In the “Golden Age of Sailing Ships, Sailing Ships of the Adriatic Sea” issued by Yugoslavia in 1989 is given:
Sailing ships as the means of navigation on the seas were very important on olden times when only the power of winds could be used as a propulsion. Various types of sailing ships for commercial and war purposes navigated on the Adriatic Sea. In the old historiography the Phoenicians were considered as the first seamen. However later it was proved that the Egyptians had built their ships before them. The Greece’s with their ships conquered the seas on the Adriatic coast and founded their colonies.
The notion of a war ship of that time was the famous Greece trireme. The Illyrians especially the Liburnians who were good ship builders, took part in the maritime commerce on the Adriatic Sea. Their ‘liburna” is well known in the maritime history. Later the Romans took over the shipbuilding and navigation skills from the Greece’s and Illyrians and then the Roman Galley appeared, in the 7th century the Slavs gradually took possession of the Adriatic coast. The Croatian ships were the only ones which could resist to the Venetian and Byzantine naval force. In the naval history Dubrovnik appears in the 8th century and becomes an important military maritime and commercial centre with a navy and mercantile shipping, while the shipbuilding also develops at Boka Koturska where originated the famous navy of Boka. In the 15th century Dubrovnik reaches the climax of its naval power. The naves of Dubrovnik – merchant ships on long lines are well known. On the Mediterranean Sea the French, English and Dutch ships appears more and more frequently and they push the shipping of Dubrovnik on the Adriatic Sea. The era of the sailing ship ends with the 19th century when steamships, modern and more economical, take over the reign of the seas.

The booklet shows us on the top row from the left to the right.
Greek sailing ship (galley).
Roman sailing ship (warship)
Crusade sailing ship 13th century (nef or naves)

Lower row from the left to the right.
Nava of Dubrovnik 16th century. ... .php?21086
French sailing ship 17th century (warship)
Sailing ship of the 18th century. (Ships-of-the-line)
The 3000d stamp shows us an engraving of Dubrovnik with various sailing ships in the harbour of Dubrovnik and various symbols of Dubrovnik and its surroundings.

Yugoslavia 1989 100d and 3000d sg2537/42 and sgms2543, scott1966a/f and 1967
Source Yugoslavia Post.

Traditional Boats of Bangladesh

Since Bangladesh is a floodplain with more than 700 rivers and numerous haor, boat is a vital means of transportation and communication in the country. It is used for many purposes including carrying goods, catching fish, transporting people to other parts of Bangladesh, accessing remote areas of the country, etc.Its greatest use comes in during the summer monsoon season when many part of the country become flooded. During monsoon season, boats are the only practical way to get around large parts of the country, and so called "country boats" (dingies) of a huge variety of types are pervasive throughout the country, colouring many aspects of culture, especially in rural areas. Traditional wooden boats have been an integral part of the history and culture of Bangladesh, veined by hundreds of rivers, their tributaries and distributaries, and the bay of Bengal in the south. The geography of the country has resulted in more than 50 different types-of sailing vessels-both river and sea-going- such as the Goina, Sorona, Dingi, Patam, Kosha, Malar, Raptani, Shampan and many more. Тhey vary in design, size and construction materials. Most of these can be classified into four types: dingi (also spelt dinghy), large boats, bainkata, and kosha. DINGIS are small rowing boats which provide low cost convenient transport in Bangladesh’s extensive inland waterways. It is most popular and common boats in Bangladesh. Frequently used to cross rivers and carry basic goods (e.g. shopping from local bazaar). Boats are small in size so one majhee is enough to sail. Sometime sails are hoisted atop the dingi. Sampan, Balam, Teddy balam, and Jali are examples of large boats which are mostly power driven and used for commercial purposes. SAMPAN- one of the most common types of boats in Bangladesh. Front head of sampan is high and curved, but backside strait. Varies in length and width. Depicted in folklore and various literature. Floats on huge sea waves. A BAINKATA type generally has a “golui” fore (protective head made of solid wood) and a spoon-shaped hull. Some may just have the hull. In contrast, a kosha type has flat bottom without either a golui or hull. Most of the boats are of bainkata type and includes the ghasi, jong, gachari, dorakha, kathami, mallar, paloani, patam, panshi and bedi. Examples of kosha type are bhudi and raptani. These boats carry out different functionalities ranging from catching fishes, transporting people or large goods, conducting business, and providing shelter. GOINA: Medium-sized boats used to carry passengers. BALAR (Batnai or Podi): A special kind of boat which is now rarely seen. Big in size and can carry tons of goods. Usually have two sails and large number of sailors to oar the balar. Boats used for ferrying across narrow rivers, for household and agricultural purposes, or for fishing by individuals, or 4-5 member groups of fishermen in inland waters are of much smaller capacity. Medium and large boats are used for carrying cargo, ferrying passengers and fishing in coastal and offshore waters. Small rowing boats like canoes, dug-outs and dingis are used mainly in rural areas for transporting people, private belongings and crops. Many such boats as well as boats in commercial operation and fishing are now indigenously fitted with engines of shallow tubewells. The large commercially operated cargo boats include types such as sampan, balam. teddy balam, trawler and jali (sulluk). These are now mostly power driven. The exhibition ‘Traditional Boats of Bangladesh” is a part of Friendship’s Cultural Preservation Programme, which strives to conserve the heritage of boat building in Bangladesh and facilitate socioeconomic development of the boat builders and their families. Sketches of some typical boats Courtesy: Hamiduzzaman Khan and Hashem Khan.
Source: ... zmwFTWLTIU.


