IAATO

The Government of the British Antarctic Territory is pleased to commemorate the 25th Anniversary of the International Association of Antarctica Tour Operators (IAATO) with the release of this special stamp issue in 2016.
IAATO is a non-profit industry association and its founding principles and mission, to advocate and promote the practice of safe and environmentally responsible private sector travel to the Antarctic, remain as true today as they did 25 years ago. The organisation, which was founded by seven operators in 1991, now has a global network of over 100 member companies including ship, yacht, air and land operators as well as tourism companies and bureaus, agents and specialist expedition management companies.
Protecting the unique Antarctic environment is a collaborative effort. IAATO works within the framework of the Antarctic Treaty System, recognising that the protection of the continent is largely dependent upon the Treaty’s sound environmental policies. Members are committed to working diligently to establish extensive operational procedures, activity guidelines and restrictions, with the goal of "leaving the Antarctic Environment as pristine and majestic for future generations as it is today”. During the 2015-2016 season, 38,378 people visited Antarctica with IAATO members. Their high standards and self-regulatory approach mean that, to date, no discernible impact on the environment has been observed, while at the same time enabling people to continue experiencing Antarctica first-hand whilst protecting this extraordinary wilderness.
The Government of the British Antarctic Territory works with IAATO to support effective visitor management and to better understand the tourism challenges of the future.
66p: (Zodiac cruising among icebergs). All activities in Antarctica must undergo an assessment process by a relevant government authority before being granted permission to proceed. For IAATO activities, this means having less than a minor or transitory impact on the environment. Zodiac cruising offers a good means of observing wildlife without disturbance.
76p (Tents lit at night): First-hand travel experiences lead to a better understanding of the destination, the need for responsible tourism and, ultimately, continued protection for future generations. IAATO’s wilderness etiquette underpins the recognition that the wilderness aspect is intrinsic to a visitor’s experience of Antarctica.
£1.01 (Kayaks): IAATO members must incorporate relevant IAATO guidelines into their own operating procedures. Activities, such as kayaking, are led by experienced guides. IAATO provides an annual assessment for field staff to ensure they are up to date with the latest IAATO and Antarctic Treaty System requirements for safe and environmentally responsible operations.
£1.22 (Vessel with penguins in foreground): The IAATO fleet consists of some 65 vessels. IAATO works closely with the International Hydrographic Organisation’s (IHO) Hydrographic Commission on Antarctica that promotes technical cooperation between Antarctic vessel operators in order to improve surveying and charting of shipping areas in the region.

The vessel in the background is the cruise vessel EXPEDITION see: viewtopic.php?f=2&t=15643

Source: British Antarctic Territory Post web-site

Frederick Cook Famous American Explorer

Dr. Frederick Albert Cook was American explorer and Physician that is best known for his claim of being the first man that reached the North Pole in 1908. His claim is widely speculated to be false, and discovery was credited to the Robert Peary that reached the Northern Pole in 1909. Frederick Cook was born on June 10, 1865 in Hortonville, Sullivan County, New York as a son of a recent German immigrant Dr. Theodore A. Koch and Magdalena Long. After receiving his M.D. status in 1890, he started his life as explorer. He was a member of a several Arctic expeditions, most notably with Robert Peary (1891-1892) and Adrien de Gerlache (1897–1899). During those missions, Cook also made acquaintance with famous Norwegian explorer Roald Amundsen. His journey to the North Pole started in 1907 after his short exploration of the Mr. McKinley witch brought him more controversy later on (he did not provide any proof that he reached its peak). Cook’s North Pole expedition consisted of a very small team, only himself and two Inuit men (Ahpellah and Etukishook). After fourteen months on the Arctic, he returned to civilization on Greenland. Again, he did not manage to provide certain proof of him reaching the North Pole. According to his claims, he left Annoatok settlement in Northern Greenland in February 1908 and has reached Northern pole on April 22. From there they encountered several weather problems, molten ice that cut of his route, and has managed barely to survive reaching the Annoatok in spring of 1909. Logbooks with his measurements were never recovered and few pieces of sextant navigational data that Frederick Cook released in 1911 contained incorrect information. In the following years, his reputation was severely damaged, and international press and scientist all claimed that expedition of Robert Peary was first on the Pole. During early 20s, he was incarcerated and sentenced to jail until 1930 for his unlawful involvement with Texas oil business. Нe died on August 5, 1940 from the cause of cerebral hemorrhage.
Cameroun 2016;950f;SG? Romania 1997;650le;SG5904. Guinee 2011;10000fg;SG?
Source: http://www.famous-explorers.com/america ... rick-cook/

