TOKELAU TRANSPORT

Tokelau issued on 4 May 1983 six stamps showing means of transport in the Tokelau Islands. Tokelau consist of three atolls and the transport of goods and people is mostly over the water by vessels in 1983.

The outrigger canoe depict on the 5s stamp have not changed much over the centuries, and can still be seen on the beaches of Tokelau. The 5 Sene stamps shows a canoe returning under sail power from a fishing trip outside the reef. More wooden canoes are found on Atafu than on the other islands because according to legend the atoll was blessed with an abundance of kanava trees, the wood which is used for building the canoes. The kanava tree is sufficiently thick, durable, water resistant and hard, and canoes built of this wood can last over a hundred years.
The vaka depict on this stamp of Tokelau can be paddled or sailed, she is stepping a single forward-raking mast to which a triangular sail was set, lateen-fashion; lower edge boomed; forward part tacked near the bow.
Reported lengths 7 – 11m. More info on the type is given on:

viewtopic.php?f=2&t=14019&p=16156&hilit=outrigger+canoe#p16156

The whale boat depict on the 18 sene. Was a large heavy wooden vessel propelled by oars. It was the early method of conveying cargo and people and all kinds of cargo from shore to ship over the reef, and was only recently replaced by the aluminium whale boat. The boat shown on the stamp is preserved at Atafu. (A google search in 2017 could not find the whale boat.)
More on the whale boats is given: viewtopic.php?f=2&t=14383

The 23 sene depict an aluminium whaleboat who replaced the wooden whale-boats. She are propelled by outboards engines, this boat is capable of conveying many people and all kind of cargo from ship to shore. Sea conditions are critical to cargo-handling, and it is not uncommon for boats to capsize in the surf or strike the reef.
The “alia” fishing boat on the 34 sene stamp is a catamaran twin hulled aluminium craft, now being (1983) introduced to the Tokelau fishing fleets. The stamp shows men preparing for night fishing. The first “alia” catamaran fishing craft was developed in Samoa and were built of plywood designed by the FAO in conjunction with a Danish-funded fisheries development project in the mid-1970s. Built by local yards in Samoa. The first 120 craft were constructed in plywood, thereafter several hundred more were built from welded aluminium in the early to mid-1980s for use as a fishing vessel in the South Pacific Islands. Most are used in Samoa and some were exported to other South Pacific Islands.
The catamarans are used for fishing near the coast and in the lagoons. The Tokelau “alias” have a length of 8.9 metre and are powered by a Johnson outboard engine with a power of 35 hp. she carries a standby outboard also from Johnson of 20 hp.
If she still are in service in 2017 I could not find out.

Source http://www.fao.org/docrep/006/y5121e/y5121e09.htm

The reefer vessel FRYSNA is depict on the 63 sene stamp: viewtopic.php?f=2&t=8937&p=16923&hilit=frysna#p16923

The 75 sene stamp depicts the McKinnon (Goose) seaplane, who in 1983 made a monthly call at Tokelau from Samoa. As shown on the stamp she is a plane, when on the water she is a watercraft.

Source: New Zealand Philatelic Bulletin no 29 1983. Internet.
Tokelau 1983 5s/75s sg 91/96, scott?

Passover Hagggadah

Passover is a festival of freedom.

It commemorates the Israelites’ Exodus from Egypt, and their transition from slavery to freedom. The main ritual of Passover is the seder, which occurs on the first two night (in Israel just the first night) of the holiday — a festive meal that involves the re-telling of the Exodus through stories and song and the consumption of ritual foods, including matzah and maror (bitter herbs). The seder’s rituals and other readings are outlined in the Haggadah — today, many different versions of this Passover guide are available in print and online, and you can also create your own.

The central Passover practice is a set of intense dietary changes, mainly the absence of hametz, or foods with leaven. (Ashkenazi Jews also avoid kitniyot, a category of food that includes legumes.) In recent years, many Jews have compensated for the lack of grain by cooking with quinoa, although not all recognize it as kosher for Passover. The ecstatic cycle of psalms called Hallel is recited both at night and day (during the seder and morning prayers). Additionally, Passover commences a 49-day period called the Omer, which recalls the count between offerings brought to the ancient Temple in Jerusalem. This count culminates in the holiday of Shavuot, the anniversary of the receiving of the Torah at Sinai.

