U-453

German submarine U-453 was a Type VIIC U-boat built for Nazi Germany's Kriegsmarine for service during World War II. She was laid down on 4 July 1940 by Deutsche Werke in Kiel as yard number 284, launched on 30 April 1941 and commissioned on 26 June 1941 under Kapitänleutnant Egon-Reiner von Schlippenbach (Knight’s Cross).
The boat's service began on 26 June 1941 with training as part of the 7th U-boat Flotilla, followed by active service until being transferred to the 29th flotilla on 1 January 1942, based in La Spezia in Italy.
German Type VIIC submarines were preceded by the shorter Type VIIB submarines. U-453 had a displacement of 769 tonnes (757 long tons) when at the surface and 871 tonnes (857 long tons) while submerged.[2] She had a total length of 67.10 m (220 ft 2 in), a pressure hull length of 50.50 m (165 ft 8 in), a beam of 6.20 m (20 ft 4 in), a height of 9.60 m (31 ft 6 in), and a draught of 4.74 m (15 ft 7 in). The submarine was powered by two Germaniawerft F46 four-stroke, six-cylinder supercharged diesel engines producing a total of 2,800 to 3,200 metric horsepower (2,060 to 2,350 kW; 2,760 to 3,160 shp) for use while surfaced, two Siemens-Schuckert GU 343/38–8 double-acting electric motors producing a total of 750 metric horsepower (550 kW; 740 shp) for use while submerged. She had two shafts and two 1.23 m (4 ft) propellers. The boat was capable of operating at depths of up to 230 metres (750 ft).
The submarine had a maximum surface speed of 17.7 knots (32.8 km/h; 20.4 mph) and a maximum submerged speed of 7.6 knots (14.1 km/h; 8.7 mph). When submerged, the boat could operate for 80 nautical miles (150 km; 92 mi) at 4 knots (7.4 km/h; 4.6 mph); when surfaced, she could travel 8,500 nautical miles (15,700 km; 9,800 mi) at 10 knots (19 km/h; 12 mph). U-453 was fitted with five 53.3 cm (21 in) torpedo tubes (four fitted at the bow and one at the stern), fourteen torpedoes, one 8.8 cm (3.46 in) SK C/35 naval gun, 220 rounds, and an anti-aircraft gun. The boat had a complement of between forty-four and sixty.
Service history
In 17 patrols she sank nine merchant ships for a total of 23,289 gross register tons (GRT), plus two warships and damaged two merchant ships.
Fate
She was depth charged and sunk by on 21 May 1944 off the south coast of Italy at position 38°13′N 16°30′E by Royal Navy destroyers HMS Termagant, HMS Tenacious and the escort destroyer HMS Liddesdale.
Wikipedia