OLD CHAP yacht

Built as an 8m class wooden sailing cutter under yard No 559 by Fife & Son, Fairle at Fairle for Blair Cochrane. Ryde.
Tonnage 9 tm, dim. 34.9 x 7.7 x 4.8ft.
Delivered in 1908 under the name COBWEB.

1908 Represented Britain at the Summer Olympics and won gold in her class in Ryde. Isle of Wight.
1913 Owned by G.B. Brown & J. Carson, Belfast renamed CUPIDON.
1936 Owned by Prat d’Espouey, Algiers, renamed OLD CHAP.
Her fate not known.

Source: http://www.clydeships.co.uk/view.php?ref=7120
Monaco 1948 15f + 25 fr. Sg351, scottCB10. She is the fourth yacht on the stamp

Canoe Figurehead (Nguzu Nguzu)

Prior to the end of the nineteenth century, headhunting was considered by the Solomon Islanders as a necessary part of life that ensured the health and well-being of their community. Headhunting raids would utilize large, plank-built war canoes with crescent-shaped prows and sterns(Tomoko). Anthropomorphic canoe prow ornaments were standard features of the canoes. Positioned at the waterline of the vessel, these ornaments represented mythological spirits whose function was to ward off danger and ensure smooth seas. They were typically painted black and had shell-inlay designs depicting the face-painting designs used by warriors. These figures were also carved with protruding mouths, artificially elongated earlobes (a cosmetic practice in this region). These figures are commonly known by the Roviana name «NguzuNguzu», although they are figured differently on different islands of the Solomons.
In addition: the «NguzuNguzu» were attached to the «Tomoko» war canoe. The «NguzuNguzu» also gave a clue as to the intentions of the warriors in the canoe: if the NguzuNguzu is holding a bird(to see the stamp), the visitors are peaceful. If the NguzuNguzu is holding a human head(to see the foto), this is a true war canoe. Head hunting is on the agenda!
Canoe paddles were also decorated with low-relief anthropomorphic figures, known as kokorra. For more details about canoe Tomoko see: viewtopic.php?f=2&t=10669

Solomon Islands 1976;35c;45c;SG303;304.
Source:http://blog.tepapa.govt.nz/2013/12/17/canoe-carvings-of-west-solomon-islands/

UNITY yacht

The yacht UNITY a wooden 8-m class sailing yacht was built in 1927 under yard 757 by Fife & Sons, Fairlie at Fairlie for Lord Foster & Sir Fisher Dilke.
Tonnage 12 grt, 12 tm, dim. 37.9 x 8.6 x 4.7ft.
Rigging Bermudan sloop.
She was later owned by R.H. Anstruther, Gough Calthorpe.
1936 Was the owner Sir Walter R. Preston, MP. Ilsom Farm, Tetbury, Gloucestershire, (Southampton)
Then she disappears in history, more info welcome.
On the stamp she is the lead ship.

Monaco 1948 15fr+25Fr sg, SscottCB10.
Source: http://www.clydeships.co.uk/view.php?of ... ssel=UNITY

PIETER WILLEM GROEN (Green)

Pieter Willem Groen (Green) was born in Katwijk aan Zee, Holland on 14th April 1808 to parents Willem Groen and Jaapje Schaap.
The 35p stamp is designed after a painting made by Emil Neumann, “ view of Katwijk” the vessels on the beach are “bom’s” see: viewtopic.php?f=2&t=11475&p=12256&hilit=bom#p12256
The painting you can see now in the Katwijk Museum, Netherlands