China issued in 1991 two stamps for the first CPC Conference on Lake Nanhu (South Lake) in 1921 on board a pleasure craft which is depict on the 20f stamp. I found a photo on the net which shows this pleasure craft, most probably she has gone, and a replica is now moored on the lake.
Could not find anything on the vessel. Most probably she was used as a sightseeing boat on the lake in 1921.

Below is given what the China Post have been given on the issues.
The Communist Party of China (CPC), founded in July 1921, today has more than 60 million members. Vice President Hu Jintao, succeeded Jiang Zemin in November 2002, is the current general secretary of the CPC Central Committee.

From 1921 to 1949, the CPC led the Chinese people in their arduous struggles that finally led to the overthrow of the rule of imperialism, feudalism and bureaucrat-capitalism with the establishment of the People's Republic of China. After the founding of New China, the CPC, as a party in power, led the Chinese people of all ethnic groups in defending the independence and safety of the country, successfully completing the transition from new democracy to socialism and carrying out systematic large-scale socialist construction, thus achieving economic and cultural progress unparalleled in Chinese history.

The fifth plenary session of the Fourteenth Party's Congress adopted the proposal on the Outline of the Ninth Five-Year Plan (1996-2000) for National Economic and Social Development and the Long-range Objectives to the Year 2010. At present, the Chinese people, led by the CPC Central Committee with Comrade Hu Jintao at the core, work hard to achieve the great programs. The Communist Party of China leads the people in developing national economy and at the same time building the society with advanced culture and ethics. The Communist Party of China leads the people in promoting socialist democracy and building socialist political civilization. It keeps expanding socialist democracy, strengthens the socialist legal system, rules the country by law, builds a socialist country under the rule of law and consolidates the people's democratic dictatorship, and perseveres in the system of people's congresses and the system of multiparty cooperation and political consultation under the leadership of the Communist Party of China.

Now the CPC is leading the Chinese people to build socialism with Chinese characteristics, and strive to achieve its ultimate goal -- communism.
China 1991 20f sg3744, scott2339


Hong Kong issued a set of 6 stamps in 1991 for the “100 years of transport” two stamps depict watercraft and so far I known both have not been identified.
The $1.70 stamp depict a harbour very belonging to the Star Ferry Company of Hong Kong, which is depict I could not find out, it are sisterships, she depict a ferry with tripod masts. And there were 6 ferries at that time who carried this masts.
This ferries were built between 1963 and 1965 by the Hong Kong & Whampoa shipyard in Hong Kong for the company
Tonnage 164 grt, dim 33.78 x 9.22m.
Diesel electric powered, ?hp. Speed ?
Accommodation for 576 seated passengers on two decks.
She are (2016) still in service across the Victoria Harbour in Hong Kong.

