BOMBARDMENT OF VALPARAISO in 1866

The Bombardment of Valparaíso on 31 March 1866 happened after the Chincha Islands War, when a Spanish fleet shelled, burned and destroyed the undefended port of Valparaíso.

Background
After the humiliating defeat at the Battle of Papudo and the indecisive Battle of Abtao, Rear Admiral Casto Méndez Núñez was ordered to take punitive action against South American ports. When the Chilean government ordered that vessels supplying or communicating with the Spanish fleet should not be allowed to enter Chilean ports, Méndez Núñez's first target became the most important and undefended Chilean city of Valparaíso.
Attempts at mediation
Efforts to mediate were initially steered by European diplomats whose countrymen were most affected by the initial blockade of Chilean ports and by the threat of bombardment. High-level contacts took place intensively in late 1865 and early 1866 between London, Paris and Madrid. A formula to resolve the conflict appeared, at one stage, to have been secured.In the final two weeks, the United States was especially active. The American minister to Chile, General Hugh Judson Kilpatrick and the US Naval Commander John Rodgers who was at port commanding a US naval squadron composed of the ironclad monitor USS MONADNOCK and the steamers POWHATAN, TUSCARORA and VANDERBILT attempted a last-minute settlement with the Spanish Admiral. To that effect they enlisted the cooperation of the commander of the British Pacific Station, Rear Admiral Joseph Denman, who had under his command two warships: HMS SUTLEY and HMS LEANDER. The British commander, despite coming under great pressure from British merchants in the city, later changed his mind and decided to enforce a strict neutrality, refusing the cooperation of his ships.
Ultimately, all the attempts at mediation failed, as the chief condition of Admiral Méndez Núñez was the proper salute to the Spanish flag, the return by the Chileans of the captured Schooner COVADONGA and the immediate payment of a crippling indemnity. The talks broke over the matter of the flag salute. When General Kilpatrick threatened to defend the port with the US squadron and attack the Spanish fleet, Admiral Méndez Núñez famously responded with, "I will be forced to sink [the US ships], because even if I have one ship left I will proceed with the bombardment. Spain, the Queen and I prefer honor without ships than ships without honor." Consequently the Spanish Admiral, notwithstanding the protest of the diplomatic corps, gave notice on March 27 to all neutrals to evacuate the city.

Bombardment
At 7 am on March 31, the Spanish fleet took positions in front of their targets. It consisted of the NUMANCIA, RESOLUCION, VILLA DE MADRID, BLANCA, VENCEDORA and the PAQUETE DEL MAULE. The frigate BERENGUELA remained behind to guard against the possible escape of the merchant fleet. At 8.10 AM, the NUMANCIA discharged two shots as final notice and to give opportunity for the people still in town to take cover. The bombardment itself started at 9 am and lasted for three hours without fire being returned, as Valparaíso was totally defenseless.
The Spanish bombarded the town unhindered. The loss in public and private property was estimated at $1,000,000, and in merchandise at $9,000,000, huge sums at the time. One recent account suggests that in today's money the losses amounted to the equivalent of around $224,000,000.
The action created an international scandal. While the Spanish were heavily criticized for attacking an unarmed city, so too was the British government for not employing its own naval force to protect the lives and property of its own nationals. Most of the losses were actually endured by British merchants, and a large argument developed in the British Parliament when news arrived in May

Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bombardme ... 3%ADso1866
Chile 2017 label on $6 stamps of Especialidao Abastecimiento set.
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ISE battleship

The stamp of 80Y is one out of a Japanese miniature sheet for the 1914-1920 Millennium set, the design of this stamp was adopted from a part of “Shonen Gunkan Sugoruku” (Japanese battleship board game for boys by Kawabata Ryushi 1885-1966), and represent the First World War and shows in the foreground the Japanese battleship ISE at that time the newest and most powerful ship in the Japanese Navy.

Built as a battleship on the Japanese shipyard Kawasaki Heavy Industries, Kobe for the Japanese Imperial Navy.
10 May 1915 laid down.
12 November 1916 launched as the ISE, named after the Province Ise, one sister the HYUGA.
Displacement 31,760 ton standard, 37,100 ton full load, dim. 208.2 x 28.7 x 8.93m. (draught), length bpp.195.7m.
Powered by two sets Brown-Curtis steam turbines, 45,000 shp, four shafts, speed 23 knots.
Range by a speed of 14 knots, 9,680 mile.
Armament: 6 – 356mm, 16 – 140mm, 12 – 76mm, 4 – 76mm AA guns and 6 – submerged 533mm torpedo tubes.
Crew 1,198.
15 December 1917 completed.

ISE (senkan)), was the lead ship of the two-vessel ISE-class battleship of the Imperial Japanese Navy, which saw combat service during the Pacific War. ISE was named after Ise Province, one of the traditional provinces of Japan, now part of Mie Prefecture.

