SAIL REGATTA OFF ROMANIA COAST

This stamp of Romania shows us a sail regatta off the Romanian coast, till so far the types of yachts is not identified, also where the regatta took place is not known.

Romania 1948 2le + 2Le sg199

TAKARABUNE treasure ship

The mythological treasure ship (Takarabune 宝船) is laden with treasure (Takara 宝). Says JAANUS: “The Chinese character BAKU 獏, a Chinese imaginary animal thought to devour (i.e. prevent) nightmares, is sometimes found written on the sail. Often auspicious cranes and tortoises are depicted in the sky and the sea. Although the origin of treasure-boat paintings is not clear, one Edo-period record indicates that they were started in the Muromachi period.

http://www.onmarkproductions.com/html/seven.shtml
Japan 1971 7/10y sg1277/78 1999 50y sg ?, scott?

BACKSTAFF & PLANISPHIRE (nautical instruments)

The backstaff is a navigational instrument that was used to measure the altitude of a celestial body, in particular the sun or moon. When observing the sun, users kept the sun to their back (hence the name) and observed the shadow cast by the upper vane on a horizon vane. It was invented by the English navigator John Davis who described it in his book Seaman's Secrets in 1594.
Much more is given on the backstaff by Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Navigation

The”planisphire” In astronomy, planisphere is a star chart analog computing instrument in the form of two adjustable disks that rotate on a common pivot. It can be adjusted to display the visible stars for any time and date. It is an instrument to assist in learning how to recognize stars and constellations. The astrolabe, an instrument that has its origins in Hellenistic astronomy, is a predecessor of the modern planisphere. The term planisphere contrasts with armillary sphere, where the celestial sphere is represented by a three-dimensional framework of rings.

Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Planisphere
Solomon Islands 1972 9c sg 216.

SKJUTS ROWING BOAT

25 years of the Faroese Postal Service

The last 25 years only represent part of the history of the Post Office on the Faroe Islands – it is actually much older. The first branch post office was opened in Tórshavn as long ago as 1870. At that time the Post Office was Danish and the Postmaster-General's Office appointed the then Member of Parliament and Sheriff H. C. Müller to look after the interests of the Post Office on the Faroe Islands.
Being a sub-postmaster was far from easy during the first year. There were all sorts of acts, statutory instruments and executive orders to comply with, the oldest of which dated back to 1694. A new Post Office Act came into force on 1st April 1871, repealing in the process 28 acts, statutory instruments, charges and statutes from 1694 to 1868.

The postage on 18th February 1970 was 8 skilling for letters weighing up to 15 g and 16 skilling for 15-250 g. As early as 1st April 1871, however, the Faroe Islands were included in the domestic, i.e. the Danish, tariff zone, where the postage was 4 skilling for letters weighing 0-250 g.
Before regular boat services were established between the islands, a special transport system was required to enable people from the different islands to exchange messages. This system was called 'Skjúts'.
It involved a 'Skjútsskaffari', or agent, being appointed in every village with the duty of organising a crew to transport people, letters or parcels from one village to another.
The Skjúts system was actually introduced in around the mid-1860s, with the first Skjúts Act coming into force in 1865.
Skjúts charges were laid down by the Lagting, the Faroese Representative Council, for 5 years at a time. There were three types of Skjúts: Official, Clerical and Private. The charges for Skjúts varied, with Official being the cheapest and Private the most expensive. There was no charge for Skjúts prior to 1865.
All healthy males of between 15 and 50 years of age were liable for Skjúts, i.e. they could not refuse without incurring a fine.
It was never an easy task to transport mail from one island to another across perilous waters where there were often powerful currents.
Peter S. Johannesen, who was one of the first post carriers, tells of a letter delivery from the days of Skjúts. The letter, which had to go from Tórshavn to Hvalba on Suðuroy, was marked 'K.T.', i.e. Kongelig Tjeneste (On His Majesty's Service), and bore the endorsement 'Uopholdelig Befordring' (For Immediate Delivery), i.e. it had to be dispatched as soon as the weather permitted.
The letter was first given to the Skjúts agent in Tórshavn, who immediately got hold of a man liable for Skjúts. The man walked from Tórshavn to Kirkjubøur, where he handed the letter over to the Skjúts agent in the village. The agent got a boat with eight men to carry the letter to Sandoy – to where the village of Skopun lies today. One of the men in the boat then had to walk to the village of Sandur with the letter and hand it over to the village's Skjúts agent, after which he returned to the boat, which was still waiting for him. The Skjúts agent in Sandur then got a man to walk to Dalur with the letter, after which it was carried by boat from Dalur to Hvalba on Suðuroy. Here the letter was handed over to the priest.

