GREAT LAKE VESSEL

The stamps issued by Canada in 1967 shows in the background and in a lock a unknown Great Laker. The Canadian Encyclopedia has the following entry on this ships:

Lake Carriers, or "lakers," are ships whose design is unique to the Great Lakes of N America. The lake carrier's long and flat shape reveals its basic purpose - to move bulk cargoes through the ST LAWRENCE SEAWAY and Great Lakes, a total distance of almost 4000 km. The JOHN B AIRD, a typical modern Canadian lake carrier, was launched in 1983 by Collingwood Shipyards on Georgian Bay, is 219 m long and has a deadweight tonnage of 30 700 tonnes. Similar to an increasing number of lake carriers of its size which are fitted with cranes or conveyor belts, the JOHN B AIRD is a self-unloading lake carrier.
Ships of this size can carry one million bushels of wheat on a single voyage (27 000 tonnes#. Wheat and other feed grains account for about 40% of all cargoes carried by Canadian lake carriers, followed by coal, iron ore and limestone. The annual 9-month shipping season of the lake carriers does not include the winter months of late December to early March, when the seaway is closed and ice covers much of the Great Lakes.
Nearly all of the 162 Canadian and US lake carriers in service in 1994, down from 247 in 1984, belonged to member shipping companies of either the Canadian Shipowners' Assn #CSA) of Ottawa, with 106 ships and whose corporate na#e was changed in 1988 from the historic Dominion Marine Assn (DMA) founded in 1903; or the Lake Carriers' Assn formed in Cleveland, Ohio, in 1892, which owned the remainder.
The drop in the total gross registered tonnage (grt) of CSA member ships in service from 1 957 000 grt in 1984 to 1 637 000 grt in 1993 was a result of both severe reductions in the demand for raw materials such as iron ore by the recession-hit Canadian primary steel mills along the Great Lks, and an increase in the volume of grain transported by rail. As a result of the latter, annual grain cargoes carried by CSA member ships declined from 18.6 million t in 1984 to 9.6 million t in 1993.
During 1994 in response to the reduced use of their ships, CSA member firms created 2 joint holding companies to administer their ships' activities when in service. These 2 firms are Seaway Self Unloaders of St Catharines, made up of 17 self-unloading bulk carriers owned by Algoma Central Corp and Upper Lakes Shipping Ltd, and Seaway Bulk Carriers, with 11 bulk carriers from Canada Steamship Lines Inc plus 19 more from the smaller bulk carrier shipping companies in the CSA.
The modern Canadian lake carrier is the result of more than 100 years of continually changing Great Lakes ship design and modification Earlier types of cargo carriers on the Great Lakes, all of them built for the bulk transit of goods, included the exotically na#ed hermaphrodite barquentines of the age of sail and the whalebacks and canalers of the age of mechanical propulsion.
As becomes the na#e "hermaphrodite," which means having 2 opposite qualities, this class of sailing ship had 2 masts, with square-rigged sails on the foremast for manoeuvring in and out of dock and in narrow passages, and fore-and-aft rigged sails on the mainmast for speed. Except for their tall funnels and awkward deck structures, the whalebacks of the age of coal-fired steam engines, squat and broad-beamed, looked like the modern nuclear submarine.
The whalebacks were also called "pig boats" because their bows ended in a steel snout built above the water line. The later canalers were designed to fit snugly into the narrow locks of the old Welland Canal, linking Lakes Erie and Ontario and passing near St Catharines, and the canal system between Lk Ontario and Montreal which terminated at the Lachine Canal. The canaler was one-third the length of the JOHN B AIRD. In 1959 canalers were replaced in the wider and longer locks of the St Lawrence Seaway system by upper lakers, which had previously been restricted to the upper lakes above Niagara because of their size. These locks can take ships up to 222.5 m in length and 23.2 m in breadth.
Some of these larger carriers, though designed primarily for the inland lakes, have been built for both the coastal trade and deep-sea service and are called ocean lakers. This is not entirely a new trend since some earlier lakers were requisitioned to serve on the N Atlantic during WWII, and a few of them were sunk by German U-Boats.
The Great Lakes have been a graveyard for hundreds of ships, most of them lost during the age of sail between 1750 and 1870 in storms, fires and collisions. Despite their size, even modern lake carriers can be victims of severe ice conditions and storms. The tragic sinking on 10 Nov 1975 of the EDMUND FITZGERALD, a 222 m long US iron-ore carrier, was commemorated in song by Gordon LIGHTFOOT. After battling 7.5 m waves and record 125 km/h winds on Lk Superior, the ship suddenly plunged to the bottom with the loss of the entire crew of 29, including her experienced captain. See: viewtopic.php?f=2&t=12821&p=13970&hilit=edmund#p13970

