Battle of Tendra 1790

August 29 (September 9) 1790 ended a naval battle near Tendra Cape between Russian squadron under the command of F. F. Ushakov and Turkish Navy ships. During the Russian-Turkish war of 1787-1791 Russian Black Sea Fleet was to promote the Russian army in the defense of the coast of the Crimea from possible enemy troops. 8 (19) July 1790 in the Kerch Naval Battle the Russian squadron of Rear Admiral Ushakov, won a brilliant victory over the superior forces of the enemy, causing the frustration of the Turkish plan to land troops in the Crimea. However, soon the Turks reinforced their fleet with battleships, and again went to the coast of the Crimea. Turkish ships took up a position between Tendra Cape and Khadjibey Fortress (located in what is now the territory of Odessa, blocking the way out of the estuary and cutting communication with Sevastopol, preventing the Sevastopol Fleet from joining with Liman flotilla.Turkish squadron consisted of 14 battleships, 8 frigates and 23 auxiliary ships. Ushakov's fleet had 10 battleships, 6 frigates, one bombing ship and 20 auxiliary vessels. The battle began about 15 pm, August 28 (September 8), 1790, when Ushakov, without re-forming the squadron from marching order to battle one, suddenly attacked Turkish ships. Having approached the enemy at a distance less than 100 meters, the Russian fleet unleashed on the Turkish ships the fire of their guns. Under accurate fire of Russian sailors the enemy squadron suffered heavy losses, many ships were damaged. Ushakov himself commanded the ship "Rozhdestvo Christovo" (“Nativity of Christ”), which was in the thick of the battle. In this battle, the flagship of the Turks was seriously damaged. Unable to withstand the pressure of the Russian squadron, the Turks began to gradually withdraw from the battle, and soon turned into a rout. Admiral Ushakov continued to pursue the Turkish fleet till late evening. In the morning of August 29 (September 9) Russian squadron continued to pursue scattered enemy ships. Some vessels of the Turks put up fierce resistance, but strong and skillful actions of Russian sailors forced the enemy to lower the flag on his two ships. Most of the Turkish fleet managed to break out of the "outflanking" and ingloriously retreated to their shores.In the two-day battle at Tendra Turks lost about 2, 000 men killed, three battleships and three small vessels, while the loss of the Russian squadron were 21 men killed and 25 wounded. The brilliant victory of the Russian fleet at Tendra forced the Turks to lift the blockade of the Danube and created favorable conditions for the onset of the Russian Army and Navy on the Danube. Rear Admiral Ushakov was awarded the Order of St. George, 2nd class. According to the Federal Law of the Russian Federation of March 13, 1995 № 32-FZ, the victory of the Russian fleet at Tendra is now celebrated as the Day of Military Glory of Russia. The design stamp is made after painting of Alexander Blinkov.
Rwanda 2017;650f;SG?

SPEEDBOAT

In 1996 Lesotho issued a set of stamps for the 1996 Olympic Games in Atlanta, USA, one stamp has a maritime theme, it shows a speedboat.

"Speedboat” is generally a small open pleasure boat designed to skim swiftly through
the water, powered by outboard engines.

Wikipedia gives: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Motorboat and https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Runabout_(boat)
Lesotho 1996 3M sg 1284, scott 1051

LAWS OF THE INDIES

Peru issued in 1989 one stamp for “Compilation of the Laws of the Kingdom of the Indies”
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Laws_of_the_Indies

In the lower part of the stamp a vessel is depict, the year given on the stamp is 1681, so it must be a “Spanish galleon” see: viewtopic.php?f=2&t=11966

Peru 1989 230i on 300s sg 1703, scott ?
Source: Internet.

T-CLASS submarine

This stamp shows us a T Class submarine of the Israeli Navy, three vessel of this class were bought from the Royal Navy the HMS TRUNCHEON, TOTEM and TURPIN renamed by the Israeli Navy in DOLPHIN, DAKAR and LEVIATHAN. The Israeli Post gives by this stamp:

T Class Submarine, 1967
Based on its experience to that point, it was decided that the Navy should acquire newer submarines, the T Class, which were also British-made. The second in the series, the INS Dakar, sank in-route to Israel with its entire crew of 69 on board. The cause remains a mystery to this day. The Navy subsequently decided not to purchase any more used submarines, but rather to order new ones.