Operational history
Early histor
Originally planned to be the third Fusō-class battleship, experience gained in the construction of the Fusō class revealed a number of design issues, including weak armament and protection, which forced a redesign and new classification.
ISE was laid down at the Kawasaki Heavy Industries shipyard in Kobe on 5 May 1915, launched on 12 November 1916, and completed on 15 December 1917 and assigned to the Kure Naval District.
Completed too late for service in World War I, in the early 1920s, ISE participated in numerous patrols off the Siberia coast and in northern waters in support of Japan's Siberian Intervention against the Bolshevik Red Army.
On 12 April 1922, while at Yokohama, ISE hosted a delegation which included the Prince of Wales (the future Edward VIII), who was accompanied by his second cousin, the future Lord Mountbatten of Burma. From the mid-1920s through the late 1930s, ISE patrolled mostly off the China coast.
In 1928-1929, ISE was rebuilt at the Kure Naval Arsenal, with its foremast increased in height in the distinctive "pagoda" style similar to HARUNA. The fore funnel was fitted with a curved smoke cap, and a flying off platform for Yokosuka E1Y2 Type 14 floatplanes was fitted atop No. 5 main turret. Later, from 1930–1931, additional searchlights and a derrick was installed at the stern for handling floatplanes.
However, a more complete upgrade occurred from 20 November 1931 – 10 February 1932 at Kure Naval Arsenal, which involved shortening the mainmast top section, replacing all the 76 mm (3.0 in)/40 cal AA guns with eight Type 89 127 mm (5.0 in)/40 cal AA guns (4x2), and adding four Vickers Type 40 mm (1.6 in) AA guns (2x2). The shielded 140 mm (5.5 in)/40 cal guns from the forecastle deck were removed and a catapult and aircraft handling crane were fitted to the fantail. On 14 May 1933, a second catapult and three Type 90 seaplanes were added.
From 1 August 1935, ISE was drydocked at Kure Naval Arsenal and underwent an extensive reconstruction and modernization. The 24 mixed-fired (coal and oil) boilers were replaced by eight new Kampon oil-fired boilers and new Kampon geared turbines were fitted. Maximum speed increased to 25.4 kn (47.0 km/h; 29.2 mph) (25.21 kn (46.69 km/h; 29.01 mph) was reached during trials). The fore funnel was removed and stern lengthened by 7.62 m (25 ft). Anti-torpedo bulges were added and her six submerged torpedo tubes were removed. The maximum elevation of ISE's main battery (with the exception of the aftermost turret No. 6) was increased to 43°. Two forward 140 mm (5.5 in) casemate guns were removed, as was done with most other Japanese warships during this period, due to their exposed nature in heavy seas. The elevation of secondary guns was increased from 20° to 30° and range increased from 15,800 m (51,800 ft) to 19,100 m (62,700 ft). Four 40 mm (1.6 in) Vickers AA guns were replaced by 10 Type 96 twin 25 mm (0.98 in)/60 cal AA guns. The original catapult was replaced by a Kure Type No. 2 Mod. 5 catapult and the aircraft handling deck was extended. Reconstruction was completed by 27 March 1937.

Start of the Pacific War
Despite these efforts at modernization and upgrading, ISE was still considered obsolete by the start of the Pacific War due to her relatively slow speed, large crew, and short range, and never saw combat as a battleship. ISE participated in the attack on Pearl Harbor (albeit on a sortie from Hashirajima as far as the Bonin Islands) and pursued but did not catch the American carrier force that had launched the Doolittle Raid on 18 April 1942.
In May, ISE had an accident which flooded her No. 2 engine room. During repair work, ISE was fitted with one of the first experimental model Type 21 radar sets in the Japanese navy.