U-82

German submarine U-82 was a Type VIIC U-boat of Nazi Germany's Kriegsmarine during World War II.
Her keel was laid down on 15 May 1940 by Bremer Vulkan-Vegesacker Werft of Bremen as yard number 10. She was launched on 15 March 1941 and commissioned on 14 May with Oberleutnant zur See Siegfried Rollmann in command. U-82 conducted three patrols, sinking eight merchant ships for a total of 51,859 gross register tons (GRT), one warship of 1,190 tons and damaging another merchantman of 1,999 GRT.
German Type VIIC submarines were preceded by the shorter Type VIIB submarines. U-82 had a displacement of 769 tonnes (757 long tons) when at the surface and 871 tonnes (857 long tons) while submerged. She had a total length of 67.10 m (220 ft 2 in), a pressure hull length of 50.50 m (165 ft 8 in), a beam of 6.20 m (20 ft 4 in), a height of 9.60 m (31 ft 6 in), and a draught of 4.74 m (15 ft 7 in). The submarine was powered by two MAN M 6 V 40/46 four-stroke, six-cylinder supercharged diesel engines producing a total of 2,800 to 3,200 metric horsepower (2,060 to 2,350 kW; 2,760 to 3,160 shp) for use while surfaced, two Brown, Boveri & Cie GG UB 720/8 double-acting electric motors producing a total of 750 metric horsepower (550 kW; 740 shp) for use while submerged. She had two shafts and two 1.23 m (4 ft) propellers. The boat was capable of operating at depths of up to 230 metres (750 ft).
The submarine had a maximum surface speed of 17.7 knots (32.8 km/h; 20.4 mph) and a maximum submerged speed of 7.6 knots (14.1 km/h; 8.7 mph). When submerged, the boat could operate for 80 nautical miles (150 km; 92 mi) at 4 knots (7.4 km/h; 4.6 mph); when surfaced, she could travel 8,500 nautical miles (15,700 km; 9,800 mi) at 10 knots (19 km/h; 12 mph). U-82 was fitted with five 53.3 cm (21 in) torpedo tubes (four fitted at the bow and one at the stern), fourteen torpedoes, one 8.8 cm (3.46 in) SK C/35 naval gun, 220 rounds, and an anti-aircraft gun. The boat had a complement of between forty-four and sixty.
Service history
U-82 conducted three patrols whilst serving with the 3rd U-boat Flotilla from 14 May 1941 to 6 February 1942 when she was sunk. She was a member of four wolfpacks.
1st patrol
The boat's first patrol began with her departure from Trondheim in Norway on 11 August 1941 after moving from Kiel in July. Her route took her across the Norwegian Sea and through the gap separating Iceland and the Faroe Islands toward the Atlantic Ocean.
She sank the Empire Hudson northeast of Greenland on the 10 September 1941 followed by four more ships: the Bulysees, the Gypsum Queen, the Empire Crossbill and the Scania, all on the 11th.
U-82 then docked at Lorient on the French Atlantic coast on 5 July.
2nd patrol
The boat sank two more ships on her second foray but when she returned to France she went to La Pallice on 19 November 1941.
3rd patrol and loss
On her final patrol, U-82 sank Athelcrown, and Leiesten in mid-Atlantic. At the end of January she attacked and sank HMS Belmont, a US-built, Town-class destroyer, south of Newfoundland. On 6 February 1942, while returning from patrol, she encountered convoy OS 18 north-east of the Azores. While attempting to attack she was sunk with all 45 of her crew by depth charges from the British sloop HMS Rochester and the corvette HMS Tamarisk.
Wikipedia