LEVIATHAN:
Built as a submarine by the Chatham Dockyard for the Royal Navy.
24 May 1943 keel laid down.
05 August 1944 launched as the HMS TURPIN (P-354) one of the T-Class.
Displacement 1,290 tons surfaced, 1,560 tons submerged, dim. 84.28 x 7.77 x 3.89m. (draught forward.)
Powered by two Admiralty diesel engines, 2,500 hp. and two electro motors 1,450 hp., twin shafts, speed 15.5 knots surface and 9 knots submerged.
Range by a speed of 11 knots 4,500 mile, submerged ?
Test depth 91 metre.
Armament 6 – 21 inch internal forward facing torpedo tubes, 2 external forward facing torpedo tubes, 2 external amidships rear-facing torpedo tubes and 1 external rear-facing torpedo tube, carried 6 reload torpedoes. I QF 4 inch deck gun and 3 AA machine guns.
Crew 61.
18 December 1944 commissioned.

HMS TURPIN (pennant number P354) was one a group three T-class submarines of the Royal Navy which entered service in the last few months of World War II. So far she has been the only ship of the Royal Navy to be named TURPIN. She was sold to Israel in 1965 and commissioned into the Israeli Sea Corps in 1967 as INS LEVIATHAN.
Career
As HMS TURPIN
At the end of the war, all surviving Group 1 and Group 2 boats were scrapped, but the group 3 boats (which were of welded rather than riveted construction) were retained and fitted with snort masts. In 1955, TURPIN was inside the arctic circle on an ELINT mission, listening for specific frequency bands of Soviet radars. Suddenly, the ELINT specialist noted an unusual signal that was from a very short range radar. The operator registered that they were about to be rammed by a Soviet Navy surface vessel, and a crash dive was ordered. The TURPIN submerged below a cold water line which allowed them to evade Soviet sonar and escape TURPIN was sold to the Israeli Navy in 1965, and renamed LEVIATHAN, after a biblical sea monster.
As INS LEVIATHAN
The submarine was purchased by Israel, along with two of her T-class sisters, in 1965, HMS TRUNCHEON and HMS TOTEM. She was commissioned into the Israeli Sea Corps in 1967.
25 May 1967 she left Scotland for her nonstop voyage to Israel. In the night of 25 and 26 May she lost two crew who were doing some deck work and were washed overboard in the Irish Sea.
She was eventually scrapped in 1978. A Dolphin class submarine named LEVIATHAN was commissioned in 2000 to the Israeli Navy.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/HMS_Turpin_(P354)

DAKAR:
Built as a submarine by H.M. Dockyard Devonport for the Royal Navy.
22 October 1942 laid down.
28 September 1943 launched as the HMS TOTEM one of the T-Class.
Details the same as the HMS TURPIN.
19 January 1945 commissioned.