Reconstruction
To partially compensate for the loss of carrier strength at the Battle of Midway, Navy Aircraft Department began plans to convert the ISE-class battleships to full-sized aircraft carriers each carrying 54 planes. This concept was abandoned due to lack of time and resources and a hybrid battleship/carrier concept was adopted. ISE was dry-docked, and her aft No. 5 and No. 6 main turrets were removed and replaced by a hangar surmounted by a 70 m (230 ft) long flight deck and a "T"-shaped aircraft elevator. This was long enough to permit the launch of aircraft, but not their recovery. Two 25 m (82 ft) Model 11 catapults were installed on tall supports on the port and starboard sides forward of the flight deck. A collapsible derrick crane was fitted port abaft (two cranes were originally planned but installation was not carried out). It was realized that a single faulty aircraft engine could ruin the whole concept, so, to prevent jams, the deck was fitted with two rails to each catapult, 12 turntables, trolleys and tie-downs. Plans called for the new hangar to carry nine planes inside, with 11 on deck and one on each catapult. The new deck was covered with 200 mm (7.9 in) of concrete to compensate for the unbalanced condition created after removal of the aft armament. A 1 m (3 ft) thick layer of concrete was also poured around the main and reserve steering rooms and a 150 mm (5.9 in) horizontal armor cover was added.
Additional anti-aircraft weapons were installed to better fight off aerial attack. The eight single 127 mm (5.0 in) DP guns were replaced with eight twin-mounts, and the Type 96 25 mm (0.98 in) AA guns were increased from 20 to 57 (including 19 triple-mounts). Type 21 air-search radar and two Type 22 surface-search radars were also installed. As modified, ISE could carry 22 aircraft. The operational concept envisioned ISE accompanying the Kido Butai (Carrier Strike Force), and launching its 11 Yokosuka D4Y2 SuISEi ("Judy") dive bombers and 11 Aichi E16A Zuiun ("Paul") seaplanes that are capable of diving attacks to add another 44 bombers to the Strike Force. The SuISEi had to land either on a conventional carrier or on land bases, whereas the E16A could be hoisted back aboard using a crane, after landing near the ship. ISE's final aircraft allowance called for 14 E16As and eight D4Y2s.
The rebuild was officially completed on 8 October 1943; however, as training with the new pilots was not completed by autumn 1944, ISE was never used in its new configuration in an operational mission. Its aircraft were offloaded to land bases, and ISE continued to be used as a pure battleship in the cover force.
ISE made a sortie to Truk in October 1943, conveying a detachment of the...

Island of Rapa-Iti (George Vancouver)

In 1987, French Polynesia released a stamp dedicated to the voyage of George Vancouver in the South Pacific. Captain George Vancouver (22 June 1757 – 10 May 1798) was a British officer of the Royal Navy, best known for his 1791–95 expedition, which explored and charted North America's northwestern Pacific Coast regions, including the coasts of contemporary Alaska, British Columbia, Washington, and Oregon. He also explored the Hawaiian Islands and the southwest coast of Australia.(For more details about G.Vancouver to see : viewtopic.php?f=2&t=9604)
December 22, 1791, the island of Rapa-Iti was discovered by George Vancouver , who headed the British cartographic expedition on the Discovery barge . On the shore, the British did not descend, the locals went to sea, to meet the travelers on 30 canoes , which carried over 300 men - the Rapaites . The islanders offered the aliens caught fish, behaved noisily, but not particularly sociable. Vancouver notes that the natives had virtually no weapons, except for a few copies and sling, the language of the local residents, he did not understand, but confidently attributed it to the group of languages of the islands of Ostral (the islands of Tubuai , ie Polynesian ). The English captain also drew attention to the fact that on the mountain peaks of the island there are numerous fortifications that are constantly guarded by armed guards. The island was named Oparo (this was the word most often pronounced by the natives, remembered by Vancouver ), since then Rapa-Iti appeared on the sea charts, and Europeans have become frequent visitors to its coastal waters. [12] In 1802 , near the island was English captain Roger Simpson, who worked for the famous entrepreneur and explorer ofAustralia, George Bass . Simpson on the barge "Nautilus" was heading to Tahiti to purchase pork for theSydney colonists, during his journey he visited the island of Raivawae , and moving from it to the south came across the islands of Marotiri and Rapa Iti , who, in honor of their friend and patron, called the Bass Islands[13] (some sources are mistakenly called the discoverer of the Marotiri islands of Bass himself. September 6, 1813 . the island of Rapa-Iti was seen by another English entrepreneur Stephen Reynolds, bound with cargo of sea otter skins from the coast of North America to Guangzhou , which he left a record in the ship's log. On July 20, 1815, the ship Endeavor, which was sent from Sydney for a route between New Zealand and the Marquesas Islands, stopped at the island. The crew left the most unflattering comments about the Rapaites , calling the islanders thieves, dragging everything that fell into their hands on the deck of the ship. In January 1817, the English missionary William Ellis spoke with the Rapaites from the ship's side, leaving the description of the islanders who came out to meet him on canoe. June 29, 1820 , two sloops of the Russian round-the-world Antarctic expedition under the command of F.F. Bellingshausen "Vostok" and "Mirny" abandoned anchors near Rapa-Iti and spent two days off the coast of the island. Local residents went to a meeting with aliens on 22 canoes on which there were about a hundred islanders and started a stormy trade with Russian sailors. In the middle of the last century, Thor Heyerdahl visited Rapa-Iti during his expedition. On an island in the mountains, he excavated and, as he described in his book "Aku Aku," in the tenth chapter, "Moronga Uta, the city of the ruins of the ruins," discovered ancient buildings, huge for such a small island lost in the ocean.
French Polynesia;1987;130f;SG?
Source:wikipedia.org/wiki/ George_Vancouver.
wikipedia.org/wiki/Rapa-Iti

TRAFALGAR SWORD

The Cayes of Belize issued a set of stamps for the Lloyds List of which the $2 depict not a ship but a historic sword what was handed out to 23 captains who took part in one of the world’s famous naval battles the Battle of Trafalgar in 1805.
The sword is made from steel and is strikingly decorated in blue and gold

Read more: http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article ... 0-000.html

Cayes of Belize 1984 $2 sg?, scott?