U-592

German submarine U-592 was a Type VIIC U-boat of Nazi Germany's Kriegsmarine during World War II.
She carried out ten patrols, was a member of 16 wolfpacks and sank one ship of 3,770 gross register tons (GRT).
The boat was sunk by depth charges from British warships on 31 January 1944.
German Type VIIC submarines were preceded by the shorter Type VIIB submarines. U-592 had a displacement of 769 tonnes (757 long tons) when at the surface and 871 tonnes (857 long tons) while submerged.[3] She had a total length of 67.10 m (220 ft 2 in), a pressure hull length of 50.50 m (165 ft 8 in), a beam of 6.20 m (20 ft 4 in), a height of 9.60 m (31 ft 6 in), and a draught of 4.74 m (15 ft 7 in). The submarine was powered by two Germaniawerft F46 four-stroke, six-cylinder supercharged diesel engines producing a total of 2,800 to 3,200 metric horsepower (2,060 to 2,350 kW; 2,760 to 3,160 shp) for use while surfaced, two Brown, Boveri & Cie GG UB 720/8 double-acting electric motors producing a total of 750 metric horsepower (550 kW; 740 shp) for use while submerged. She had two shafts and two 1.23 m (4 ft) propellers. The boat was capable of operating at depths of up to 230 metres (750 ft).
The submarine had a maximum surface speed of 17.7 knots (32.8 km/h; 20.4 mph) and a maximum submerged speed of 7.6 knots (14.1 km/h; 8.7 mph). When submerged, the boat could operate for 80 nautical miles (150 km; 92 mi) at 4 knots (7.4 km/h; 4.6 mph); when surfaced, she could travel 8,500 nautical miles (15,700 km; 9,800 mi) at 10 knots (19 km/h; 12 mph). U-592 was fitted with five 53.3 cm (21 in) torpedo tubes (four fitted at the bow and one at the stern), fourteen torpedoes, one 8.8 cm (3.46 in) SK C/35 naval gun, 220 rounds, and an anti-aircraft gun. The boat had a complement of between forty-four and sixty.
Service history
The submarine was laid down on 30 October 1940 at Blohm & Voss, Hamburg as yard number 568, launched on 20 August 1941 and commissioned on 16 October under the command of Kapitänleutnant Carl Borm.
She served with the 6th U-boat Flotilla from 16 October 1941 for training and stayed with that organization for operations from 1 February 1942. She was reassigned to the 11th flotilla on 1 July, then back to the 6th flotilla from 1 March 1943.
1st and 2nd patrols
U-592's first patrol was preceded by a short trip from Hamburg to the German-controlled island of Helgoland, (also known as Heligoland), in February 1942. The patrol itself commenced on 3 March. She steamed up the Norwegian side of the North Sea and arrived at Bergen on 23 March.
For her second foray, she covered the Norwegian and Barents Seas.
3rd patrol
Her third sortie was preceded by brief voyages from Bergen to Hamburg, then Kiel and back to Bergen. The patrol itself commenced with the boat's departure from the Norwegian port on 17 July 1942. She covered vast swathes of the Norwegian Sea before putting into Skjomenfjord, (south of Narvik), on 14 August.
4th patrol
U-592 covered the areas toward Spitsbergen (Svalbard) and Iceland.
5th patrol
The boat left Skjomenfjord on 7 October 1942. On the 14th, she scored her only success when she sank the Soviet ship Shchors with a mine off the western entrance to the Yugar Strait. This ship was being towed toward Belushja Bay when she sank in 11 m (36 ft) of water.
6th patrol
This patrol, in November and December 1942, was relatively uneventful. The boat moved from Narvik to Bergen in mid-December.
7th patrol
U-592 left Bergen on 9 March 1943, bound for the French Atlantic coast. Moving through the gap between Iceland and the Faroe Islands, she entered the Atlantic Ocean and patrolled southeast of Greenland before entering St. Nazaire on 18 April.
8th and 9th patrols
These two sorties were also fairly trouble-free; between May and November 1943.
10th patrol and loss
The submarine had left St. Nazaire on 10 January 1944. On the 31st, she was sunk by depth charges, in position 50°20′N 17°29′W, from ships of the 2nd Support Group - HMS Starling, Wild Goose and Magpie, southwest of Ireland.
Forty-nine men died with U-592; there were no survivors.
Wikipedia