He arrived at Tristan aboard the American schooner EMILY OF STONINGTON, viewtopic.php?f=2&t=7742&p=9289&hilit=EMELY#p9289 sailing from New York. She called at Tristan in October 1836 having left 6 of her men on Gough Island with a boat and provisions for six months to capture seals. She anchored near the south east shore but was unfortunately too close and dragged her anchors in a sudden violent storm and was rapidly beaten to pieces on the rocks. Fortunately no lives were lost and the crew made their way round the coast to the settlement, where they were kindly received by William Glass and the community.
The EMILY’s Captain Ash made his way to St Helena and persuaded the US Consul to charter a British rescue ship, the LOUISA. However, when it eventually arrived at Gough and Tristan, most of the crew had already been picked up by the American ship BINGHAM. However three men decided to settle on the island: They were William Daley, an American, Peter Miller (Møller), a Dane and Peter William Green (Pieter Willem Groen), a Dutch native of Katwijk aan Zee, near Amsterdam.
In December he married Mary Jacobs (one of the daughters Sarah Jacobs bought with her from St Helena Island in 1827) although the marriage was not made official until 19th January 1852. “Legal” marriages performed by a clergyman weren’t possible prior to the arrival of the island’s first resident clergyman, Reverend William F. Taylor and so, were performed by the headman, William Glass. Together Peter and Mary had 4 sons and 4 daughters.
When William Glass died on 24th November 1853 he was replaced as headman by Alexander Cotton, with the assistance of Peter Green, until 1857 when Peter Green became the Headman of the island.
During his lifetime the islanders saved the lives of hundreds of shipwrecked sailors. Peter Green was thanked by the British and American Governments and received a personal acknowledgment from the King of Italy. In 1867 he welcomed HRH Prince Alfred, Duke of Edinburgh to the island and it was Peter Green who asked if the settlement could be named after him.
In 1879 he was awarded, on behalf of the community, a gold hunting-cased pocket watch and chain by the President of the United States for assistance in rescuing the passengers and crew of the MABEL CLARK the previous year. In 1880 the Shipwrecked Mariner’s Society awarded him a medal for gallantry for the same rescue.
Then in 1885 the Tristan lifeboat disaster occurred, an event that would make Tristan an “island of widows”. This was a tragedy for both the whole island community and for Peter Green personally (he lost 3 sons, 3 grandsons, 3 brothers-in-law and 1 son-in-law). It is believed that the preservation of the settlement at this crisis was due to the influence of Peter Green, as he was greatly opposed to any idea of migration.
A medallion was presented to him, by the King of Italy, in 1893 after the islanders rescued and looked after the crew of the ship ITALIA which was wrecked in 1892.
As a settler on Tristan he was proud to be a subject of the Queen of England and in 1896 HMS MAGPIE bought his prized procession, a signed portrait of Queen Victoria that she had sent him, to the island. This now hangs in St Mary’s Church. However he never forgot that he was a Dutchman and his native village of Katwijk aan Zee occupied a warm corner of his heart.
On the 2nd April, 1902 Peter Green departed this life within twelve days of reaching the age of ninety-four. On the following day he was buried with solemn ceremony in the little graveyard near the sea. All the inhabitants attended the funeral. The burial service was read by his granddaughter, Mrs. Frances Repetto. No memorial stone shows the grave of the great old man whose life for nearly seventy years was so closely connected with Tristan da Cunha, in good and in evil days. It may be supposed that he himself did not wish otherwise, if we recall his own words spoken at the visit of the Duke of Edinburgh "I am in no respect superior to the others; on Tristan we are all equal." No one had the courage to enter in the registers the death of their father, grandfather, and headman.
J. Brander, Tristan da Cunha 1502 – 1902.

http://www.tristandc.com/po/stamps201609.php
Tristan da Cunha 2016 35p/$1.60 sg?, scott?

VIM yacht

The French yacht VIM, could not find anything on her on the internet, so most probably she is scrapped or renamed.
Historical Sketches of Watercraft on stamps by William A Coffer, editor gives only that she was built in Lormont, France in 1929 for Mons. Bordenave, Cannes.
Additional info welcome.

Monaco 1948 15fr + 25 fr sg351, scottCB10, she is the second vessel on the stamp from the right.
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