VARDO and HAMMERFEST

Norway issued two stamps in 1989 to commemorate the bicentenary of the two oldest towns in the country of Finnmark. Both stamps shows some fishing vessels. I have been in north Norway many times to load frozen fish, every trip, we made calls in 10 – 14 fishing ports before we left Norway fully loaded across the North Atlantic for the USA during the end of the 1960s early 1970s.
At that time the type of fishing vessels depict on the stamp were built of wood and were fishing for cod with lines and hooks, sailing in the evening and returning the next morning with their catch, discharging at the fish factory for processing. The fishing vessels have not been identified.

Vardo: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vard%C3%B8 Norway one of the ports we were loading is Norway’s most easterly town. The history of this town is strongly linked to Vardohus Fort which, for hundreds of years, provided protection anda guarantee that Vardo remains Norwegian. The first fortifications were started as early as the 14th century. Also the same time, mention was also made of Vardo as a fishing village. Since the middle of the last century, Vardo has grown and expanded and is now Norwegian’s largest fishing port.

Hammerfest: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hammerfest is the most northerly in the world, the town with the Meridian monument, and the first town in Europe to have electric street lighting. Hammerfest has long traditions as an important fishing village and was at one time a centre for fishing in the Polar Sea. Fishing and fish processing still have an important place in the life of Hammerfest. The town has also become a tourist attraction with international appeal.

Source Watercraft Philately 1991 page 12. Australian Stamp Monthly, May 1989.
Norway 1989 3k and 4k sg 1055/56, scott 938/39.

POLOTSK town coat of arms

Three stamps of Belarus have the same ship on a stamp, which is depict in the municipal arms of the town of Polotsk. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Polotsk

The municipal arms of Polotsk (Vitebsk region) represents the image of a baroque shield on the blue ground of which there is a gold three-mast ship with unfolded silver sails floating on silver waves.

The 1985 stamp shows a portrait of Simeon of Polotsk (1629-1680) and in the background the coat of arms of the town. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Symeon_of_Polotsk

The type of ship on the coat of arms looks if it is a cog, Polotsk was an important trading town with the Hanza towns in the Baltic.

Belarus 1992 2r sg 3 scott11. 1995 1800r sg 134, scott 137. 2017 N sg?, scott?

TERNUA 2017

TERNUA 2017: a sports challenge

“Ternua” is the old Basques name for Newfoundland.

In July 2017, a mixed crew composed of rowers from the Basque Country, Saint Pierre and Miquelon and the province of Quebec will sail the waters of the south coast of Newfoundland as well as those of Saint Pierre and Miquelon, that is to say a distance of 400 kilometers to be covered in 10 stopovers. The fishing longboat will act as a link between the first Basques who landed on the North American continent in the XIVth century and the new generation of Basques, Bretons and Normans who have settled in this region. For the event, a fishing longboat made of carbon fibre was built in the Basque Country.

28 July 2017 a team of rowers boarded the traditional Basques built boat and set off from Placentia, Newfoundland for the first leg of the journey, which will end in St. Pierre. St Pierre et Miquelon.

The traditional Basques boat used is a “trainiére”, of the trainiére the Aak to Zumbra a Dictionary of the World’s Watercraft gives:

The “trainiére” is a long narrow Basque pulling boat. Fished mainly within sight of shore with a large net until ca 1912.Carvel-planked; flat floors, rounded bilges, generally little sheer. Rounded stern, straight stem, slightly tumble home; very fine run. When sailed, shipped a narrow rudder that extended well below the bottom; tiller slotted over the rudderhead. Heavy sectional weatherboards were removed as needed when rowed; short end decks. Rowed by 12 – 18 oarsmen on 8 -11 benches. Set 2 lugsails when appropriate. Foremast stepped through foredeck; mainmast roughly amidships. She are now motorized. Crew included a helmsman.
Reported lengths 10 – 14m e,g, length 10m, beam 1.83m, depth 0.8m.

There is no real term in English for « trainière ». We have chosen the term fishing longboat. Originally a « trainière » was a fishing boat used by the Basque fishermen. It was an open rowboat with 13 rowers and a helmsman on board, used to fish small fish like sardines with a fishnet. Speed was necessary, as the first vessel to arrive at the wharf with its catch had the best chances to sell all its produce. Hence, the origin of the modern day rowing competition sport using fishing longboats.

Downloaded mostly from https://indianoak.fr/en/project/
St Pierre et Miquelon 2017 1.40 Euro sg?, scott?
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