ADOLPH FRIEDRICH brig

For the 500th Anniversary of the Schiffer-Compagnie in Stralsund, the DDR issued in 1988 a set of stamps, which shows us paintings of ships sailing for the Schiffer-Compagnie.

The brig ADOLPH FRIEDRICH when and where built is unknown. She was registered for the Schiffer-Compagnie in Stralsund, Germany under No 60 in 1863 where the owner was given then as C.A. Beug, Stralsund and under command of Captain C. Leplow.
Tonnage 187 nrt, dim?
Call-sign JMKS.
For that time she was a very economical vessel for the owners.
Her fate is not known so far. More specifications and history on the brig are welcome.

The painting was painted in 1872 by August Lasczky for Captain J. Netzel, the painting is on display in the Culture Historical Museum in Stralsund. The postkarten museum gives that she was painted by H.C.Kraeft in 1872?

Source: Navicula. Internet.
East Germany (DDR) 1988, sg E2289, scott 2703

Eric Tabarly

Eric Tabarly

Tabarly was born in Nantes on 24 July 1931 to a family of yachting tradition. His parents took him for sailing excursions on their cutter Annie when he was still a baby. In 1938, Tabarly's father purchased the gaff-rigged cutter Pen Duick.

Tabarly enlisted in the Navy as a volunteer in 1953 and joined the French Aéronavale. He served at Saint-Mandrier airbase before transferring to French airbases in Morocco. After earning his pilot licence and the rank of Second Maître de deuxième classe in December 1954, he fought in the First Indochina War, appointed to Tan Son Nhut Air Base.
In August 1956, Tabarly started refitting Pen Duick in his spare time. She was in a state of disrepair since the Second World War, during which she had been decommissioned for fear of being requisitionned, and her wooden hull had rotted. Tabarly endeavoured to rebuild her using polyester resin. The conversion was completed, and Pen Duick was launched in April 1958.
In September 1957, he was appointed to Lann-Bihoué airbase, near Lorient.
In 1958, Tabarly entered the École Navale; he was promoted to Aspirant the next year, and Enseigne de Vaisseau de deuxieme Classe in 1959. On 16 November 1960, Tabarly embarked on the school cruiser Jeanne d'Arc, for the ritual circumnavigation that is part of the practical teaching at the École Navale. Jeanne d'Arc returned to Brest on 8 June 1961 and the same month, Tabarly was appointed to the Minesweeper Castor with the rank of Enseigne de Vaisseau de Premiere Classe. He was later given command of the landing craft EDIC 9092.
vIn 1962, Tabarly raced in the Single-Handed Trans-Atlantic Race on Pen Duick. Determined to win the next edition set for two years later, Tabarly started building the Margilic V, and in autumn 1963, the Pen Duick II. He ran in the 1964 edition and won, with a time of twenty-seven days and three hours. This achievement earned Tabarly instant fame and the rank of Chevalier de la Légion d'honneur. He received the Blue Water Medal for his victory.
In 1965, he earned his Commandos Marine certification. The same year, he transformed Pen Duick II into a wishbone schooner. The next year, Pen Duick II was shortened to match the regulations of the Cruising Club of America, and Tabarly single-handedly sailed her to New York. He achieved a 5th position in the Bermuda Race, and raced in the Bermuda-Copenhaguen race, but had to abandon with a ruptured rudder. In October 1966, he was promoted to Lieutenant de Vaisseau.
The Ministry of Defence then detached Tabarly to the Ministry of Youth Affairs and Sports, allowing him to concentrate on his racing career. In 1967, Tabarly won the Channel Race, Round Gotland Race, and Sydney to Hobart Yacht Race on Pen Duick III.
In 1968, Tabarly raced Single-Handed Trans-Atlantic Race again, on Pen Duick IV, a brand-new trimaran. The new Pen Duick was damaged by Hurricane Brenda on 11 June, and never finished the race. The year after, he won the San Francisco-Tokyo race.
Tabarly returned to naval service in February 1971 and appointed to the Technical Inspection for Physical Education and Sports.The same year, he won the Falmouth-Gibraltar and the Middle Sea Race, and the next, the Transpac.
In 1973, he sailed in the first edition of the Whitbread. Tabarly was promoted to Lieutenant Commander in 1976. In 1980, Tabarly sailed Paul Ricard for a transatlantic race, beating Charlie Barr's transatlantic record . In June, he joined the Académie de Marine. Tabarly was promoted to Capitaine de Corvette in 1982.
Tabarly retired from active service in July 1985. He was promoted to Capitaine de Fregate of the naval reserves in August 1988. In 1994, he raced the Whitbread again. In 1997, Tabarly won the Fastnet Race on Aquitaine Innovations. In May 1998, celebrations were held in Bénodet for the centenary of Pen Duick. In June, she sailed to Scotland, but while in transit in the Irish Sea, the night of 12 to 13 June, a spar threw Tabarly overboard and he drowned. His body was recovered by the trawler An Yvidig on 20 July.
Career Wins
OSTAR (Plymouth-Newport) : 1964 on Pen Duick II and 1976 on Pen Duick IV
Morgan Cup : 1967 on Pen Duick III
Round Gotland Race : 1967 (on Pen Duick III
Channel Race : 1967 on Pen Duick III
Fastnet Race : 1967 on Pen Duick III and 1997 on Aquitaine Innovations
Plymouth-La Rochelle : 1967 on Pen Duick III
Sydney-Hobart : 1967 on Pen Duick III (and second in handicap time)
Transpac San Francisco-Tokyo (Transpacific) : 1969 on Pen Duick V (with an 11-day lead over the runner-up)
Falmouth-Gibraltar : 1971 on Pen Duick III
Los-Angeles-Tahiti : 1972 on Pen Duick III
1st leg of the Volvo Ocean Race "Le Cap-Sydney" : 1973 on Pen Duick III
Bermuda-England : 1974 on Pen Duick VI
Triangle Atlantique : 1975 on Pen Duick VI
2nd of the Transat en double Lorient-Bermuda-Lorient : 1979 (with Marc Pajot) on Paul Ricard
Transatlantic sailing record from West to East (New York-Cape Lizard), on the multihull Paul Ricard in 1980 in 10 days 5 hours 14 minutes and 20 seconds (previous record was in 1905 held by Charlie Barr on a 50-crewman schooner)
3rd of the Transat en solitaire : 1984 on Paul Ricard
2nd of the Transat Le Point-Europe 1 Lorient-Saint-Pierre-et-Miquelon-Lorient: 1987 on Côte d'or
Transat en double Le Havre-Carthagène (with Yves Parlier) : 1997 on Aquitaine Innovations