Owing to strong currents and bad weather the Skjúts crew were unable to row back to Dalur that evening. The weather worsened during the night and the men had to stay on the island for two weeks.
The Skjúts system existed right up until around World War I, but was not used as much by then, as the Post Office's rates were relatively low and so represented a reasonable alternative.
The block shows three motifs from the history of the Post Office: a boat providing Skjúts, a postman and the first post office in Tórshavn.
It was the then sub-postmaster, C. C. Danielsen, who started to build a new post office in the centre of Tórshavn in 1905. The post office was finished a year later, with the new building being occupied on 1st December. It was a historic event, as this was the first time that a building had been erected specifically as a post office.
The postman on the block is Simon Pauli Poulsen, who was known as Mørkabóndin. He carried mail from the village of Fuglafjørður.
Being a postman could be a dangerous and risky job, and the history of the Post Office on the Faroe Island also includes reports of fatal accidents. The first struck the 52-year-old Jacob Eliassen, known as Jakki i Vági. In 1887 Jakki was on his way over the mountain between Klaksvík and the village of Árnafjørður. It was winter and the weather was bad, but the mail had to go out all the same. On this particular winter day Jakki failed to reach his destination. His body was later found lying on a ledge below the mountain crest from which he had plunged.

The Post Office on the Faroe Islands remained in Danish hands until 1976. After the Lagting elections of November 1974 the government decided that the Faroese Post Office should be taken over by the Faroese Home Rule Government. The Danish and Faroese governments entered into negotiations on this matter in 1975. The outcome of the negotiations was that the Faroese Home Rule Government took over the Post Office on the Faroe Islands with effect from 1st April 1976. This new institution was called Postverk Føroya (the Faroese Postal Service). A ram's horn was chosen as its logo.

One of the stamps shows us a Faroe rowing boat, see viewtopic.php?f=2&t=12823

Source: Faroe Post.
Faroe Islands 2001 4.50 Kr. Sg?, scott?

JULES MICHELET (Fr.)

Built in 1904-'08 at Lorient naval dockyard, launched in August '05, commissioned in November '08.
Cruiser, displacement:12,550 tons, L:148m. B:21.40m. Draft:8.20m. 20 boilers, 3 steam engines:29,000 hp. 3 shafts, 22.5 kn. complement:825.
Armament:4-194 mm./50, 12-163 mm./45, 22-47 mm. 2 torpedo tubes:450 mm.
1912-'13 in West Indies, 03-'14 - 04-'15 1st Light Division, Otranto, Montenegro and Tunisia.
04-'15 - 08-'17 flagship of the 2nd Division, 01-'16 evacuation of the Serbian Army, 08-'17 - 06-'19 assigned to the 1st Division, Greece and in the Black Sea.
12-'18 with French troops from Odessa back home, 07-'19 - 03-'20 2nd Division, 2nd Squadron.
On 01-07-'20 in reserve in Toulon, '22 back in service in the Far East, '29 layd up, '31 targetship, '37 sunk by the submarine THETIS.
(the small ship alongside her is the MORTIER, no info yet)

(France 2017, lettre verte, 20 gr. StG.?)
Internet.

OS LUSIADAS

The “Os Lusiadas” https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Os_Lus%C3%ADadas celebrates the discovery of a sea route to India by the Portuguese explorer Vasco da Gama (1469–1524).
For the IV Centenary de “Os Lusiades” 1572-1972 Portugal and the former Portuguese colonies issued each one stamp, I am not sure if it are illustrations from the book after the stamp are designed.
Al this stamps except the Portuguese and Guinea issues shows us ships used in the discovery voyages. During the 15th century the Portuguese used “naus” or “caravels” https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Caravel for their long ocean voyages, and this type of ship is depict on the stamps.