U-201

German submarine U-201 was a Type VIIC U-boat of the Kriegsmarine in World War II.
The submarine was laid down on 20 January 1940 by Friedrich Krupp Germaniawerft yard at Kiel as yard number 630, launched on 7 December 1940, and commissioned on 25 January 1941 under the command of Kapitänleutnant Adalbert Schnee. Attached to the 1st U-boat Flotilla, she made nine successful patrols in the North Atlantic, the last two under the command of Kapitänleutnant Günther Rosenberg. She was a member of eight wolfpacks.
She was sunk on 17 February 1943 in the North Atlantic, by depth charges from a British warship. All 49 hands were lost.
German Type VIIC submarines were preceded by the shorter Type VIIB submarines. U-201 had a displacement of 769 tonnes (757 long tons) when at the surface and 871 tonnes (857 long tons) while submerged. She had a total length of 67.10 m (220 ft 2 in), a pressure hull length of 50.50 m (165 ft 8 in), a beam of 6.20 m (20 ft 4 in), a height of 9.60 m (31 ft 6 in), and a draught of 4.74 m (15 ft 7 in). The submarine was powered by two Germaniawerft F46 four-stroke, six-cylinder supercharged diesel engines producing a total of 2,800 to 3,200 metric horsepower (2,060 to 2,350 kW; 2,760 to 3,160 shp) for use while surfaced, two AEG GU 460/8–27 double-acting electric motors producing a total of 750 metric horsepower (550 kW; 740 shp) for use while submerged. She had two shafts and two 1.23 m (4 ft) propellers. The boat was capable of operating at depths of up to 230 metres (750 ft).
The submarine had a maximum surface speed of 17.7 knots (32.8 km/h; 20.4 mph) and a maximum submerged speed of 7.6 knots (14.1 km/h; 8.7 mph). When submerged, the boat could operate for 80 nautical miles (150 km; 92 mi) at 4 knots (7.4 km/h; 4.6 mph); when surfaced, she could travel 8,500 nautical miles (15,700 km; 9,800 mi) at 10 knots (19 km/h; 12 mph). U-201 was fitted with five 53.3 cm (21 in) torpedo tubes (four fitted at the bow and one at the stern), fourteen torpedoes, one 8.8 cm (3.46 in) SK C/35 naval gun, 220 rounds, and an anti-aircraft gun. The boat had a complement of between forty-four and sixty.
1st patrol
U-201 departed Kiel for her first patrol on 22 April 1941. Her route took her across the North Sea, through the gap separating Iceland and the Faroe Islands and into the Atlantic Ocean. Her first 'kill' was Capulet which she sank on 2 May south of Iceland. The ship had already been torpedoed by U-552; her back was broken, she had caught fire and been abandoned.
Moving east of Greenland, she sank Greglia on 9 May and damaged Empire Cloud on the same day.
She was attacked over five hours by three escorts from Convoy OB-318. A total of 99 depth charges were dropped, severely damaging the boat, but she escaped. She docked at Lorient in occupied France on 18 May.
2nd patrol
The submarine's second foray passed without major incident: starting on 8 June 1942, finishing on 19 July but in Brest. (For the rest of her career she would be based in this French Atlantic port).
3rd patrol
U-201's third sortie began from Brest on 14 August 1941. On the 19th in mid-Atlantic she took part in a wolfpack attack on Convoy OG 71. Firing one spread of four torpedoes she hit the cargo ship Ciscar and passenger liner Aguila, which was carrying the Convoy Commodore and 86 other Royal Navy personnel. Both ships sank, and Aguila's sinking killed 152 of the 168 people aboard, including all but one of the naval staff.
U-201 continued with the concerted attack on OG 71, sinking the Irish Clonlara on 22 August and British merchants Aldergrove and Stork northwest of Lisbon on the 23rd, before returning to Brest on the 25th.
4th patrol
Success continued to accompany U-201. Having departed Brest on 14 September 1941 she sank Runa, Lissa and Rhineland, all on 21 September.
She then sank Cervantes on 27 September. This ship had four survivors from Ciscar on board. She also accounted for HMS Springbank, a Fighter catapult ship about 430 nmi (800 km; 490 mi) west southwest of Cape Clear, southern Ireland on the same date. One torpedo was seen to pass between Springbank and Leadgate, but two others sealed the British vessel's fate.
The submarine's final victim on this patrol was Margareta, which went down southwest of Cape Clear.
U-201 returned to Brest on 30 September.
5th patrol
The gods of fate showed how fickle they could be on U-201's fifth sortie; she failed to find any targets.
6th patrol
U-201 commenced her sixth and longest patrol on 24 March 1942. Having departed Brest and crossed the Atlantic, she damaged the Argentinian and neutral Victoria about 300 nmi (560 km; 350 mi) east of Cape Hatteras, North Carolina on 18 April. The crew, realizing that the ship, despite the torpedo strike, was not settling, decided to stay on board. The U-boat men only saw the neutrality markings after a second torpedo was fired and the submarine had surfaced. Victoria's complement then abandoned their vessel; U-201 reported their mistake to the BdU (U-boat headquarters) who ordered them to clear the area, which they did.
USS Owl, an American minesweeper towing the barge YOG-38, picked-up Victoria's distress signals and sent a boarding party across to the tanker to effect repairs. The ship reached New York on 21 April and after much legal wrangling, was repaired and requisitioned by the US government and returned to service in July. She survived the war.
Three more ships went to the bottom on this patrol - Bris on 21 April, SS San Jacinto (1903) and Derryheen, both on 22 April.
The boat returned to Brest on 21 May.
7th patrol
Patrol number seven was in tonnage terms, the boat's most successful. Departing Brest on 27 June 1942, she operated in the eastern north Atlantic, sinking the Blue Star Liner Avila Star 90 nmi (170 km; 100 mi) east of São Miguel in the Azores on 6 July. Casualties were increased when a torpedo exploded under a lifeboat that had just been lowered from the ship and the remaining lifeboats became separated, one spending 20 days at sea before being rescued and another being lost without trace.
Another victim, Cortuna, was sunk about 383 nmi (709 km; 441 mi) west of Madeira on 12 July after U-116 had already hit her. The Siris went down on the same day after a torpedo and 100 rounds from the deck gun.
Three more ships met watery ends before the submarine returned to Brest on 26 October.
8th patrol
So it went on; this time in the waters off South America. Another three ships met their end. One, John Carter Rose was sunk about 620 nmi (1,150 km; 710 mi) east of Trinidad only after a chase lasting 32 hours, 290 nmi (540 km; 330 mi) and seven torpedoes on 8 October 1942. Also involved was U-202.
Another, Flensburg, went down the following day about 500 nmi (930 km; 580 mi) from Suriname. The 48 survivors were spotted by a Yugoslavian merchant ship, but when they learned of the prospect of an unescorted Atlantic crossing to Durban, opted to remain in their lifeboats until they reached the mouth of the River Marowijine.
9th patrol and loss
The boat left Brest for the last time on 3 January 1943 and headed for the eastern coast of Canada. She was sunk in position 50°50′N 40°50′W
by depth charges from the British destroyer HMS Viscount east of Newfoundland.
49 men died; there were no survivors.
Previously recorded fate
U-201 was sunk by depth charges from the British destroyer HMS Fame east of Newfoundland on 17 February 1942. This attack sank U-69.
Wikipedia