Wkipedia

Joao de Lisboa 1511-12.(Río de La Plata)

Navigator João de Lizhboa (or John Lisbon) accompanied Vasco da Gama in his historic voyage to India, and then made several expeditions to the East. He wrote several works on navigation. He is the author of a Treatise of Seamanship that includes 20 maps and a Treatise on the Nautical Needle, dated by himself in 1514 (1508, in manuscript). In 1500, while on the expedition Pedro Cabrala, he made sketches of the constellation "Southern Cross" and described it with recommendations for use in navigation. Already from 1506 the Portuguese navigators focused their attention on this constellation. In 1514, while on the coast of Brazil, Lisboa plotted the coordinates of "Southern Cross "with amazing accuracy. However, these measurements were not published and kept secret by the government because of fear of maritime competition of foreign powers. In 1511, Lisboa, along with Captain Estevan Flores (Istevan Froys), were caught by a storm off the southern coast of Brazil and entered the bay with fresh water. The Tuzes informed them that they were in the river. They showed them silverware and talked about the great silver mountain from which flows river. Having filled the holds with Brazilian wood and fur seals, which they extracted on the island of Flores they discovered, the ships dispersed. Captain Flores decided to capture the natives and sell on the islands, but was captured by the Spaniards and thrown into prison. Lizboa reached Madeira, and after a while managed to sell timber in the Spanish port of Cadiz and returned to Portugal. After talking with the "journalist" from Ausburg, he told him about the "Silver River". The note in the newspaper published in 1514 caused anxiety in Spain, since it was its territory under the Treaty of Tordesillas. Thus we can say that Joao Lisboa and Estevan Flores explored about 1500 km of the coast of South America and opened the Rio de Plata river. He died in 1525 while traveling in the Indian Ocean.
Portugal 1993;42,0;SG?
Source:en.wikipedia.org/wiki/João_de_Lisboa

PAQUETE DE MAULE 1861

Built as a wooden sidewheel steamer by Lawrence & Foulks at Williamsburg, New York for G.K. Stevenson & Co.
Launched as the PAQUETE DE MAULE
Tonnage burthen 407 tons, dim. 50 x 8.8 x 2.7m, draught 2.59m.
Powered by two 32 inch cylinders of a stroke vertical beam steam engine.
Auxiliary sails, brig rigged.
Armed two guns.
1861 Completed.