Naus
As glorious as the caravel may have been, its light nature meant that it was susceptible to volatile ocean conditions. As journeys became longer, explorers made greater demands of the ships, so the caravel got a new partner: the nau. This vessel was designed to carry larger amounts of weaponry and cargo while still maintaining reasonable speed and durability. The hull and rig were more sophisticated than previous ships and this allowed for there to be more ease on the ocean. This form was not alien from the caravel, it was an improved version. It was able to sit high in the water; this was a hybrid idea from earlier roundships, which allowed the entire vessel to be roomier. These ships had forward masts and topsails with a crow’s nest, while still mixing in lateen mizzens and square mainsails.[28] There was a demand for a more seaworthy ship that still had the perks of the caravel, so the nau was engineered.
Naus are often mistaken by carraks in English literature, a common military ship in Britain during the early fifteenth century. Carracks were smaller ships neither suitable for high seas nor freight.
Wikipedia.

see also: viewtopic.php?f=2&t=14176&p=15933&hilit=lusiadas#p15933

Angola 1972 1e sg704
Cape Verde Islands 1972 5e sg425.
Macau 1972 20ª sg?
Mozambique 1972 sg617
St Thomas & Prince Islands 1972 20e sg467.
Timor 1972 1e sg415.

GALERNA (S-71) submarine

Spanish CORREOS has presented today a stamp of its “Efemérides” series which commemorates the 100th anniversary of the establishment of the submarine fleet and records the birth of this organization. A novel feature in this presentation was the fact that on the first-day envelope appears on the obverse the bow of a submarine, and on the reverse, the stern.
The Submarine Fleet was established by an Act on February 17th, 1915, signed by king Alfonso XIII and which is known in the History of the Spanish Navy as the Miranda Act, as it was proposed by the Minister for the Navy and Admiral Mr. Augusto Miranda y Godoy. The Act authorized the construction of 28 submarines, besides a number of surface vessels, and in order to accelerate the beginning of the naval program, it authorized the purchase of four units abroad, while the remaining 24 should be built in Spain. Furthermore, it envisaged the organization of the service within the submarines, with officers from the Corps, machinists, naval warrant officers and the remaining non-commissioned officers, and it authorized equipping them with the material required for training and exercising their crews.
With this Act was finally born the Submarine Fleet, whose precedents can be found in the Naval Squadron Act of 1908, which had been promoted by Maura and Ferrándiz.
The Submarine Fleet now
Currently, the Submarine Fleet is made up by professionals, vessels and facilities, structured under a single command within a modern organization, which allows it to fulfill the different missions which are given to it by the National Defense Directive.
Among the works which it is carrying out are the construction of a new submarine series of the S-80 class, which entails a technological endeavor of the Spanish industry, with the design of a vessel with safety intelligent systems, weapons, sensors, satellite communications, and a revolutionary air-independent propulsion (AIP) system, which will allow it to meet the new challenges and missions which will be assigned to it.
On the stamp which CORREOS dedicates to the Submarine Fleet appear the Delfín and Galerna-class submarines. On the coat-of-arms with the occasion of the 100th anniversary of the naval squadron appear the Latin motto “Ad Utrumque Paratus” (Ready for Everything), and on the side, the small flags “b” and “z” from the international marine signal flags, a message used for congratulating military naval units for work “well done”.
S 61 Delfin class viewtopic.php?f=2&t=15246&p=17562&hilit=delfin#!lightbox[gallery]/0/
S 71 Galerna class
Source: Spanish Post.

The GALERNA (S-71) is one of the French Agosta class of which four were built in Spain and under Spanish flag, three are still in service.
Built as a submarine by Bazán, Cartagena, Spain for the Spanish Navy.
05 September 1977 laid down.
05 December 1981 launched as the GALERNA (S-71) the lead ship of her class.
Displacement surface 1,490 ton, submerged 1,740 ton, dim. 67.9 x 6.8 x 5.4m (draught surface). Diameter of the pressure hull 5.33m.
Powered by two SEMT Pielstick 16PA4V185 diesel engines, 3,600 hp, one electro motor with a power of 3,500 kW, driving one screw. Speed surface 12 knots, submerged 20.5 knots.
Range by a speed of 8 knots on the surface 9,000 mile, by using snorkel by a speed of 9 knots, 8,500 mile. Submerged, 3.5 knots and a range of 350 mile.
Test depth 300 metre.
Armament: 4 – 550 mm torpedo tubes, carried 20 torpedoes types F-17, ModII, E-18, I-5. Or 7 torpedoes and 19 mines.
Crew 54.
21 January 1983 commissioned and delivered.
22 January 1983 completed, based at Cartagena.
When delivered they had a projected lifespan of 30 years, however in the delays in the S-80 class submarine program, she was numerous times modernized and upgraded which has her life extend till the new subs arrive between 2021 and 2028.
2017 Three of this class are still in service under which the GALERNA.

Spain 2015 0.90 Euro sg?, scott?
https://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Galerna_(S-71)
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