U-596

German submarine U-596 was a Type VIIC U-boat built for Nazi Germany's Kriegsmarine for service during World War II. She was laid down on 4 January 1941 by Blohm & Voss in Hamburg as yard number 572, launched on 17 September 1941 and commissioned on 13 November under Kapitänleutnant Gunter Jahn. He was replaced on 28 July 1943 by Oberleutnant zur See Victor-Whilhelm Noon who was superseded by Oblt.z.S. Hans Kolbus in July 1944.
The boat's service began on 13 November 1941 with training as part of the 8th U-boat Flotilla. She was transferred to the 3rd flotilla on 1 July 1942 and moved on to the 29th flotilla on 19 November.
German Type VIIC submarines were preceded by the shorter Type VIIB submarines. U-596 had a displacement of 769 tonnes (757 long tons) when at the surface and 871 tonnes (857 long tons) while submerged. She had a total length of 67.10 m (220 ft 2 in), a pressure hull length of 50.50 m (165 ft 8 in), a beam of 6.20 m (20 ft 4 in), a height of 9.60 m (31 ft 6 in), and a draught of 4.74 m (15 ft 7 in). The submarine was powered by two Germaniawerft F46 four-stroke, six-cylinder supercharged diesel engines producing a total of 2,800 to 3,200 metric horsepower (2,060 to 2,350 kW; 2,760 to 3,160 shp) for use while surfaced, two Brown, Boveri & Cie GG UB 720/8 double-acting electric motors producing a total of 750 metric horsepower (550 kW; 740 shp) for use while submerged. She had two shafts and two 1.23 m (4 ft) propellers. The boat was capable of operating at depths of up to 230 metres (750 ft).
The submarine had a maximum surface speed of 17.7 knots (32.8 km/h; 20.4 mph) and a maximum submerged speed of 7.6 knots (14.1 km/h; 8.7 mph). When submerged, the boat could operate for 80 nautical miles (150 km; 92 mi) at 4 knots (7.4 km/h; 4.6 mph); when surfaced, she could travel 8,500 nautical miles (15,700 km; 9,800 mi) at 10 knots (19 km/h; 12 mph). U-596 was fitted with five 53.3 cm (21 in) torpedo tubes (four fitted at the bow and one at the stern), fourteen torpedoes, one 8.8 cm (3.46 in) SK C/35 naval gun, 220 rounds, and an anti-aircraft gun. The boat had a complement of between forty-four and sixty.
Service history
In twelve patrols she sank twelve ships, including one warship for a total of 41,411 GRT.
Her initial sortie from Kiel was cut short by a battery explosion on 28 June 1942. She was obliged to put into Bergen in Norway.
1st patrol
Her first patrol saw her depart Bergen on 8 August 1942, cross the North Sea and move through the gap between Iceland and the Faroe Islands into the Atlantic. There she sank the Suecia with a torpedo on 16 August, having first checked the ships' papers. She also sank the Empire Hartebeeste on 20 September, but was attacked by HNoMS Potentilla and HMS Viscount on 24 August. No damage was sustained. U-596 lost a man overboard on 30 August in mid-Atlantic. The boat then docked at St. Nazaire in occupied France on 3 October.
2nd patrol
Her next foray from St. Nazaire took the U-boat as part of group 'Delphin' to La Spezia in northern Italy. Her route involved passing the heavily defended Strait of Gibraltar, which she successfully accomplished in the darkness during the period of the new moon from 8–10 November 1942.
3rd and 4th patrols
U-596's third patrol took her past the Balearic Islands to the Algerian coast near Oran. It was unsuccessful.
Her fourth foray yielded some reward. Between Algiers and Oran she damaged Fort Norman and Empire Standard, both on 9 March 1943.
5th and 6th patrols
Her fifth outing, in the same area as her third and fourth patrols, was rewarded with the sinking of the Fort a la Corne west of Algiers on 30 March 1943.
Her home port was moved from La Spezia to Pola in Croatia; she sailed from there on her sixth patrol, but it was uneventful.
7th and 8th patrols
Patrol number seven was marked by the sinking of several Egyptian, a Palestinian and British-registered sailing ships off the Lebanon coast with her deck gun in August and September 1943.
During her eighth patrol, she sank Marit off the Libyan coast on 4 October, but was attacked by the British corvette HMS Gloxina. Although slightly damaged, the U-boat escaped.
9th, 10th and 11th patrols
U-596 departed Pola on 30 November but it was not until many days later that she sank the Troop Transport Cap Padaran off Cape Spartivento in Italy on 9 December. She returned to Pola on 28 December 1943.
Another unsuccessful patrol passed between 12 February and 11 March 1944.
The boat barely left the Adriatic for patrol number eleven.
12th patrol
What turned out to be the last complete patrol by a U-boat in the Mediterranean[3] began with U-596's departure from Pola on 29 July 1944. Her route was to the Gulf of Sirte on the Libyan coast. Her arrival at Salmis in Greece was followed by the USAAF (United States Army Air Forces) bombing the port on 29 September (USAAF records say the 25th). The boat was sufficiently damaged that the crew were forced to abandon her and join the general retreat through Athens.
Fate
The submarine was scuttled on 24 September 1944 in Skaramanga Bay, near Salamis in position 37°59′N 23°34′E
One person died; the number of survivors is unknown.
Wikipedia

