SHIPWRECK OF ST PAUL AT MALTA CORBITA?

The shipwreck of Apostle Paul at Malta, what do we know, most is from the Bible, in where is given that Paul sailed from Caesarea via Sidon with a coastal ship on a northerly course along the coast to the south coast of Turkey which they followed till they arrived in Myra.
Then his guard Julius a centurion found another ship what was sailing to Italy, not much is given on her details in the Bible but it is believed that she was a Roman grainship from Egypt bound for Italy, most probably a “corbita” a Roman merchant ship, of which is given that she could carry in the first century AD up to 400 ton. Estimate length 25m and 6.7m wide.
The “corbita” used from the 1st- 3rd century A.D. carried one mast stepped amidships setting a large square mainsail, two topsails and an artemon (spritsail). Steered by two heavy quarter rudders. Did have a cabin house aft.
When she left Myra she had 276 people on board and a cargo of wheat.
The next port of call was Fair Haven (Kaloi Limenes) Crete, now an oil terminal and bunker port. I have been there one time, has now a small settlement with a population around the 25, but most probably in Apostle Paul days there was nothing, most probably one of the reasons they did not winter there.
It was decided to sail to Phoenix and to winter there a distance from around 34 miles, but after sailing she did run in a heavy storm and could not reach Phoenix. The only thing they could do to let the vessel drift away with the wind and seas.
After 14 days with terrible weather she reached land, soundings taken did give that the depth decreased and four anchors were let go from the stern, to keep the ship with the bow to the land and wait till daylight, when daylight came they were very near to bay with a sandy beach, till today not with certainty is given which bay the ship stranded in Malta, sources give Salina Bay, St Thomas Bay were four Roman anchors have been found, St Paul’s Bay is not much likely that she stranded there, did not have a sandy beach.
After cutting the anchor ropes, the ship only under a spritsail drifted on the beach, all people on board were saved but the vessel was lost. Then they found out that she were stranded on Malta.
The four Roman anchors found in St Thomas Bay you can find in the Malta Maritime Museum, labelled with Roman anchors.

The painting by H. Smartly, engraved by H. Adlard. From James Smith book, The Voyage and Shipwreck of St. Paul.

Malta 1899 10sh sg35, scott?. 1914 10sh sg104, scott?. 1922 10s sg121, scott?
http://pauls-journeys.com/the-apostle-p ... ipwreck-1/
Source: Various internet sites.

DGHAJSA

The watercraft depict on this stamp is a “dghajsa” of which Aak to Zumbra a Dictionary of the World’s Watercraft give.
DGHAJSA: Generic term for any small boat, but more specifically, a popular water-taxi and general purpose craft of the Valette harbours. Virtually extinct (only 10 are today in use) except for a modified type used in regattas.
Sharp ends; newer boats carry maximum beam well forward , stem and sternpost extend high above gunwale level with slight tumble home, the taller stemhead cut scimitar shaped. The sternpost cut horizontal. Early types had a straight raked stem. Usually marked sheer at ends; low rise to the floors amidships; planking ignores end sheer lines; straight keel.Ribs fastened with single nail; washstrake along after half. Open except for short decks at ends; seats along the sides canopies common in the late 19th century. Brightly painted with white line at boot top; sheer planks and ends varnished; most have other decorations.
Rowed using single tholepin and grommet; three tholepins to starboard, one to port. Oarsman stands facing forward, crossing oar looms; sometimes one oarsman pushes while another pulls. Some now have engines.
Reported length 6-7.6m, beam ca 1.7m.
More info is given on wikipedia, see: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dg%C4%A7ajsa

This coat of arms was adopted on the 11 July 1975, seven months after Malta became a republic. It showed a coastal scene with the rising sun, a traditional Maltese boat, a shovel and a pitchfork, and an Opuntia. All of these symbols are somewhat connected to Malta. Underneath the image the then new name of the state "Repubblika Ta' Malta" (Republic of Malta) was written.
The Maltese Prime Minister, Dom Mintoff, had wanted to change the 1964 coat of arms since he mistook the mural crown as representing royalty and therefore had no place on republican Malta's coat of arms. Mintoff chose a class of art students taught by Esprit Barthet to create a design to be used on the covers of passports, and a design by Edward Abela was chosen. A final design was agreed upon and the new passports (commonly known as the Gaddafi passports due to their green colour) were printed and the design was officially adopted as the emblem of Malta.
The emblem was controversial since it was not heraldic, and it was replaced by the current coat of arms soon after the Nationalists won the 1987 election. It was proposed that the 1964 coat of arms be readopted, but eventually a simplified version of it was chosen. The new coat of arms was designed by Adrian Strickland who prepared preliminary sketches, and Robert Calì who finished the design.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coat_of_a ... 4_and_1975
Malta 1976 2L sg?, scott?