PAQUETE DE MAULE (also spelled PAQUETTE DE MAULE and PAQUETE DEL MAULE) was a small merchant sidewheel steamer built in the United States in 1861 for operation along the Chilean coast. Converted into a gunboat for service during the Chincha Islands War, she was captured by Spain and scuttled shortly thereafter.
Construction and design
PAQUETE DE MAULE, a 400-ton sidewheel steamer, was built by Lawrence & Foulks in 1861 at Williamsburg, New York for G. K. Stevenson & Co., who planned to operate the vessel between Valparaiso and Maule, Chile.
PAQUETE DE MAULE was 165 feet long, with a beam of 29 feet, depth of hold 9 feet, and draft of 8 feet 6 inches. She was built of white oak and locust, with square frames fastened with copper and treenails, and strengthened with diagonal and double laid braces. She was powered by a pair of 32-inch cylinder, 8-foot stroke vertical beam steam engines built by the Neptune Iron Works of New York, driving two 24-foot-diameter (7.3 m) wooden sidewheels. Steam was supplied by a pair of flue boilers without blowers, located in the hold. The vessel was also brig-rigged for auxiliary sail power.
Capture of the PAQUETE DE MAULE
During the Chincha Islands War, the PAQUETE DEL MAULE served as an auxiliary ship to the Chilean fleet and she was not armed. On March 6, 1866, while enroute from Lota to Montevideo with a crew of 126 men destined to complete the crews of the ironclads HUÁSCAR and INDEPENDENCIA, she was captured by the Spanish frigates BLANCA and NUMANCIA at the Gulf of Arauco.
31 March 1866 she was in Valparaiso during the bombardment of the town, if she took part in the bombardment I could not find.
On 10 May 1866, after the Battle of Callao, the PAQUETE DEL MAULE was burned and scuttled by the Spanish near the San Lorenzo Island since they couldn't take her with them on their retreat towards the Philippines.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paquete_de_Maule
Chile 2017 label.

ALEXSANDR SIBIRIAKOV 1909

Icebreaker ALEXSANDR SIBIRIAKOV

Built in 1909 as Bellaventure a Sealing vessel by D W Henderson at Glasgow for Harvey & Co, St Johns, Newfoundland. 1384Brt. L 73.4m. B 10.9m D 5.2m. Steam Engine of 2000hp, giving a speed of 13 knots.

During 1909 she rescued the crew of the steamer Virginia Lake. In 1912 she was used for the supply of building materials for the Hudson Bay Railway, and in 1914 brought back the dead and survivors of the crew of the steamer Newfoundland who’s crew were lost on the ice in the 1914 seal hunt.

Following the failure of the Gallipoli campaign of 1915 it was decided to resupply Russia via convoys from England to Archangel and to assist the convoys through ice bound waters, Russia purchased 7 Icebreakers from Newfoundland in 1916. One of these was the Bellaventure, renamed as Alexandr Sibiriakov (other sources state Alexsadre Sibiriakov or Alexander Sibijakov)

She was the first vessel in 1932 to make the North-East passage in one navigational season. On 28th July 1932 she lost her propeller in ice in the Bering Strait, and on 1st October 1932 she was taken in tow by the Russian fishing vessel Ussurijets.

Upon her return to Archangel she was the first vessel to circumnavigate Asia. In 1934 she participated in the first expedition to open the Lena River in Siberia. She was caught in heavy ice in 1937 during her trip to supply remote towns and weather stations, not being freed until the following year.

She left Dikson in August 1942 with workers and supplies to build a weather station at Cape Arktichesky at the northern tip of the Severnaya Zemiya. Being wartime she carried three 3” anti-aircraft guns.

On 24th August 1942 she was intercepted by the German battleship Admiral Scheer off Beluga Island and ordered to stop and take on a boarding party (the Admiral Scheer wanted ice charts and convoy reports) but the Alexsandri Sibiriakiv did not oblige, she increased speed heading inshore away from a convoy she knew was in the area.

She opened fire on the Admiral Scheer with her 3” guns and by radio reports given by Dikson of her position. Eventually she went down ablaze from stem to stern. Only 28 survivors out of the 100 or more that were on board were rescued and taken aboard the Admiral Scheer.

Sources:- Encyclopadie der Maritimen Philatelie. Shipping Today and Yesterday.

Originally written up in Log Book be Capt Auke Palmhof.

Russia Sg4654

Duarte Pacheco Pereira 1505.(Atlantic Navigation)