The $5 stamp depict a two deck jetfoil ferry of which 10 were built by Boeing Marine Systems, Renton, Washington, USA as type Jetfoil 929-100. Built between 1974 and 1976. Some were built for service in the Hawaii Islands and later sold to Hong Kong.
1987 Nine of this craft were owned by Far East Hydrofoil Co. Ltd., Hong Kong, and used in the 1 hour passage between Hong Kong and Macao.
The first delivered to the company was the MADEIRA in October 1974, and her maiden voyage took place in April 1975. Below are her details.
Tonnage 267 grt., dim. 30.1 x 9.5 x 1.5m. (draught), length bpp.23.9m.
Powered by two Rolls-Royce Allison 501 KF gas turbines, each 3,230 kW, speed 43-47 knots.
Accommodation for 350 seated passengers and 3 crew
The MADEIRA was retired after an accident in 2013. ... y-accident
2016 In service, some are sold only the MADEIRA and FLORES are out of service.

Hong Kong 1991 $1.70, $5 sg 669 and 672, scott596.599.
Source: Janes High Speed Marine Craft and air cushion vehicles 1987. Various internet sites. ... Washington

LAGOSTERO (lobster fishing vessel)

LAGOSTERO (lobster fishing) 90c.

She is a standard BAP 3.85m-type fishing boat developed by Cuban builders for export as well as interior use.
Dim. are 3.85 x 1.43 x 0.40m. (draught).

The technical name for this type of fishing boat is “chaping langosteros” and till so far about 100 units are built for export, and shipped overseas to their owners by ship.

Cuba 2005 90c sg?, scott?


Portugal issued in 1990 four stamps and a stamp booklet which shows us vessel used by the early Portuguese Explorers.

BARCAS; Early barcas in Portugal were small shallow-draft craft engaged in fishing and used in river and coastal traffic; single masted with a quadrilateral sail under 30 ton. The 15th-century barca was a 2 or 3 masted (a 2 masted is shown on the stamp) often serving as a reconnaissance vessel accompanying Portuguese explorers. Small square foresail, square mainsail; sometimes rowed. Explores used barcas of around 25 tons.

Portugal 1990 32E sg2202, scott1815, 1815a.
Source; Aak to Zumbra a dictionary of the World’s Watercraft.

CARAVELAS PESCAREZAS; The stamps shows us a “caravelas pescarezas” which was first mentioned in the 1430s and survived into the 16th century. Used for fishing and trading in the Portuguese coastal waters, sometimes open but mostly fully decked when used by explorers and for trading.
One mast with a lateen sail. Crew up to 12 men.

Portugal 1990 60p sg 2203, scott 1816, 1861a.
Source: Internet various web-sites.

BARINEL; The first reference to the ship can be found in 1415. After the conquest of Ceuta, the Portuguese seems to have made use of this ship which had Muslims as well as Italian influence. The “barinel” was first used by the discoverer Afonso Baldaia and Gil Eanes when they made the second voyage towards the south of Cabo de Bojador in 1434. The “barinel” was heavy beamy craft a slow sailer and low in the water. They carried a large quadrangular sail hanging from a yard. The sails lower ends were fastened on the gunnel.

Portugal 1990 70p sg2204, scott 1817, 1817a.
Source: Internet, Chapter II Types of Ships and their artillery and equipment.

CARAVEL; The stamp depict a two mast caravel, which appears in Portugal by the beginning of the 15th century and she were better sailing craft than the “barinel” and over time and much alternations the “caravel” was mostly used by explores for the voyages from Portugal, she could also sail to windward, which was paramount for return voyages into the trade winds.
It is certain that the early caravels used by explores were of the two mast type which carried lateen sails and were ca. 100 tons. This type of caravel was in use even during the 17th century.

Portugal 1990 95p sg2205, scott1818, 1818a
Source Internet.

DIOGO CAO Portuguese Navigator and Explorer

This stamp issued by Portugal shows us the baptizing of Prince Sonyos and his younger son on Eastern Sunday 03 April 1491 in the Congo by the expedition of Rui de Sousa. In the upper parts are some 15th century caravels depict in which the Diogo Cao expedition arrived in the Congo.