Matzah, or unleavened bread, is the main food of Passover. You can purchase it in numerous stores, or you can make your own. But the holiday has many traditional, popular foods, from haroset (a mixture of fruit, nuts, wine, and cinnamon) to matzah ball soup — and the absence of leavening calls upon a cook to employ all of his/her culinary creativity.

http://www.myjewishlearning.com/article/passover-2017/

CLARENCE CROCKETT (USA)

This vessel is a 13.60m. (44.6')long two-sail bateau, or V-bottomed deadrise type of centerboard sloop, commonly referred to as a skipjack. She was built in 1908 in Deep Creek, Virginia, and has sailed in the oyster-dredging fleet since then. She is built in typical Bay fashion using cross-planked construction methods. She has a beam of 4.48m. 14.7') and a depth of 0.91m. (3.0') with a net registered tonnage of 7. She carries a typical skipjack rig of jib-headed mainsail and large jib. The vessel has a longhead (clipper) bow and a square transom stern. The wooden hull is painted the traditional white and is sheathed with metal against ice at the waterline. This vessel has a longhead bow with a straight, slightly raking stem and a square, or transom, stern. The transom is steeply raking with the rudder hung outboard on pintles and a jig for the pushboat to the starboard side. There are guards on the hull to protect it from the dredges. The single mast is slightly raked aft and finished bright. The mast is rigged with double shrouds, adjusted by turnbuckles rather than the more traditional deadeyes, a forestay, and a jibstay. There is a topping lift leading to the end of the boom, which is jawed to the mast. Both mainsail and jib are furled by means of lazyjacks. The mainsail is jib-headed and laced to the boom. The large jib carries a club on its foot. The bowsprit, rigged with double chain bobstays and chain bowsprit shrouds. is slightly bowed down and is painted white. In addition to its sail rig the skipjack carries a motorized pushboat, suspended over the stern on davits. The vessel is flush-decked with several deck structures. These include: a wheel-box located against the after rail, a cabin trunk with an added "doghouse" with six small horizontal windows and a full-length door; and a small fore hatch. The cabin has a single round port on either side. There is a box covering the winder engines and a sampson post, with winch heads, on the foredeck. The deck is surrounded by a low pinrail atop a solid lograil forward, and a higher pinrail aft. The boat is open amidships where the dredges come aboard over rollers. Other gear includes oyster dredging equipment--dredges, winders, and winder engines. Significance: This vessel is significant as being one of the 36 surviving traditional Chesapeake Bay skipjacks and a member of the last commercial sailing fleet in the United States. Out of a fleet of hundreds of skipjacks that worked Bay waters in the early years of the 20th century, today only this small number remain to carry on the tradition of working sail. The skipjack evolved as a distinct type of Bay vessel in the 1890s as a cheaper-to-construct alternative to the earlier bugeyes and other traditional framed craft, in a period when shipbuilding costs were rising and the oyster catch was diminishing. The type was devised by enlarging (to 25' to 60') the hull of the ordinary, unframed, square-sterned Bay crabbing skiff, and giving it a deadrise bottom, a-deck, a cabin, and a sloop rig. The result--with its unframed, hard chine, cross-planked, V-bottom-proved inexpensive to build, easy to repair, and could be constructed by a competent house carpenter. Skipjacks were specifically designed as oyster dredge boats, with wide beams and low freeboard lending stability and providing a large working space on deck. The single masted rig, with sharp-headed mainsail and large jib, was easy to handle, powerful in light winds, and handy in coming about quickly for another pass over the oyster beds. CLARENCE CROCKETT is of interest as being one of the older skipjacks still dredging in the Chesapeake fleet. She was built in 1908 in Deep Creek, Virginia following traditional Bay-area design and construction methods. She has worked in the oyster-dredging fleet since her building and is presently based at Deal Island. The vessel is one of the 19 surviving working skipjacks to have been built previous to 1912, although, like the other members of the fleet, she has been much repaired over the years. A most recent addition includes an added "doghouse" with windows and a full-length door, an improvement designed to make the helm more comfortable for the skipper.

(USA 1988, 22 c. StG.2339)
Internet.

FLACH submarine 1866

The Santiago Times of 23 August 2007 has the following on the submarine FLACH:
Between 1864 and 1866 Chile and Peru fought Spain in a war that began when the later seized Peru’s guano-rich Chincha Islands. As part of the war effort, then Chilean President José Joaquín Pérez commissioned the construction of a submarine, only a few of which had ever been built anywhere in the world.

The president’s request actually resulted in two submarine prototypes; one designed and built by a man named Gustavo Heyermann, the other by Flach. Heyermann’s vessel, unfortunately, sank on its maiden voyage. FLACH’s sub, however, seemed to work quite well – at least during several days of initial testing.

Designed to protect Valapariso harbor from attack (the Spanish fleet in fact bombarded and leveled the city on Jan. 31, 1866), FLACH’s pedal-powered submarine was equipped with two cannons, one built right into the nose of the vessel. Built entirely of steel, it was 12.5 meters long, beam 1.5 meters and weighed an estimated 100 tons. Displacement ca 50 tons.