HMS TOTEM was a Group 3 T-class submarine of the Royal Navy which entered service in the last few months of World War II. To-date, she is the only ship of the Royal Navy to have been named TOTEM.
TOTEM was sold to Israel in 1965 and commissioned into the Israeli Sea Corps in 1967 as INS DAKAR. She sank whilst on passage from the United Kingdom to Israel in January
The submarine was presented with a TOTEM pole by the Cowichan Tribes in 1945, which was stolen during the 1950s when the boat was visiting Halifax, Canada. The pole was fitted to the front of the bridge fin when the submarine was in harbour.
At the end of the war, all surviving T-class Group 1 and Group 2 boats were scrapped, but the Group 3 boats (which were of welded rather than riveted construction) were retained and fitted with snorkel masts.
In January 1948 it was formally acknowledged that the main operational function of the British submarine fleet would now be to intercept Soviet submarines slipping out of their bases in Northern Russia to attack British and Allied merchant vessels. The following April, the Assistant Chief of Naval Staff, Rear-Admiral Geoffrey Oliver circulated a paper in which he proposed that British submarines take a more offensive role by attacking Soviet submarines off the Northern Russian coast and mining the waters in the area. With the surface fleet dramatically reduced following the end of the Second World War, he commented that this was one of the few methods the Royal Navy had for "getting to the enemy on his home ground".
To fulfil this new role, TOTEM was one of eight boats which were extensively modified to become "super T-conversions", giving them higher speed and quieter operation underwater. Five further T-class submarines were given much less extensive streamlining improvements.
The work on TOTEM was done between 1951 and May 1953 at Chatham Dockyard (which carried out all eight super T-conversions), and involved inserting an additional hull section 14 feet (4.3 m) long to accommodate extra switchgear and an extra pair of electric motors and replacing the batteries. The hull was streamlined, which included the removal of the deck gun and the replacement of the bridge fin with one which was taller, enclosing the periscopes and masts. The radar and sonar were updated at the same time. After the submarine had returned to service, her top speed exceeded 18 knots (33 km/h), aided by the unofficial removal in the dockyard at Malta of the housing for the airguard radar aerial which added 3/4 knot to her top speed.
Her captain at the time, Commander John Coote, reported that the modifications made evading her hunters during exercises easy, since the submarine could cover a mile in four minutes at 18 knots (33 km/h), and following another ten minutes running silently at 12 knots (22 km/h) could be 3 miles (4.8 km) away from the escort.
In 1953 she took part in the Fleet Review to celebrate the Coronation of Queen Elizabeth II.
INS DAKAR
The submarine was purchased by Israel in 1965, along with two of her T-class sisters – TRUNCHEON and TURPIN. She was commissioned into the Israeli Sea Corps on 10 November 1967 as INS DAKAR (דקר, Grouper) under the command of Lieutenant Commander Ya'acov Ra'anan.
On 9 January 1968, DAKAR departed from Portsmouth for Haifa. On the morning of the 15th, DAKAR put into Gibraltar, departing at midnight, and proceeded across the Mediterranean Sea underwater using her snorkel mast. Her last position report was at 0610 on 24 January, when she gave a location just east of Crete. There were three further routine messages which did not provide a position, the last being at 0002 on 25 January.
Despite an extensive search, no trace was found of the vessel. Her stern emergency marker buoy washed ashore on the coast of Khan Yunis, an Arab town southwest of Gaza, just over a year later, on 9 February 1969.
The wreck was finally discovered on 24 May 1999 at a depth of 3,000 meters (9,800 ft). The precise cause of the accident is not known, but as no emergency measures appear to have been carried out. It appears that the submarine dived suddenly and rapidly past her maximum depth limit and suffered a catastrophic hull rupture. The emergency buoy was released by the violence of the hull collapse, and washed ashore after drifting for a year.
On 11 October 2000, DAKAR’s bridge and the forward edge of her sail...

Le Terrible (Nuclear Submarine)

Le Terrible is a Triomphant-class strategic nuclear submarine of the French Navy. The boat was launched on 21 March 2008.
On 27 January 2010, at 9h25, Le Terrible launched an M51 SLBM from underwater, in Audierne Bay. The missile reached its target 2,000 kilometres (1,200 mi) off North Carolina; the 4,500-kilometre (2,800 mi) flight took about 20 minutes.
The submarine was put into service on 20 September 2010 armed with the 16 M51 missiles. Terrible is fitted with a new SYCOBS combat system (SYstem de COmbat Barracuda-SSBN) which will also be installed on the new Barracuda class SSNs.
In July 2017 French president Macron visited the submarine in the Atlantic and took part in a simulated missile launch.

U boat type llB

The Type II U-boat was designed by Nazi Germany as a coastal U-boat, modeled after the CV-707 submarine, which was designed by the Dutch dummy company NV Ingenieurskantoor voor Scheepsbouw den Haag (I.v.S) (set up by Germany after World War I in order to maintain and develop German submarine technology and to circumvent the limitations set by the Treaty of Versailles) and built in 1933 by the Finnish Crichton-Vulcan shipyard in Turku, Finland. It was too small to undertake sustained operations far away from the home support facilities. Its primary role was found to be in the training schools, preparing new German naval officers for command. It appeared in four sub-types.
Germany was stripped of her U-boats by the Treaty of Versailles at the end of World War I, but in the late 1920s and early 1930s began to rebuild her armed forces. The pace of rearmament accelerated under Adolf Hitler, and the first Type II U-boat was laid down on 11 February 1935. Knowing that the world would see this step towards rearmament, Hitler reached an agreement with Britain to build a navy up to 35% of the size of the Royal Navy in surface vessels, but equal to the British in number of submarines. This agreement was signed on 18 June 1935, and U-1 was commissioned 11 days later.

