U boat type llB

The Type II U-boat was designed by Nazi Germany as a coastal U-boat, modeled after the CV-707 submarine, which was designed by the Dutch dummy company NV Ingenieurskantoor voor Scheepsbouw den Haag (I.v.S) (set up by Germany after World War I in order to maintain and develop German submarine technology and to circumvent the limitations set by the Treaty of Versailles) and built in 1933 by the Finnish Crichton-Vulcan shipyard in Turku, Finland. It was too small to undertake sustained operations far away from the home support facilities. Its primary role was found to be in the training schools, preparing new German naval officers for command. It appeared in four sub-types.
Germany was stripped of her U-boats by the Treaty of Versailles at the end of World War I, but in the late 1920s and early 1930s began to rebuild her armed forces. The pace of rearmament accelerated under Adolf Hitler, and the first Type II U-boat was laid down on 11 February 1935. Knowing that the world would see this step towards rearmament, Hitler reached an agreement with Britain to build a navy up to 35% of the size of the Royal Navy in surface vessels, but equal to the British in number of submarines. This agreement was signed on 18 June 1935, and U-1 was commissioned 11 days later.

The defining characteristic of the Type II was its tiny size. Known as the Einbaum ("dugout canoe"), it had the advantages over larger boats of the ability to work in shallow water, diving more quickly, and being more difficult to spot due to the low conning tower. However, it had a shallower maximum depth, short range, and cramped living conditions, and could carry fewer torpedoes.
The boat had a single hull, with no watertight compartments. There were three torpedo tubes forward (none aft), with space for another two torpedoes inside the pressure hull for reloads. A single 20 mm anti-aircraft gun was provided, but no deck gun was mounted.
Space inside was limited. The two spare torpedoes extended from just behind the torpedo tubes to just in front of the control room, and most of the 24-man crew lived in this forward area around the torpedoes, sharing 12 bunks. Four bunks were also provided aft of the engines for the engine room crew. Cooking and sanitary facilities were basic, and in this environment long patrols were very arduous.
Most Type IIs only saw operational service during the early years of the war, thereafter remaining in training bases. Six were stripped down to just a hull, transported by river and truck to Linz (on the Danube), and reassembled for use in the Black Sea against the Soviet Union.
In contrast to other German submarine types, few Type IIs were lost. This, of course, reflects their use as training boats, although accidents accounted for several vessels.
These boats were a first step towards re-armament, intended to provide Germany with experience in submarine construction and operation and lay the foundation for larger boats to build upon. Only one of these submarines survives to this day; the prototype CV-707, renamed Vesikko by the Finnish Navy which later bought it.
On 3 February 2008, The Telegraph reported that U-20 had been discovered by Selçuk Kolay, a Turkish marine engineer in 80 feet (24 m) of water off the coast of the Turkish city of Zonguldak. The paper also reported that Kolay knows where U-23 and U-19 are, scuttled in deeper water near U-20.

The Type IIB was a lengthened version of the Type IIA. Three additional compartments were inserted amidships which were fitted with additional diesel tanks beneath the control room. The range was increased to 1,800 nautical miles at 12 knots. Diving time was also improved to 30 seconds.
Deutsche Werke AG, of Kiel, built four Type IIBs in 1935 and 1936, Germaniawerft, of Kiel, built fourteen in 1935 and 1936, and Flender Werke AG, of Lübeck, built two between 1938 and 1940, for a total of twenty built.


U-1 submarine

SM U-1, also known in English as the German Type U 1 submarine, was the first U-boat class of the U-boat series of submarines produced for the German Empire's Imperial German Navy. Only one was built. The U-1 was constructed by Germaniawerft in Kiel and was commissioned on 14 December 1906.[3] When World War I began in 1914, the U-1 was deemed obsolete and was used only for training until 19 February 1919, when it was struck by another vessel while on an exercise.

The U-Boat was a redesigned Karp class submarine by Spanish engineer Raimondo Lorenzo d'Equevilley Montjustin working for the German armaments company Krupp. The main improvements over the export Karp class included trim tanks instead of a moveable weight, a redesigned forecastle to improve seagoing ability, a 10 cm (3.9 in) larger diameter and strengthened pressure hull which prevented oil leakage from the external tanks, a rearrangement of the internal equipment and a heavier ballast keel.
The Imperial German Navy avoided the use of gasoline due to the perceived risk of fires and explosions that had caused many accidents in early submarines, and instead of the gasoline engines that had powered the Karp boats, U-1 was given much safer Körting kerosene engines. While normally kerosene engines were started using gasoline, the U-1's engines avoided even this and instead used electrically-heated air.
The Körting engines could not be reversed and also had to run at full speed, since their rpm could not be varied to any useful extent, and as a consequence U-1 was fitted with adjustable-pitch propellers to allow her speed to be controlled. These propellers were abandoned in later designs due to their poor efficiency, kerosene-electric propulsion being used instead before diesel propulsion was finally installed in the U-19 class in 1912-1913