Wikipedia give on the submarine:
FLACH was the first submarine designed and built in Chile in 1866. It was lost on a test run the same year, and is believed to lie on the seabed of the bay of Valparaiso.
History
The FLACH was built in 1866 at the request of the Chilean government, by Karl FLACH, a German engineer and immigrant. It was the fifth submarine built in the world and, along with a second submarine, was intended to defend the port of Valparaiso against attack by the Spanish navy during the Chincha Islands War. (The second vessel, built by Gustavo Heyermann, sank on its maiden voyage.)
Loss
On 3 May 1866, after several days of successful testing, Karl Flach, his son, and nine other Chilean and German crewmen boarded the submarine for another test run. During the test, the submarine sank for unknown reasons; it is now thought to lie at a depth of about 50 meters (164 feet) within the bay of Valparaiso. The FLACH was located two days after the sinking by seamen from the English frigate HMS LEANDER, and a diver named John Wallace was able to see and draw the wreck, which was buried nose-down in the bay's sediment. According to some contemporary sources, an attempt to raise the submarine failed because of its burial.
Present location
The Chilean Navy, with support from others, has searched for the submarine and intends to raise it after finding it, even though there is as yet no agreement on what to do with the remains of the eleven bodies thought to be inside. A finding of an object that appears to be the FLACH was reported in El Mercurio de Valparaiso on 25 April 2007. However, the finding has not been confirmed, because, as of August 2007, sediment still has to be cleared away from the object.

Sources: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/FLACH_(submarine)
Comoro Islands 2008 300 fc sg?, scott?

Ta PIETRO SALIBA xprunara

The xprunara TA PIETRO SALIBA, named after the Italian painter Pietro de Saliba (1466-1530) was built at Malta in 1798. Have not any information on the vessel.
The xprunara (or speronara named in other parts of the Mediterranean) was a fast cargo vessel of the central Mediterranean Basin, the type was built in great numbers and evolved over a period of almost four centuries. She was built till the end of the 19th century and most probably originated in Malta, used to transport cargo, passengers and dispatches. The type got her name from the spur or beak which it carried on the bows.
The type had a sharp bow with curved stem that projected high above the gunwale; ram-like projection extended beyond the stem.
Rounded vertical stern or a long counter. Strong sheer, flat floors, cambered deck; deep removable bulwarks, small type undecked. Tall rudder-head on round-sterned type.
Rigged with one or three masts. Most set lateen sails; the small, open boats used spritsails, jib to a very long bowsprit. A 2-masted boat might use 18-20 oars. Reported lengths 8 – 15m with a beam of ca. 4.5m.

Source: Internet and Aak to Zumbra a Dictionary of the World’s Watercraft.
Malta 1982 20c sg 704, scott?.

LA MADONNA DEL ROSARIO tartane 1740

The Malta stamp shows us the tartane LA MADONNA DEL ROSARIO of 1740, of which I could not find any information or details. She was named after Our Lady of the Rosary.
The tartane used in the Mediterranean dates back from at least the 12th to about the mid 20th century.
The type evolved during this long period and was modified to suit local preferences and uses; ranged from small flat-bottomed fishing boats to 300 ton merchantmen, and during the 15th – 17th century, were largely 3-masted vessels of war, some were employed as privateers on the Atlantic coast of North Africa.
Most sharp-ended some with transom stern; marked sheer, rounded midships sections. Raked stern; curved bow with cutaway forefoot ; high stemhead ; gammon knee supported a beak. Open or fully decked. Rig varied widely with time and use. Coasting tartans generally had 2 masts while the larger one had three masts with lateen sails (as the tartane on the stamp).
Reported length 8 – 25m, width 3 – 7 m.

Source: Aak to Zumbra a Dictionary of the World’s Watercraft.
Malta 1982 8c sg 702, scott?

TA SALVO SERAFINO brigantine 1531

The stamp shows us an ancient Maltese vessel the brigantine TA SALVO SERAFINO 1531 of which I only could find that she was named after the Italian painter Salvo Serafino, a google search did not give any Italian painter under that name.

Aak to Zumbra gives the following on the type:
In the Mediterranean the brigantine was a small galley working under oars or sail. It was a favorite of the sea brigands of the 17th and early 18th centuries, but during the 14th – 16th centuries the vessel engaged in reconnaissance work, often towed astern or carried knocked down aboard exploration vessels, including those of Christopher Columbus.
Open or decked, some with a poop deck; flat bottomed; often ram bow. Steered with rudder and tiller (as seen on stamp) Employed 8 – 28 oars to a side, with 1 man to each long slender oar. Lateen sails set to 1 or 2 masts.
Reported length 12 – 19m; e.g. length 14m, beam 2.7 m, shallow draught.
The name brigantine is derived of the Italian word brigantino meaning brigand.

Source: Aak to Zumbra a Dictionary of the World’s Watercraft.
Malta 1982 3c sg 701, scott?
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