residents. It is possible that these ships fall under one of the above categories. There is also a new build accommodation on an existing hull. Whether it is falling under improving the view, always remains in dispute. Practically, however, it is generally for the intended purpose.
Species by geographic area
There are various types of flat-bottom with each their own features.
In the wadden area they were round of construction and were named as aak .
In the Frisian lake area , they were also built round but much lighter of execution and of exceptional beauty.
In the Zeeland waters they were sharp in construction with more depth fore than behind.
There was a lot of variation in the Zuiderzee (now IJselmeer) area
Ships of the eastern shore as the schokkers, bons and zeepunter are sharp and angular of construction.
West-shore and south-shore vessels are full-round and high at the bow with a deck, and low and open at the stern (clean), like the various botters and bolschepen, this was necessary for the various types of fishing.
Types of cargo
By cargo transport on the inland waterways , they are long and narrow in shape with a wide variety in performance and size. Among them are the types of aak , river clipper and the large family of tjalks and prams . These ships are often built with a particular purpose in mind. Thus, there are many different sizes and hull shapes. When used as a fisshing vessel, often made for a particular fishing area. Or for example, a format built special for a particular lock.
Especially the tjalks were the water-transport vehicle in the Low Countries and were used for everything, from the transport of peat, mound-earth and drek with the friesian tjalk and passenger transport across the Zuiderzee (now IJselmeer).


Netherland 1985 70c sg?, scott

Etoile du Roy

Étoile du Roy (litt. "King's Star", formerly Grand Turk) is a three-masted sixth-ratefrigate. Etoile du Roy is a full-size replica of an eighteenth-century naval frigate, based on theoriginal plans of ‘HMS Blandford’ built in 1741 – to a design ‘borrowed’ from those of a French privateer! It’s perhaps ironic that HMS Blandford was in fact captured in 1755 by Duguay-Trouin, a French privateer operating out of Saint-Malo. These ships were usually around 300 tons, armed with 20 cannon and a crew of 240 men. Mostly privately owned, they were given dispensation to freely attack the ships of an enemy country – provided part of the bounty was donated to the state treasury! Although often regarded as little more than pirates, if necessary their crews would be given ‘safe conduct’ by the state and its allies. Nowadays the tall ship is used mainly in sailing events, for corporate or private charter, and for receptions in her spacious saloon or on her deck. In 2010 the ship was purchased by the French company Étoile Marine Croisières, based at Saint-Malo, Brittany, and since then has been renamed Étoile du Roy. The frigate was designed by Michael Turk of Turks Shipyard Ltd. of Chatham, which was established in 1710. She was constructed of iroko planking over laminated mahoganyframes. She has an overall length of 152 ft (46 m), and is 97 ft (30 m) at the waterline, with a beam of 34 ft (10 m) and a draught of 10 ft (3.0 m). The frigate is square-rigged on three masts with a sail area of 8,500 sq ft (790 m2), and has two 400 hp (298 kW) Kelvin TAS8 diesel engines, and a 60 hp (45 kW) bow thruster, as well as four AC generators for electrical power. The ship was originally fitted with six 9-pounder replica cannons constructed by the naval dockyard of Sevastopol, Ukraine. These guns consisted of a high tensile steel tube encased in moulded alloy to resemble the original weapons, and were designed only to fire 400 g (14 oz) black powder charges. On 24 August 2001 a crew member was injured after a premature explosion during the firing of a gun, while the ship was taking part in the International Festival of the Sea at Portsmouth. The Marine Accident Investigation Branch were obliged to consult the Keeper of Artillery from the Royal Armouries museum for technical assistance and advice. Тhe frigate was purchased by Bob Escoffier of the Étoile Marine Croisières, which already operates a number of traditional sailing ships: Étoile de France, Étoile Molène, Étoile Polaire, Naire Maove' and the schooner-aviso Recouvrance in Brest (in partnership with its owner, the SOPAB). The final sale price was not disclosed. After being moored in Whitby for over a decade, Grand Turk sailed out of her home harbour for the last time on 16 March 2010 to her current location in France.
Guinea 2017;50000fg;SG?In margin of sheet.
Source: ... ile-du-roy.

Etoile of France

The Étoile de France is a schooner with a wooden hulk and a wooden hull built in 1938 as a Baltic Trader cargo ship.He is the flagship of Marine Star Cruises boats from Bob Escoffier as the Polar Star ketch and the Star Molene dundee.Its former registration was D 43169. The news is SM D43169 (Saint-Malo).At its construction in 1938, it was launched under the name of Jutlandia. It was a three-masted coaster-schooner with the auxiliary engine used for cabotage in the Baltic Sea. It was used to transport salt and cod between Iceland, Denmark and Portugal.In 1955, it passes under the Danish flag and takes the name of Frennenæs. His rigging is reduced to two-masted schooner.In 1963, under the Danish flag, the schooner took the name Jette Jan.In 1971, it was converted into three-masted schooner to become a school ship.In 1983, it was again transformed into a two-masted schooner by taking the name of Julia af Fåborg.Mickael Turk became the owner and used it for the cinema.In 2007 Bob Escoffier bought it and renamed it Étoile de France. It is used mainly as a sailing boat. It allows day trips and cruises in the Channel, Atlantic, Mediterranean and Caribbean 1.She was present at the 2013 Armada in Rouen, the Boulogne - sur - Mer Sea Festival in July 2013 and in Brest 2016.
Guinea 2017;12500fg;SG? Source:Étoile_de_France