U-25

German submarine U-25 was one of two Type IA ocean-going submarines produced by Nazi Germany's Kriegsmarine. Constructed by DeSchiMAG AG Weser in Bremen as yard number 903, U-25 was commissioned on 6 April 1936. It experienced a short, but successful combat career, sinking eight ships and damaging one.
Until 1940, U-25 was primarily used as training vessel and for propaganda purposes by the Nazi government. During its trials it was found that the Type IA submarine was difficult to handle due to its poor stability and slow dive rate. In early 1940, the boat was called into combat duty due to the shortage of available submarines. U-25 participated in five war patrols, sinking eight ships and badly damaging one.
On 17 January 1940, 10 miles north of Shetland, U-25 torpedoed SS Polzella. Enid (Captain Wibe), of then-neutral Norway en route to Dublin, went to assist Polzella. U-25 then shelled and sank Enid. Her crew escaped in their lifeboats. None of Polzella 's crew survived.
U-25 sank eight vessels for a total of 50,255 gross register tons (GRT) and damaged one for 7,638 GRT:
Fate
Around 1 August 1940, while on a mine-laying mission near Norway, U-25 passed through British mine barrage number seven and struck a mine. The boat sank, taking all hands with it.

Displacement: 862 t (848 long tons) surfaced
982 t (966 long tons) submerged
Official displacement was 712 tons standard
Length: 72.39 m (237 ft 6 in) o/a
Beam: 6.21 m (20 ft 4 in) o/a
Draught: 4.30 m (14 ft 1 in)
Propulsion: Diesel-electric
2 × MAN M8V40/46 8-cylinder diesel engines with 2,900–3,080 PS (2,860–3,040 shp; 2,130–2,270 kW)
2 × BBC GG UB720/8 double-acting electric motors with 1,000 PS (990 shp; 740 kW)
Range: 7,900 nmi (14,600 km; 9,100 mi) at 10 knots (19 km/h; 12 mph) surfaced
78 nmi (144 km; 90 mi) at 4 knots (7.4 km/h; 4.6 mph) submerged
Test depth: 200 m (660 ft)
Complement: 4 officers, 39 enlisted
Armament: 6 × 53.3 cm (21 in) torpedo tubes (4 bow, 2 stern)
14 × torpedoes
28 × TMA mines
1 × 10.5 cm (4.1 in) SK C/32 naval gun
1 × 2 cm (0.79 in) AA gun