Diogo Cao (ca 1452-ca 1486) a Portuguese navigator and explorer was the first European to arrive and explore the Congo River and the west coast of Africa, and he opened the way between Portugal and the Congo. He got a good relationship with the King of Congo Manicongo.

Diogo Cão, anglacised as Diogo Cam and also known as Diego Cam, was a Portuguese explorer and one of the most notable navigators of the Age of Discovery. He made two voyages sailing along the west coast of Africa in the 1480s, exploring the Congo River and the coasts of the present-day Angola and Namibia.
Early life and family
Cão was born in Vila Real (some say in Évora), in the middle of the 15th century, ca. 1452, the illegitimate son of Álvaro Fernandes or Gonçalves Cão, fidalgo of the Royal Household, himself the illegitimate son of Gonçalo Cão. He married and had four children: Pedro Cão, Manuel Cão, André Afonso Cão, and Isabel Cão.
He was the first European known to sight and enter the Congo River and to explore the West African coast between Cape St. Catherine and Cape Cross, almost from the equator to Walvis Bay in Namibia.
First voyage
When King John II of Portugal revived the work of Henry the Navigator, he sent out Cão (probably about midsummer 1482) to open up the African coast still further beyond the equator. The mouth and estuary of the Congo had been discovered (perhaps in August 1482) and marked by a Padrão, or stone pillar (still existing, but only in fragments), erected on Shark Point, attesting to the sovereignty of Portugal; the great river was also ascended for a short distance, and intercourse was opened with the natives of the Bakongo kingdom. Cão then coasted down along the present Angola (Portuguese West Africa), and erected a second pillar, probably marking the termination of this voyage, at Cape Saint Mary (the Monte Negro of these first visitors). He certainly returned to Lisbon by the beginning of April 1484, when John II ennobled him, made him a cavaleiro (knight) of his household (he was already an escudeiro or esquire in the same), and granted him an annuity and a coat of arms (April 8, 1484 and April 14, 1484). On his return he discovered the Island of Annobón.
Second voyage
That Cão, on his second voyage of 1484–1486, was accompanied by Martin Behaim (as alleged on the latter's Nuremberg globe of 1492) is very doubtful. But it is known that the explorer revisited the Congo and erected two more pillars beyond the furthest of his previous voyage. The first was at another Monte Negro (now Cabo Negro, Angola), the second at Cape Cross. The Cape Cross pillar probably marked the end of his progress southward, some 1,400 kilometers. Cão ascended the Kongo River (which he thought led towards the realm of Prester John), up to the neighborhood of the site of Matadi. There, in October or November, 1485, near the falls of Ielala, he left an inscription engraved on the stone which testifies of its passage and that of his men: Aqui chegaram os navios do esclarecido rei D.João II de Portugal - Diogo Cão, Pero Anes, Pero da Costa. ("Here arrived the ships of the enlightned king John II of Portugal – Diogo Cão, Pero Anes, Pero da Costa").
According to one authority (a legend on the 1489 map of Henricus Martellus Germanus), Cão died off Cape Cross; but João de Barros and others wrote of his return to the Kongo, and subsequent taking of a native envoy to Portugal. The four pillars set up by Cão on his two voyages have all been discovered in situ, and the inscriptions on two of them from Cape Santa Maria and Cape Cross, dated 1482 and 1485 respectively, are still to be read and have been printed. The Cape Cross padrão is now at Berlin (replaced on the spot by a granite facsimile); those from the Kongo estuary and the more southerly Cape Santa Maria and Cabo Negro are in the Museum of the Lisbon Geographical Society.
In literature
Diogo Cão is the subject of Padrão, one of the best-known poems in Fernando Pessoa's book Mensagem, the only one published during the author's lifetime. He also figures strongly in the 1996 novel Lord of the Kongo by Peter Forbath.

See also: viewtopic.php?f=2&t=14274&p=16104&hilit=diogo+cao#p16104

Portugal 1991 110p sg2244, scott1872.

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