Galeon Andalucia

The Galeon Andalucia is the replica of Spanish galleons deployed during the Galleon Trade between Manila and Acapulco, Mexico, in the 17th century. It arrived in Manila on 6 October 2010 and was docked at Pier 13, South Harbor (within the Philippine Ports Authority compound), until October 11, and will travel to Cebu and Bohol, to remain in Philippine waters until October 25 for the celebration of the Dia del Galeon (Day of Galleon) in the Philippines. The National Commission for Culture and the Arts (NCCA) described Galeon Andalucia as a 95 percent replica of the original galleons used during the Galleon Trade, designed by Ignacio Fernandez Vial. It was built by the Nao Victoria Foundation out of Spanish, Finnish, African, and American pine and oak wood, unlike the original galleons, which were made of Philippine wood. Its sails, however, were made in the Ilocos region in the Philippines.Its length is 47 meters while its breadth is six meters, and it weighs 495 tons. Its maximum speed is 12.4 knots (23 kilometers per hour). It has four masts, seven sails and ten cannons.The flags of the Philippines, Spain and the Spanish autonomous community of Andalusia, where the galleon was built, are hoisted on the galleon. Galeon Andalucia is primarily wind-powered, but has two built-in engines that are used when necessary. It has a 30-man draft composed of Spanish crewmen.Galeon Andalucia left the port of Sevilla, Spain in March 2010 and arrived in Shanghai, China in June 2010 for the World Expo 2010. It left Shanghai in September 2010 and arrived in Manila on October 6.Galeon Andalucia is the centerpiece of the Dia Del Galeon festival in the Philippines, which started on 21 September 2010. The festival is organized by the NCCA and the city government of Manila in commemoration of the 250 years of the Galleon Trade (1565-1815).The Dia Del Galeon showcased an exchange of Spanish and Filipino culture, with exhibits, workshops, cultural performances, and educational discussions regarding the Galleon Trade.Galleons were huge sailing ships mainly used as cargo ships during the Galleon Trade. Aside from their primary use, galleons also served as the Spaniards' passenger and war ships.Manila became the center of Galleon Trade route, being geographically in the middle of Spain and Acapulco, Mexico. The Galleon Trade is widely acknowledged to have been the first form of globalization, encompassing both eastern and western hemispheres.It is said that out of 120 galleons recorded during the Galleon Trade, 102 were built in the Philippines. The Philippine-made galleons were built by Filipino workers free of charge under the Polo y Servicios.
Guinea 2017;50000fg;SG?


This stamp shows the VENGEUR when she arrived with the HÉROS viewtopic.php?f=2&t=15955 in 1783 in Ile de France.
Built as a wooden hulled cargo vessel by Caudan, Lorient for the French East India Company.
May 1756 laid down,
25 October 1756 launched as the VENGEUR.
Tonnage 1,250 ton burthen, dim. 52.61 length of gundeck, 48.72 length of keel, 13,48 beam, 6.84 depth in hold.
As warship she carried an armament of, lower deck 24 – 24pdr long guns, upper deck 28 – 12 pdr. long guns. Quarterdeck 6 – 6 pdr long guns and forecastle 2 – 6 pdr. long guns.
Crew 396 as warship.
25 October 1756 completed and delivered to owners.

1765 Sold to the French Navy and refitted in Brest as a third rate 64-gun ship-of-the-line warship.
The VENGEUR was a 64-gun ship of the line of the French Navy designed by Antoine Groignard. She saw action with Bailli de Suffren during the American War of Independence.
VENGEUR was originally built as an East Indiaman for the French East India Company. Her plans, however, followed military specification, as she was supposed to be able to integrate a naval squadron if necessary. She cruised as a merchantman from 1757 to 1765, when she was sold to the Navy. After a refit in Brest, she was brought into service under Captain Jean Christy de La Pallière.
In October 1778, along with the frigate BELLE POULE, she captured the privateer ST PETERS. She took part in the Action of 18 December 1779, when she, along with ANNIBAL and RÉFLÉCHI, saved a convoy from the British off Fort Royal.
She took part in the Battle of Martinique (1780)
Incorporated into Suffren's squadron, she was present at the Battle of Porto Praya, although she did not take part in the action. She was similarly present at the Battle of Negapatam without fighting, while led Suffren to report her captain, Comte de Forbin.
February 1784 decommissioned and struck from the navy list in April 1784.
VENGEUR was sold to commerce in April 1784, and wrecked off La Réunion in March 1785. ... p&id=15423
Mauritius 1970 2R50 sg423, scott?


The stamp shows Port Louis harbour in 1970, there are some cargo vessel in the port, but all these vessel are not identified.

Mauritius 1970 75c sg?, scott?

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