The defining characteristic of the Type II was its tiny size. Known as the Einbaum ("dugout canoe"), it had the advantages over larger boats of the ability to work in shallow water, diving more quickly, and being more difficult to spot due to the low conning tower. However, it had a shallower maximum depth, short range, and cramped living conditions, and could carry fewer torpedoes.
The boat had a single hull, with no watertight compartments. There were three torpedo tubes forward (none aft), with space for another two torpedoes inside the pressure hull for reloads. A single 20 mm anti-aircraft gun was provided, but no deck gun was mounted.
Space inside was limited. The two spare torpedoes extended from just behind the torpedo tubes to just in front of the control room, and most of the 24-man crew lived in this forward area around the torpedoes, sharing 12 bunks. Four bunks were also provided aft of the engines for the engine room crew. Cooking and sanitary facilities were basic, and in this environment long patrols were very arduous.
Most Type IIs only saw operational service during the early years of the war, thereafter remaining in training bases. Six were stripped down to just a hull, transported by river and truck to Linz (on the Danube), and reassembled for use in the Black Sea against the Soviet Union.
In contrast to other German submarine types, few Type IIs were lost. This, of course, reflects their use as training boats, although accidents accounted for several vessels.
These boats were a first step towards re-armament, intended to provide Germany with experience in submarine construction and operation and lay the foundation for larger boats to build upon. Only one of these submarines survives to this day; the prototype CV-707, renamed Vesikko by the Finnish Navy which later bought it.
On 3 February 2008, The Telegraph reported that U-20 had been discovered by Selçuk Kolay, a Turkish marine engineer in 80 feet (24 m) of water off the coast of the Turkish city of Zonguldak. The paper also reported that Kolay knows where U-23 and U-19 are, scuttled in deeper water near U-20.

The Type IIB was a lengthened version of the Type IIA. Three additional compartments were inserted amidships which were fitted with additional diesel tanks beneath the control room. The range was increased to 1,800 nautical miles at 12 knots. Diving time was also improved to 30 seconds.
Deutsche Werke AG, of Kiel, built four Type IIBs in 1935 and 1936, Germaniawerft, of Kiel, built fourteen in 1935 and 1936, and Flender Werke AG, of Lübeck, built two between 1938 and 1940, for a total of twenty built.

Wikipedia

U-1 submarine

SM U-1, also known in English as the German Type U 1 submarine, was the first U-boat class of the U-boat series of submarines produced for the German Empire's Imperial German Navy. Only one was built. The U-1 was constructed by Germaniawerft in Kiel and was commissioned on 14 December 1906.[3] When World War I began in 1914, the U-1 was deemed obsolete and was used only for training until 19 February 1919, when it was struck by another vessel while on an exercise.

The U-Boat was a redesigned Karp class submarine by Spanish engineer Raimondo Lorenzo d'Equevilley Montjustin working for the German armaments company Krupp. The main improvements over the export Karp class included trim tanks instead of a moveable weight, a redesigned forecastle to improve seagoing ability, a 10 cm (3.9 in) larger diameter and strengthened pressure hull which prevented oil leakage from the external tanks, a rearrangement of the internal equipment and a heavier ballast keel.
The Imperial German Navy avoided the use of gasoline due to the perceived risk of fires and explosions that had caused many accidents in early submarines, and instead of the gasoline engines that had powered the Karp boats, U-1 was given much safer Körting kerosene engines. While normally kerosene engines were started using gasoline, the U-1's engines avoided even this and instead used electrically-heated air.
The Körting engines could not be reversed and also had to run at full speed, since their rpm could not be varied to any useful extent, and as a consequence U-1 was fitted with adjustable-pitch propellers to allow her speed to be controlled. These propellers were abandoned in later designs due to their poor efficiency, kerosene-electric propulsion being used instead before diesel propulsion was finally installed in the U-19 class in 1912-1913

Construction on U-1 began in the autumn of 1904. The boat began its trials in August 1906, a year later than originally planned. The total cost amounted to 1,905,000 Mark (equivalent to € 11,620,000 in 2016. After suffering damage from a collision while on a training exercise in 1919, U-1 was sold to the Germaniawerft foundation at the Deutsches Museum in Munich where it was restored and can be viewed on display. A large portion of the starboard hull has been removed to allow visitors to see the submarine's interior.
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