ACT 3 (G.B.)

See AMERICA STAR

(New Zealand 1980, 35 c. StG.1223) Right above

Antonio de Ulloa y de la Torre-Girault

Antonio de Ulloa y de la Torre-Girault (1716 – 1795) was a Spanish general, prominent scientist and colonial administrator. He was also a member of the Templar Order, acting primarily as a scientific adviser.
In 1766, de Ulloa became the first Spanish Governor of Louisiana, though his short tenure, lasting only two years, was marked by unrest and discontent, with the French Creole population rebelling against his authority and policies.
Born in Spain in 1716, de Ulloa grew to be a prominent scientist and intellectual, with many achievements to his name.
In 1735, he participated in the French Geodesic Mission to Peru from Port-au-Prince, where he accompanied the French astronomer Louis Godin. They set out to determine the exact circumference of the earth, which would provide France and Spain with navigational advantages. It was during his stay in South America that de Ulloa, along with a fellow researcher, discovered the element platinum.
Upon his return to Spain, de Ulloa was captured by the British, but was soon released thanks to Reginald Birch, who offered to introduce him to the Templar Order. He was then made a Fellow of the Royal Society of London, in recognition of his scientific attainments. De Ulloa subsequently established the first museum of natural history, the first metallurgical laboratory in Spain, and the observatory of Cadiz.
After serving as the governor of Huancavelica, Peru, for roughly six years, de Ulloa became the first Spanish governor of Louisiana in 1766. However, he allowed the French flag to remain over the city of New Orleans, leaving the administration of the territory to French Creole officials while he and his family hid in La Balize. He was secretly involved with the shipment of slaves and vagrants to a Templar work site in Mexico and, in 1768, imposed trade restrictions to benefit his Order.
These actions caused de Ulloa's public stature to continually worsen, with a rebellion flaring up amongst the French Creole population. Unknown to the governor, the Assassin Aveline de Grandpré had begun investigating the disappearing slaves, eventually infiltrating the fort where de Ulloa temporarily kept his captives, before they were sent to Mexico. She then set out to cause as much disturbance within the city as possible, in an effort to force the governor out of his hiding place. To achieve this, Aveline incited a riot, intercepted a gunpowder delivery and destroyed a Spanish military vessel.
Eventually, the widespread chaos within the city forced de Ulloa to leave La Balize and attempt to negotiate for peace. However, his carriage ran into an ambush while en route, which had been orchestrated by Aveline. After his guards had been felled, de Ulloa was confronted by the Assassin, who had come to kill him. However, the governor bargained for his life and that of his pregnant wife, offering what little information he possessed.
De Ulloa gave Aveline a map that would lead her to the work site in Mexico, suggesting the workers that had been sent there were perhaps excavating relics of importance to the Templars. In addition, he offered her a special decoding lens that could be used to decipher encrypted documents. Accepting the trade, Aveline chose to spare the governor and told him to remove himself and his family from the continent. De Ulloa, relieved at her mercy, thanked Aveline, though she was quick to remind him that the Templars would punish him for his betrayal sooner or later.
De Ulloa subsequently fled New Orleans, withdrawing from public life and Templar service. For the remainder of his life, he served as a naval officer, before dying peacefully in 1795, an old man.

SIP CANAL

The stamp shows the Sip Canal with a steam locomotive pulling a paddlesteamer through the canal. I have not more info on the ship.
The Iron Gates are, in Romanian Porțile de Fier, in Serbian Gvozdena Vrata, also Djerdap.