Canada 1967 4, 6 and 7c sg582, 601, 607 and 609, scott?. 1993 43c sg1566, scott1488.
Source: The Canadian Encyclopedia.

Battle of Buceo

The Battle of Buceo was a decisive naval battle which took place on 14–17 May 1814, during the Argentine War of Independence between an Argentine fleet under William Brown and a Spanish fleet under Admiral Sienna off the coast of Montevideo, in today's Uruguay.
Five Spanish ships were burned and two were captured on 17 May. The other surrendered later and 500 prisoners were taken. Argentine forces lost four men killed in action and one ship. William Brown was given the rank of Admiral because of this victory.
Ships involved
Argentina (William Brown)
Hercules 32 (flag) viewtopic.php?f=2&t=8790&p=8834&hilit=hercules#p8834
Zephyr 18 (King)
Nancy 10 (Leech)
Julietta 7 (McDougald)
Belfast 18 (Oliver Russell)
Agreeable 16 (Lemare)
Trinidad 12 (Wack)
Spain (Sienna)[edit]
Hyena 18 (flag)
Mercurio 32
Neptuno 28 - Captured by Belfast 16 May
Mercedes 20
Palomo 18 - Captured 16 May
San Jose 16 - Captured 16 May
Cisne 12
6 schooners

M Class submarine

M CLASS.
They were ordered in place of the last four of the first group of steam-propelled K-class fleet submarines, K17-K21, the original orders being cancelled.
They were initially intended as coastal bombardment vessels, submarine monitors, but their role had been changed before detailed design begun. The intention was that merchant ships could be engaged at periscope depth or on the surface using the gun, rather than torpedoes. At that time torpedoes were considered ineffective against moving warships at more than 1,000 yards (900 m). A 12-inch gun fired at relatively short range would have a flat trajectory simplifying aiming, and few ships would be expected to survive a single hit.

The guns were 12-inch (305 mm) 40 calibre Mark IX guns from spares for the Formidable-class battleships. The mounting allowed them to elevate by 20 degrees, depress 5 degrees and train 15 degrees in either direction from the centre line. The weapon was normally fired from periscope depth using a simple bead sight on the end of the gun aligned with the target through the periscope at a range of around 1200 metres. The exposure time of the gun above the surface was around 75 seconds. The submarine had to surface to reload the gun, which would take about 3 minutes. In practice the concept was not very successful and only three of the four M-class boats ordered were completed, all between 1917 and 1918. M-class submarines are sometimes called submarine monitors.
M1 and M2 also had four 18-inch (450-mm) torpedo tubes whilst M3 and M4 had 21-inch (533 mm) diameter tubes and were 3 metres longer to accommodate them.