Construction on U-1 began in the autumn of 1904. The boat began its trials in August 1906, a year later than originally planned. The total cost amounted to 1,905,000 Mark (equivalent to € 11,620,000 in 2016. After suffering damage from a collision while on a training exercise in 1919, U-1 was sold to the Germaniawerft foundation at the Deutsches Museum in Munich where it was restored and can be viewed on display. A large portion of the starboard hull has been removed to allow visitors to see the submarine's interior.

Koryu (Type D) Submarine

The Koryu (Type D) Tei Gata was an improved version of the Type C midget. Type D's were equipped with more powerful diesels and electric motors and could recharge their batteries faster. These changes again tripled their range. They were four feet longer, weighed 60 tons and could dive to 328 feet. The first Type D, HA-101, was completed in May '44 and accepted into service on 28 May 1945. By war's end, 115 were completed and another 496 hulls were in various stages of construction. At least five Type D's were lost in operations at Okinawa in March 1945.

Units 115
Ships HA-101 through HA-?
Years Completed 1944-1945
Displacement 59.6 tons submerged
Dimensions 86 ft x 9.5 ft x 6.75 ft (dia.)
Machinery 1 diesel: 150 hp
1 electric motor: 500 hp

Speed 8knots / 16 knots
Range 1,000 nm @ 8 knots surfaced/125 nm @ 25 knots submerged
Armament 2x457mm (17.7-inch) TT fwd + (2 torpedoes).
Max. Depth 100 m (330 feet)
Crew 5

Various web sites.

U boat type XXlll

German Type XXIII submarines were the first so-called elektroboats to become operational. They were small coastal submarines designed to operate in the shallow waters of the North Sea, Black Sea and Mediterranean Sea, where larger Type XXI Elektro boats were at risk in World War II. They were so small they could carry only two torpedoes, which had to be loaded externally. As with their far larger sisters—the Type XXI—they were able to remain submerged almost all of the time and were faster than conventional U-boats, due to the improved streamlining of their shape, batteries with larger capacity and the snorkel, which allowed the diesel engines to be used while submerged. The Type XXI and XXIII U-boats revolutionized post-war submarine design.

When development began on the Type XXI U-boat in late 1942, it was proposed to simultaneously develop a smaller version incorporating the same advanced technology to replace the Type II coastal submarine. Admiral Karl Dönitz added two requirements: as the boat would have to operate in the Mediterranean and the Black Sea, it had to be able to be transported by rail, and it had to use the standard 53.3 cm (21 in) torpedo tubes.
The development of the Type XXIII was given a high priority, with an emphasis on using existing components as much as possible. To reduce development time, Hellmuth Walter designed the new submarine based on the previous Type XXII prototype. By 30 June 1943 the design was ready and construction began in parallel at several shipyards in Germany, France, Italy and German-occupied Russia. The lead contractor was Deutsche Werft in Hamburg.

As with the Type XXI, the Type XXIII was intended to be constructed in sections, various modules being produced by different subcontractors. Some were to be assembled at foreign yards, including U-2446 through U-2460 at the Deutsche Werft yard at Mykolaiv. These were reassigned to the Linzner yard on 1 May 1944 and subsequently cancelled. In the end, circumstances meant that construction was concentrated at Germaniawerft in Kiel and Deutsche Werft in Hamburg, Germaniawerft building 51 and Deutsche Werft 49. Of the 280 submarines ordered, only 61 entered service, and only 6 ever carried out a war patrol.

The Type XXIII had an all-welded single hull, the first submarine to use such a design. It had a fully streamlined outer casing and apart from the relatively small conning tower and a fairing which housed the Diesel exhaust silencer, it had an uncluttered upper deck. In line with Walter's design practice, there were no forward hydroplanes, although these were added later.
The submarine was propelled by a single three-bladed propeller and steered by a single rudder. As with the Type XXI, the lower section of the figure-of-eight hull was used to house a large 62-cell battery.