Wikipedia

U-37

German submarine U-37 was a Type IXA U-boat of Nazi Germany's Kriegsmarine during World War II. The submarine was laid down on 15 March 1937 at the DeSchiMAG AG Weser yard in Bremen, launched on 14 May 1938, and commissioned on 4 August 1938 under the command of Kapitänleutnant Heinrich Schuch as part of the 6th U-boat Flotilla.
Between August 1939 and March 1941, U-37 conducted eleven combat patrols, sinking 53 merchant ships, for a total of 200,124 gross register tons (GRT); and two warships, the British Hastings-class sloop HMS Penzance, and the French submarine Sfax (Q182). U-37 was then withdrawn from front-line service and assigned to training units until the end of the war. On 8 May 1945 the U-boat was scuttled in Sonderburg Bay, off Flensburg. U-37 was the sixth most successful U-boat in World War II.
As one of the eight original German Type IX submarines, later designated IXA, U-37 had a displacement of 1,032 tonnes (1,016 long tons) when at the surface and 1,153 tonnes (1,135 long tons) while submerged. The U-boat had a total length of 76.50 m (251 ft), a pressure hull length of 58.75 m (192 ft 9 in), a beam of 6.51 m (21 ft 4 in), a height of 9.40 m (30 ft 10 in), and a draught of 4.70 m (15 ft 5 in). The submarine was powered by two MAN M 9 V 40/46 supercharged four-stroke, nine-cylinder diesel engines producing a total of 4,400 metric horsepower (3,240 kW; 4,340 shp) for use while surfaced, two Siemens-Schuckert 2 GU 345/34 double-acting electric motors producing a total of 1,000 metric horsepower (740 kW; 990 shp) for use while submerged. She had two shafts and two 1.92 m (6 ft) propellers. The boat was capable of operating at depths of up to 230 metres (750 ft).
The submarine had a maximum surface speed of 18.2 knots (33.7 km/h; 20.9 mph) and a maximum submerged speed of 7.7 knots (14.3 km/h; 8.9 mph). When submerged, the boat could operate for 65–78 nautical miles (120–144 km; 75–90 mi) at 4 knots (7.4 km/h; 4.6 mph); when surfaced, she could travel 10,500 nautical miles (19,400 km; 12,100 mi) at 10 knots (19 km/h; 12 mph). U-37 was fitted with six 53.3 cm (21 in) torpedo tubes (four fitted at the bow and two at the stern), 22 torpedoes, one 10.5 cm (4.13 in) SK C/32 naval gun, 180 rounds, and a 3.7 cm (1.5 in) as well as a 2 cm (0.79 in) anti-aircraft gun. The boat had a complement of forty-eight.

First patrol
U-37 left Wilhelmshaven, with Kapitänleutnant Heinrich Schuch in command, on 19 August 1939. The boat operated for nearly four weeks in the North Atlantic, returning to port on 15 September 1939.
Second patrol
U-37 left Wilhelmshaven on 5 October 1939 to conduct operations in the North Atlantic now under the command of Korvettenkapitän Werner Hartmann. During this patrol she sank eight ships: four British, two Greek, one French and one Swedish, including the British steam freighter Yorkshire which was traveling with the Allied convoy HG-3, sailing from Gibraltar to Liverpool, England. Hartmann returned his boat to port on 8 November after nearly five weeks at sea.
Third patrol
On 1 January 1940 U-37 was reassigned to the 2nd U-boat Flotilla based at Wilhelmshaven. On 28 January 1940 the U-boat departed for the North Atlantic, with Werner Hartmann in command. As on his previous patrol, Hartmann sank eight ships, this time three British, two Norwegian, one Danish, one French and one Greek. Of these ships, two were in convoy at the time. U-37 returned to Wilhelmshaven on 27 February.