M1 was the only one to enter service before the end of World War I but did not see action. She was captained during her sea trials by experienced submariner Commander Max Horton after his return from the Baltic, and was later lost with all hands while on exercise in the English Channel near Start Point in Devon after a collision with a Swedish collier, SS Vidar, on 12 November 1925. The wreck of M1 was discovered by a diving team led by Innes McCartney in 1999 at a depth of 73 metres. Later that year the wreck was visited again by Richard Larn and a BBC TV documentary crew, and the resulting film was aired in March 2000.
HMS M2
M2 was converted to a seaplane carrier in 1925, a hangar replacing the gun turret. She was lost off Chesil Beach on 26 January 1932. It is thought that the hangar door was opened prematurely. M2 lies in much shallower water, 32 metres deep with the top of the conning tower only 20 metres below the surface at low tide. She is a popular attraction for local scuba divers with as many as six boats anchored above her on busy days.
M3 was converted to a minelayer in 1927 with stowage for 100 mines, primarily to test the mine-handling equipment of the Grampus class. The mines were carried on a conveyor belt which ran along her upper deck and covered over by an enlarged casing. The mines were laid through a door at the stern. She was scrapped in 1932 after the trials had been completed.
M4 was broken up before completion.
In 1924 all three completed members of the class were used to test hull camouflage to reduce the visibility of submarines from aircraft—M1 was painted grey-green, M2 dark grey and M3 was painted dark blue.

Wikipedia

ANKARAN HPL-21 (Sri Lanka)

The first two XFAC (Extra Fast Attack Craft) were ordered from Ramta, Israel Aerospace Industries (IAI) on 02 December 1996. Two more being built at the Goa SY. This is the latest version of an Israeli fast patrol craft, also acquired by the Sri Lankan Navy. An additional 15 are projected, some possibly for the Coast Guard. XFAC is designed for putting to sea in the shortest possible time for day-night coastal surveillance and reconnaissance, co-ordinated sea-air search & rescue (SAR) operations, beach insertion and/or extraction of commando forces and high speed interception of small, manoeuvrable intruder craft over territorial waters. XFAC incorporates the most modern structural, hydro-dynamic and propulsion features and a proven combat record in all aspects. The ASD propulsion system provides the XFAC with the excellent shallow water capability, including beaching, exceptional manoeuvring & survivability, high redundancy, rapid acceleration and de-acceleration, high stability and excellent sea-keeping qualities.

Displacement:60 tons full Load, L:25.40m. B:5.67m. Draft:1.10m. 2 diesel engines:4570 hp. and 2 Arneson ASD articulating surface drives, maximum speed:45 kn. maximum range:700 nm. at 42 kn. complement:10 (incl. 1 officer)

Weapons: 1-Oerlikon 20mm gun and 2-12.7mm MGs.
Weapons Control: Elop MSIS optronic low-light-level surveillance and weapons direction device, which enables the vessel to accurately destroy small high-speed crafts and engage light shore defence. Goa SY Ltd. states that the Super Dvoras are fitted the Mk.20 naval stabilized gun system.
Radar: Surface; Koden, I-band.

Originally the main armament of the Super Dvora Mark II design was the Oerlikon 20 mm cannon which were manually operated. At present all Super Dvora Mark II types have been modified to allow for the installation of Typhoon 25-30 mm stabilized cannon which can be slaved to state-of the art mast-mounted, day/night, long-range electro-optic systems. In addition to its main armament, Super Dvora Mark IIs carry heavy or light machine guns, depending on the operational requirements.
Sri Lankan Navy Super Dvora Mark IIs carry additional weapon systems such as automatic grenade launchers and PKM general purpose machine guns.

(Sri Lanka 2000, 3.50 r. StG.?)
Internet.

SAILING VESSEL OF THE 17 or 18th Century

This Hungary stamp issued in 1981 is designed after a label issued in Austria in 1933 for the Internationale Stamp Fair in Vienna.
It shows us a sailing vessel from around the 17th and 18th century, she carries a spritsail which disappears on sailing ships after the 18th century. She is a two-masted vessel, square rigged on the foremast and (but it is not so clear) lateen rigged on the after-mast. Have not more info on the ship depict.

Hungary 1981 5fo sg?, scott2696d.