Duarte Pacheco Pereira c. 1460 – 1533),[1]called the Portuguese Achilles (Aquiles Lusitano) by the poet Camões, was a Portuguesesea captain, soldier, explorer and cartographer. He travelled particularly in the central Atlantic Ocean west of the Cape Verde islands, along the coast of West Africa and to India. His accomplishments in strategic warfare, exploration, mathematics and astronomy were of an exceptional level.
Pacheco Pereira was the son of João Pacheco and Isabel Pereira. In his youth he served as the King of Portugal's personal squire. In the year of 1455, having graduated with honors, he was awarded a study fellowship from the monarch himself. Later on, in 1488 he explored the west coast of Africa. His expedition fell ill with fever and lost their ship. Pacheco Pereira was rescued from the island of Príncipe in the Gulf of Guinea by Bartolomeu Dias when Dias was returning from rounding the Cape of Good Hope for the first time.
The knowledge he collected from Dias expedition as well as his own explorations granted him the post of official geographer of the Portuguese monarch. In 1494 he signed the Pope-sanctioned Treaty of Tordesillas, which shared the non-Christian world between Portugal and Spain.
In 1503 Duarte Pacheco Pereira departed for India as captain of Espírito Santo, one of the three ships in the fleet headed by Afonso de Albuquerque. In 1504, he was placed in charge of the defence of Cochin, a Portuguese protectorate in India, from a series of attacks between March and July 1504 by the ruling Zamorin of Calicut. (see Battle of Cochin (1504)). Having only 150 Portuguese and a small number of Malabarese auxiliaries at his disposal, Cochin was vastly outnumbered by the Zamorin's army of 60,000. Nonetheless, by clever positioning, individual heroics and a lot of luck, Duarte Pacheco successfully resisted attacks for five months, until the humiliated Zamorin finally called off his forces. His son Lisuarte (or Jusarte) took a leading part in the fight.
For his exploits in the defense of Cochin, Duarte Pacheco was given a grant of arms by the Trimumpara Raja of Cochin, and greeted with honors the King Manuel I of Portugal and public festivities upon his return to Lisbon in 1505.
Between 1505 and 1508 Duarte Pacheco Pereira composed a book, Esmeraldo de situ orbis, inspired on Pomponius Mela's De situ Orbis, which has been described as one of the first major scientific works "reporting on what was observed and experimented in the newly 'discovered' environment." Never completed, it was not published until 1892, possibly to avoid giving others information about Portugal's valuable Guinea trade.
Duarte Pacheco Pereira was probably the first man to scientifically study the relationship between the tides and the phases of the moon, which played a critical importance in the course of the Battle of Cochin, and carefully took notes on the timing of the tides. Pacheco is said to have been the first to notice their connection to the moon and establish rules for predicting the progress of tides by reference to lunar observations. He also sifted through his data to correct and improve astronomical observations (notably correcting the average daily deviation of the moon from the sun) and constructing nautical measurements to be used by future Portuguese navigators.
In 1508, Duarte Pacheco was commissioned by the Portuguese king to give chase to Mondragon French privateer which operated between the Azores and the Portuguese coast, where they attacked the ships coming from Portuguese India. Duarte Pacheco located and cornered Mondragon off Cape Finisterre in 1509, and defeated and captured him.
Later in life, while away governing São Jorge da Mina, he was slandered by his enemies at court with accusations of theft and corruption. He was recalled to the capital and briefly imprisoned until he was exonerated by the Crown being proved innocent. But the damage was done as he had lost his governorship, his wealth, and influence. Although he was acquitted his protector, King João II of Portugal had died and been replaced by a king who didn't acknowledge the value of Duarte Pacheco. He had many enemies abroad, and few friends in the capital to defend him. He died alone and penniless.
According to one of its most important biographers, the Portuguese historian Joaquim Barradas de Carvalho, who lived in exile in Brazil in the 1960s, Duarte Pacheco was a genius comparable to Leonardo da Vinci. With the anticipation of more than two centuries, the cosmographer was responsible for calculating the value of the degree of the meridian arc with a margin of error of only 4%, when the current error at the time varied between 7 and 15%.
It has also been suggested that Duarte Pacheco Pereira may have discovered the coasts of Maranhão, Pará and Marajó island and the mouth of the Amazon River in 1498, preceding the possible landings of the expeditions of Amerigo Vespucci in 1499, of Vicente Yáñez Pinzon in January 1500, and of Diego de Lepe in February 1500; and the Cabral`s expedition in April 1500, making him the first known European explorer of present-day Brazil. This claim is based on interpretations of the cipher manuscript Esmeraldo de Situ Orbis, written by Duarte Pacheco Pereira.
Duarte Pacheco Pereira's Esmeraldo de Situ Orbis is the first European navigation script book to mention the coast of Brazil.
Portugal 1993;4,0;SG?
Source: wikipedia.org/wiki/Duarte_Pacheco_Pereira.

GOMEL town

Gomel is one of the most ancient cities of Belarus, which arose at the end of the 1st millennium A. D. The official year of its foundation is 1142 when the city was mentioned in the Hypatian Codex.
The present Gomel is the second largest regional centre in the republic. It is a city with developed industry, science, culture, an important transport hub and socio-political centre for interregional relations between Russia, Ukraine and Belarus. Over one hundred enterprises of machine building, light, food, chemical and of other industries are operating in the city.
The man in the boat is a statue which is placed in the Lunacharsky Park in Gomel, a monument to the first man to set foot on the land of Gomel. At his feet sits a lynx - a symbol of the city.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gomel

Belarus 2017 Face value “M” is equal to the air-mail tariff of a postcard abroad.sg?, scott?
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