"Gerdap", in Turkish, means a place dangerous for navigation, a whirlpool. The Djerdap gorge, which is some 100 kilometers long (from Golubac to Tekija), is actually a compound river valley made up of four gorges (Gornja klisura, Gospodjin vir, Veliki and Mali kazan and Sipska klisura)

The part of the Iron Gates gorge of the Danube River in which the canal was constructed, Sipska klisura, is 2 mi (3.2 km) long and 550 ft (170 m) wide, on the Serbian and Romanian border between Orşova and Drobeta-Turnu Severin. There the river narrows and swiftly flows through a gap between the Carpathian and Balkan mountains.

Near the town of Sip a large rock reef (called Perigrada) obstructed nearly the whole width of the river until the construction of the Sip Canal in 1896.

The Iron Gates, formerly an obstacle to shipping, was cleared of many rock obstructions in the 1860s; the Sip Canal (opened 1896) permitted large river craft to get past the gorge. The water gushed at eight meters per second, 15.6 knots, through the Sip Canal, two kilometers long and 80 metres wide. After the completion of the Djerdap dam in 1976, the canal constructed with such expense and labour is now 50 metres underwater.
To pull the ships upstream sometimes three steam locomotives were used to pull the vessel through the canal.

The canal was part of a larger project to clear some 80 kilometres of the Iron Gates of rapids and shallows. The canal, designed in one report to be two hundred feet wide and ten feet deep, was cut through five dykes crossing the bed of the river.

Text above adapted from: http://www.infoplease.com/ce6/world/A0825502.html and http://www.britannica.com/ebc/article-9042801

Yugoslavia 1981 13d sg2002, scott?

ST AUGUSTINE SETTLEMENT

For the 400th anniversary of St Augustine settlement in Florida the USA issued one stamp in 1965 of 5c. The stamp shows a Spanish explorer in the foreground, some Spanish royal banners and two sailing vessel of that time on the left. When it are vessels of the fleet of the Spanish Admiral Pedro de Meméndez de Aviles, who founded St Augustine his flagship was the SAN AGUSTIN and the settlement. St Augustine was named after the ship. It is the first continuous permanent European settlement in the New World.
On Easter Sunday in 1513 Juan Ponce de Leon first claimed Florida (originally named Pascua florida, meaning flowery Eastern) for the Spanish empire. It was not until five decades later, however, after several unsuccessful attempts at colonization, General Pedro Menéndez de Aviles sailed in the mouth of the Saint John’s River on 28 August 1565, the royal contract he carried dictated an expedition with a two-fold purpose. In addition to a cargo of artisans, farmers slaves, livestock and tools the fleet of 10 Spanish vessels transported a fighting force of 500 soldiers and seamen to thwart the Huguenot influence at Fort Caroline, founded by the French a year earlier. Menéndez fleet sailing south down the Florida coast 25-miles past the Huguenot settlement.
Menéndez embarked the colonists at the River of Dolphins (St John’s River) and the village of Saint Augustine was established.
Ten days later, when the French fleet was driven out to sea and scattered by a storm, the Spanish force returned by overland route and destroyed the fort, thus ending France’s future in Florida. An English effort to destroy Saint Augustine by Sir Francis Drake failed in 1568, and the Spanish village continued to flourish in later years despite a hectic history of sieges and treaties under four different flags.
Juan Ponce de Leon claimed Florida for Spain in 1513 after landing on the northeast coast. He returned eight years later to found a colony, but was unsuccessful and was killed. Panifilo de Narvaez anchored in Tampa Bay in 1528 and travelled inland. In 1539, Hernando de Soto landed near Tampa Bay and explored that area as well as northern Florida. Tristan de Luna attempted to establish a permanent colony on Pensacola Bay in 1559 with 1,600 men and women, but abandoned the effort after two years.
French Huguenot leader Gaspard de Coligny commissioned Jean Ribaut to found a colony in the territory in 1562. Ribaut's aide, Rene de Laudonniere, built Fort Caroline near present-day Jacksonville. Philip II of Spain sent a military expedition, led by Pedro Menendez de Aviles, to destroy the French settlement. Arriving in 1565, Menendez established St. Augustine and massacred the French. He captured Fort Caroline and founded another settlement there.