RAID ON DIEPPE 1942

This Canadian stamp shows us the Raid on Dieppe with in the background a landing craft . Wikipedia has the following on this landing craft. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Landing_C ... ult#Dieppe

A notably unsuccessful amphibious operation by Allied forces against the German-occupied French seaport of Dieppe during World War II, 1939-45. This raid across the English Channel, known as Operation Jubilee, was planned by the British Combined Operations Headquarters. It was launched on the night of August 18-19, 1942. Partly designed to allay American concerns about British willingness to open a second front in Europe, it also was intended to give the Allied troops involved vital battle experience and to test amphibious landing techniques.
The landing force consisted of 5000 men of the Second Canadian Division accompanied by 1000 men of No 3 and No 4 Commando of the British army supported by several tanks. The invasion fleet included 179 landing craft and 73 naval ships.
Eight separate landings were planned with the aim of destroying German coastal batteries in the Dieppe area. Only one landing on the western flank, which took place shortly before dawn succeeded. Elsewhere, the Germans were well prepared and the landing craft came under heavy fire, with most troops pinned down on the beaches. Fighting continued for some hours after a decision to withdrawn was made at 09.00 am. Allied losses were heavy with some 4000 men killed, wounded or captured. The Royal Navy lost 34 ships including a destroyer, the HMS BERKELEY, which had to be torpedoed to prevent it from falling in German hands. Although the Allies fared very badly at Dieppe, the raid provided lessons on the future conduct of amphibious operations that were to prove invaluable in planning the “Normandy” landings in 1944. The experience at Dieppe proved that the premature launch of a major invasion of Western Europe would end in disaster. Much more on this raid is given by: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dieppe_Raid

Canada 1992 42c sg?, scott?
Source: Copied from An Encyclopedia of Naval History by Anthony Bruce and William Cogar.

DANA (Qatar)

Built in 1976 by Marathon Le Tourneau Offshore Pte. Ltd., Singapore as TRITON II.
In ? sold? renamed DANA for Qatar General Petroleum Corp. Doha. Off. no.:007/76
Self-elevating oil rig, Gt:4590, Platform (triangular) 203' x 168'x 23', Service draft 12'.
Heliport 65' diameter for Sikorsky S-61, quartes:92.
Legs (triangular truss) 3 of 357'. Rack and pinion jacking, Spud tanks 45' diameter x 21' height.
Mooring:1 x 10,000 lb Baldt Stockless anchor.
Safety:2 liveboats, each for 50 persons, 4 inflatable life rafts, each for 20 persons.
Cranes:3 x 45 tons at 25', fuel:2000 bbls, water (drill) 5000 bbls, (potable) 1000 bbls,
Mud (liquid) 1400 bbls, mud (bulk) 6300 cu.', cement: 3000 sacks.
Piping:14,000' of 5" pipe.
Cement unit:Halliburn Twin HT-400.
Water depth:250', drill depth:20,000'.
Derrick:Pyramid 147', 1,000,000 lb.
Drawworks:National C-375 37½". Mud pumps:2 x National 12-P-160
BOP stack:1 x Shaffer annular 5000 psi. 3 x single Shaffer 10,000 psi.
Engines: (a) 2 x General Motors MD16E8:3900 bhp. (b) 1 x General Motors MD12E8:1500 bhp.
Elec generators: (I) 2 x 1500 kW. 600 V. a.c. (II)1 x 1050 kW. 600 V. a.c.
Propulsion: Engines (a) driving generators (I) connected to 2 electric motors each 1250 shp. powering 2 Schottel thrusters units.
Other equipment: 2 x Aqua Chem S300 SPEC-E, distillers: Model 5200 degasser: Demco 86V deander & 416-14 desilter.
Drilling in Qatari waters.

(Qatar 1976 1,25 r. StG.618)
Register of Offshore Units, Submersibles & Diving Systems 1979/80
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