Fourth patrol
U-37 departed Wilhelmshaven on 30 March for Werner Hartmann's third consecutive patrol, this time around Norway. Again, Hartmann proved successful, sinking three ships; the Norwegian Tosca, the Swedish Sveaborg and the British Stancliffe. After patrolling for over two weeks, the U-boat returned to Wilhelmshaven on 18 April.

Fifth patrol
Under a new captain, Kapitänleutnant Victor Oehrn, U-37 departed from Wilhelmshaven on 15 May for a patrol around Portugal and Spain. U-37 had her most successful mission, hitting eleven ships, sinking ten of them. Three French ships were sunk, two Greek, two British, one Swedish, one Argentinian, one Finnish; one British ship was damaged. After three and a half weeks at sea, U-37 returned to Wilhelmshaven on 9 June.[10]
The neutral Argentinian ship was Uruguay, sailing from Rosario to Limerick with a cargo of maize. U-37 surfaced and stopped Uruguay and examined her papers, then sank her with scuttling charges. Her crew of 28 were left in their lifeboats. Fifteen died, 13 survived.

Sixth patrol
U-37 sailed from Wilhelmshaven on 1 August, again with Victor Oehrn in command. This week and a half long patrol in the Atlantic off the west coast of Ireland resulted in the sinking of a single British ship, Upwey Grange. U-37 returned to port on 12 August, but rather than head back to Wilhelmshaven, she made for Lorient in France, where the 2nd U-boat Flotilla was now based.

Seventh patrol
For the first time, U-37 began a patrol from a location other than Germany, in Lorient on 17 August, with Victor Oehrn in command once more. It was to focus on operations off the south-west coast of Ireland. Seven ships were sunk during this voyage; five of which were British, one Norwegian, and one Greek. Of these ships, one was from convoy OA 220, the British Brookwood, traveling from Britain to the Australia, two were from convoy SC 1, the British sloop HMS Penzance (L28) and Blarimore, sailing from Sydney, Nova Scotia, Canada, to the United Kingdom. After two weeks at sea, U-37 returned to Lorient on 30 August.

Eighth patrol
On 24 September, U-37 departed Lorient on Victor Oehrn's fourth patrol, in which he would sail to the North Atlantic. During this month-long operation U-37 sank six ships, four of which were in convoy at the time of attack, all of which were British. Five of these six ships were sailing under the British flag, while the sixth was from Egypt. The British ship Corrientes was sunk as part of OB-217, sailing from Liverpool to North America. Heminge was sailing as part of OB-220, also sailing from Liverpool to North America. British General was sunk while sailing as part of convoy OA 222, sailing from Britain to North America. The fourth ship sunk was the British Stangrant, sailing as part of convoy HX 77 from Halifax to the United Kingdom. The U-boat returned to Lorient on 22 October.

Ninth patrol
After over a month in port, U-37 departed with a new captain, Oberleutnant zur See Asmus Nicolai Clausen on 28 November for operations around north-west Africa and Spain. Seven ships were sunk during this patrol; two French, two Swedish, two British and one Spanish. Of these seven ships, three were in convoy at the time of their sinking. The Swedish Gwalia and Daphne and the British Jeanne M were sailing as part of convoy OG 46 from Britain to Gibraltar. The French vessels, the oiler Rhône and the submarine Sfax belonged to Vichy France and were sunk in error. After five weeks on the high seas, U-37 returned to Lorient on 14 January 1941.

Tenth and eleventh patrols
U-37 left Lorient on 30 January 1941 to patrol off the coast of Portugal. On 8 February she spotted Convoy HG-53. The next day, U-37 sank two British ships, Courland and Estrellano. The third merchant vessel that U-37 sank on her tenth patrol was the British ship Brandenburg, on 10 February. The U-boat then returned to Lorient on 18 February after spending 20 days at sea and sinking 4,781 tons of shipping.
Leaving Lorient for the final time on 27 February 1941, U-37's last patrol took her to the waters south of Iceland. There she sank two vessels, the Greek cargo ship Mentor on 7 March, and the Icelandic trawler Pétursey on the 12th. After spending 24 days at sea, U-37 entered the port of Kiel on 22 March.

Training boat
On 1 May 1941 U-37 was reassigned to the...
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