http://usstampgallery.com/ and Internet.
USA 1965 5c sg?, scott

ZHONGSHAN

Built as a gunboat by Mitsubishi Shipbuilding Nagasaki Dockyard at Nagasaki, Japan for the Qing Empire, China.
1910 Ordered and laid down.
1912 Launched as the YONGFENG.
Displacement 780 tons, dim. 65.8 x 8.8 x 3.04m (draught).
Powered by two steam turbines 1,350 hp., two shafts, speed 14 knots.
Armament: 1 – 4 inch Armstrong gun, 1 – 3 inch gun, 4 – 47mm Hotchkiss guns, 1 – 40mm gun, 2 – 37mm guns and 2 7.9 or 8mm MG.
15 March 1913 commissioned.

The SS ZHONGSHAN, formerly romanized as CHUNG SHAN, was a Chinese coastal defense ship of 780 tons. Built in Japan in 1913, it was originally known as the SS YONGFENG (romanized at the time as YUNG FENG or WONG FENG before being renamed in 1925 in honor of Sun Yat-sen, better known in China as Sun Zhongshan. This ship and others of its class are frequently classified as gunboats.
Construction[
The SS YONGFENG was the first of four 780-ton Yongfeng-class coastal defense ships ordered from Mitsubishi by the Qing Empire in 1910. Under the deal signed between the Qing naval minister Zaixun, his deputy admiral Sa Zhenbing, and the Japanese, the first two ships were built in Japan and the second pair at Jiangnan Shipyard in China with Japanese technical help. All four ships differed slightly from one another. Due to their small size (less than 1000 tons displacement), these ships are also frequently referred as gunboats.
The YONGFENG entered service as part of the Beiyang Fleet. In March 1913, it sailed to Shanghai, where it was based at Yuezhou.
It sailed south with Sun Yat-sen in July 1917, subsequently forming part of the Nationalist navy at Guangzhou (then "Canton").
Just prior to Ye Ju's assault of the presidential palace on 16 June 1922, Sun Yat-sen fled to the Guangzhou naval yard and took refuge aboard the SS HAIGI (then "HAI CH’I"), a cruiser. From there, he transferred to the gunboat SS YONGFENG, where he was joined by Chiang Kai-shek around the 27th or 29th. The YONGFENG and other loyal ships then fought past Pearl River fortresses controlled by Chen Jiongming while launching assaults and negotiating with the Guangzhou leadership for about 50 days. It avoided reprisals by anchoring off Huangpu, surrounded by foreign vessels Chen could not risk firing upon. Finally, Sun and Chiang left aboard a British ship to Hong Kong on 9 August, whence they departed for Shanghai. The YONGFENG carried Sun and his wife to Hong Kong in November 1924.
On April 13, 1925, the ship was renamed in honor of Sun Yat-sen, better known in China as "Sun Zhongshan", following his death the previous month.
In November 1925, the Nationalist navy was placed under the direction of the Soviet adviser Andrei S. Bubnov, who named the Communist Li Zhilong as its head. The voyage of the ZHONGSHAN and Baobi from Guangzhou to Huangpu ("Whampoa") on 18 March 1926 set off the "Canton Coup".
She patrolled the southern coasts of China against pirates after the Northern Expedition. She rescued the XINHUA (HSIN WAH) in 1928.
In the Second Sino-Japanese War, the Chinese theater of World War II, SS ZHONGSHAN participated in the Battle of Wuhan. She was bombed and sunk in the Yangtze River by the Japanese on 24 October 1938 with 25 casualties.
Recovery
Hubei's provincial cultural department received permission to plan the recovery of the ZHONGSHAN in 1986. The shipwreck was finally salvaged from the Yangtze on 28 January 1997. By 2001, it was restored to its appearance c. 1925, except for some of the damage which sank the ship in 1938. The salvaged and restored ZHONG SHAN gunboat is now located in its own museum in Wuhan. It was China's first floating museum. The museum is located in Jinkou Subdistrict of Wuhan's suburban Jiangxia District, some 25 km southwest of downtown Wuchang. In 2003, relics from the ship were also displayed at Hong Kong's Museum of Coastal Defense.

Mozambique 2016 350.00MT sg?, scott?
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SS_ZHONGSHAN
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