In order to allow the boat to be transported by rail, the hull sections had to be limited in size to fit the standard loading gauge. For transportation, the hull was broken into four sections and the bridge was removed. Due to the space restrictions, the forward bow section had to be made as short as possible, which meant that only two torpedo tubes could be fitted and no reload torpedoes could be carried. The torpedoes were loaded by ballasting the submarine down at the stern so that the bow lifted clear of the water and the torpedoes could be loaded directly into their tubes from a barge. The Type XXIII proved to have excellent handling characteristics, and was highly maneuverable both on the surface and underwater. Its crash dive time was 9 seconds, and its maximum diving depth was 180 m (590 ft). Speed submerged was 12.5 knots (23.2 km/h; 14.4 mph), while surfaced speed was 9 knots (17 km/h; 10 mph). A submerged speed of 10.5 knots (19.4 km/h; 12.1 mph) could be attained while snorkeling.

The first Type XXIII, U-2321, was launched from Deutsche Werft in Hamburg on 17 April 1944. It was one of six XXIIIs that went on operational patrol around the British Isles in early 1945. Forty-eight others followed from Deutsche Werft and 13 from Germaniawerft of Kiel. U-4712 was the last one launched, on 19 April 1945.

None of the six operational Type XXIIIs - U-2321, U-2322, U-2324, U-2326, U-2329 and U-2336 - were sunk by the Allies' ships but they sank or damaged five ships for a total of 14,601 gross register tons (GRT).
The first war patrol of a Type XXIII began late in the war when U-2324 sailed from Kiel on 18 January 1945. Although she was to survive the war, she sank no enemy vessels. The first Type XXIII to achieve combat success was U-2322, commanded by Oberleutnant zur See Fridtjof Heckel. Sailing from a Norwegian base on 6 February 1945, she encountered a convoy off Berwick, Northumberland, and sank the coaster Egholm on 25 February. U-2321, operating from the same base, sank the coaster Gasray on 5 April 1945 off St Abbs Head. U-2336, under the command of Kapitänleutnant Emil Klusmeier, later sank the last Allied ships lost in the European war on 7 May 1945, when he torpedoed and sank the freighters Sneland and Avondale Park off the Isle of May inside the Firth of Forth.

The Sneland and the Avondale Park were sunk around 23:03, less than an hour before the official German surrender, and the Avondale Park was the last merchant ship to be sunk by a U-boat. At the time it was felt that Kapitänleutnant Klusmeier, who was on his first patrol, had deliberately ignored Dönitz's ceasefire order; however, Klusmeier claimed that he had never received the order.

125th Anniversary of the International Red Cross

For the 125th Anniversary of International Red Cross, Rwanda issued a set of stamps in 1988.
The 10f stamp shows us a local boat with refugees crossing what looks like a river or lake.
Have not any information on the boat.

Rwanda 1988 10f sg1330, scott ?

Colonization of the Azores

Portugal issued in 1989 two stamps to commemorate the 550th anniversary of the colonization of the Azores. The stamps were designed after drawings made by Carlos Alberto Santos, the 87 Esc. stamp depict a caravel. viewtopic.php?f=2&t=8977&p=16177&hilit=caravel#p16177

A letter written by Alfonso V, King of Portugal, dated 2 July 1439 authorizing his uncle, Infante D. Henrique (Prince Henry the Navigator) to promote and colonize the seven islands of the Azores which have been discovered.
Another document is a Majorcan map of the same year, which had seven islands and the date of discovery was recorded as 1432.
At some point sheep were let loose on Santa Maria to supply the future settlers with food, before some settlers arrived on the island around 1433.

Source: Portuguese Post and http://www.azoresweb.com/history_azores_2.html
Azores 1989 29/87e sg 498/99, scott383/84.


Netherland issued in 2016 a sheet with 10 stamps of which only one has a maritime theme, it shows the village Giethoorn https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Giethoorn with a canal and bridges and a GIETHOORNSE PUNTER in the canal.
This type of boats is built at Giethoorn to transport produce and people, and to fish in the many narrow waterways of the area.

The GIETHOORNSE PUNTER is a flat bottom longitudinally planked, curved fore-end-aft: low sheer. Sharp ends; slightly fuller forward of amidships; raked straight stem and sternpost. Wide lower strake on each side, narrow top strake turns inward and stops before the ends; hard chines. Widely spaced, 3-piece frames extend to top of top strake with no gunwale. Open except for a short fore-and/or stern deck; floor boards.
The fishing punters have a live well-box amidships. Outboard rudder with high head; downsloping tiller. One or two leeboards on the sailing type. Single unstayed mast stepped through the forward thwart. Mainly sprit-rigged, but some use a leg-of-mutton sail. Also punted (as seen on the stamp) or rowed with two pairs of oars; now may employ an outboard motor.
Reported lengths 6 – 8m; e.g., length overall 6.3m, on bottom 5m; maximum width 1.45m on bottom 1.0m; depth 0.5m.

Source Aak to Zumbra a Dictionary of the World’s Watercraft.
Netherland 2016 international stamp sg?, scott?

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