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Duarte Pacheco Pereira 1505.(Atlantic Navigation)

Duarte Pacheco Pereira c. 1460 – 1533),[1]called the Portuguese Achilles (Aquiles Lusitano) by the poet Camões, was a Portuguesesea captain, soldier, explorer and cartographer. He travelled particularly in the central Atlantic Ocean west of the Cape Verde islands, along the coast of West Africa and to India. His accomplishments in strategic warfare, exploration, mathematics and astronomy were of an exceptional level.
Pacheco Pereira was the son of João Pacheco and Isabel Pereira. In his youth he served as the King of Portugal's personal squire. In the year of 1455, having graduated with honors, he was awarded a study fellowship from the monarch himself. Later on, in 1488 he explored the west coast of Africa. His expedition fell ill with fever and lost their ship. Pacheco Pereira was rescued from the island of Príncipe in the Gulf of Guinea by Bartolomeu Dias when Dias was returning from rounding the Cape of Good Hope for the first time.
The knowledge he collected from Dias expedition as well as his own explorations granted him the post of official geographer of the Portuguese monarch. In 1494 he signed the Pope-sanctioned Treaty of Tordesillas, which shared the non-Christian world between Portugal and Spain.
In 1503 Duarte Pacheco Pereira departed for India as captain of Espírito Santo, one of the three ships in the fleet headed by Afonso de Albuquerque. In 1504, he was placed in charge of the defence of Cochin, a Portuguese protectorate in India, from a series of attacks between March and July 1504 by the ruling Zamorin of Calicut. (see Battle of Cochin (1504)). Having only 150 Portuguese and a small number of Malabarese auxiliaries at his disposal, Cochin was vastly outnumbered by the Zamorin's army of 60,000. Nonetheless, by clever positioning, individual heroics and a lot of luck, Duarte Pacheco successfully resisted attacks for five months, until the humiliated Zamorin finally called off his forces. His son Lisuarte (or Jusarte) took a leading part in the fight.
For his exploits in the defense of Cochin, Duarte Pacheco was given a grant of arms by the Trimumpara Raja of Cochin, and greeted with honors the King Manuel I of Portugal and public festivities upon his return to Lisbon in 1505.
Between 1505 and 1508 Duarte Pacheco Pereira composed a book, Esmeraldo de situ orbis, inspired on Pomponius Mela's De situ Orbis, which has been described as one of the first major scientific works "reporting on what was observed and experimented in the newly 'discovered' environment." Never completed, it was not published until 1892, possibly to avoid giving others information about Portugal's valuable Guinea trade.
Duarte Pacheco Pereira was probably the first man to scientifically study the relationship between the tides and the phases of the moon, which played a critical importance in the course of the Battle of Cochin, and carefully took notes on the timing of the tides. Pacheco is said to have been the first to notice their connection to the moon and establish rules for predicting the progress of tides by reference to lunar observations. He also sifted through his data to correct and improve astronomical observations (notably correcting the average daily deviation of the moon from the sun) and constructing nautical measurements to be used by future Portuguese navigators.
In 1508, Duarte Pacheco was commissioned by the Portuguese king to give chase to Mondragon French privateer which operated between the Azores and the Portuguese coast, where they attacked the ships coming from Portuguese India. Duarte Pacheco located and cornered Mondragon off Cape Finisterre in 1509, and defeated and captured him.
Later in life, while away governing São Jorge da Mina, he was slandered by his enemies at court with accusations of theft and corruption. He was recalled to the capital and briefly imprisoned until he was exonerated by the Crown being proved innocent. But the damage was done as he had lost his governorship, his wealth, and influence. Although he was acquitted his protector, King João II of Portugal had died and been replaced by a king who didn't acknowledge the value of Duarte Pacheco. He had many enemies abroad, and few friends in the capital to defend him. He died alone and penniless.
According to one of its most important biographers, the Portuguese historian Joaquim Barradas de Carvalho, who lived in exile in Brazil in the 1960s, Duarte Pacheco was a genius comparable to Leonardo da Vinci. With the anticipation of more than two centuries, the cosmographer was responsible for calculating the value of the degree of the meridian arc with a margin of error of only 4%, when the current error at the time varied between 7 and 15%.
It has also been suggested that Duarte Pacheco Pereira may have discovered the coasts of Maranhão, Pará and Marajó island and the mouth of the Amazon River in 1498, preceding the possible landings of the expeditions of Amerigo Vespucci in 1499, of Vicente Yáñez Pinzon in January 1500, and of Diego de Lepe in February 1500; and the Cabral`s expedition in April 1500, making him the first known European explorer of present-day Brazil. This claim is based on interpretations of the cipher manuscript Esmeraldo de Situ Orbis, written by Duarte Pacheco Pereira.
Duarte Pacheco Pereira's Esmeraldo de Situ Orbis is the first European navigation script book to mention the coast of Brazil.
Portugal 1993;4,0;SG?

GOMEL town

Gomel is one of the most ancient cities of Belarus, which arose at the end of the 1st millennium A. D. The official year of its foundation is 1142 when the city was mentioned in the Hypatian Codex.
The present Gomel is the second largest regional centre in the republic. It is a city with developed industry, science, culture, an important transport hub and socio-political centre for interregional relations between Russia, Ukraine and Belarus. Over one hundred enterprises of machine building, light, food, chemical and of other industries are operating in the city.
The man in the boat is a statue which is placed in the Lunacharsky Park in Gomel, a monument to the first man to set foot on the land of Gomel. At his feet sits a lynx - a symbol of the city.

Belarus 2017 Face value “M” is equal to the air-mail tariff of a postcard, scott?

VENCEDORA corvette 1861

Built as a wooden hulled screw corvette by Arsenal de Cartagena for the Spanish Navy.
1861 Launched as the VENCEDORA one of the Narváez class.
Displacement 778 ton, dim. 58 x 9.6 x 4.3m.
Powered by one steam engine, 200 nhp, one screw, speed 8 knots.
Armament: 2 – 200mm and 2 – 160mm guns.
1861 Completed.

VENCEDORA was a screw corvette with a wooden hull and propulsion by steam and with an auxiliary rig that served in the Spanish Navy between 1861 and 1888 belonging to the Narváez class.
With a length of 58 m and a displacement of 778 t, its propulsion was a steam engine of 200 nhp that powered a single propeller. It was armed with two 200-mm rotating guns on the sides and two 160-millimeter rotary guns at the bow.
1862 The VENCEDORA was sent under the command of Admiral Luis Hernández-Pinzón Álvarez along with the screw frigates TRIUNFO and RESOLUCION and the protected schooner VIRGEN DE COVADONGA as part of an scientific expedition to the Pacific as the flagship of that squadron, sailing from Cádiz on the 10th August 1862 with three zoologists, a geologist, a botanist, an anthropologist, a taxidermist and a photograph on board and via the Canary Islands, Cape Verde, Brazil, Rio de la Plata, from where they sailed from the city of Montevideo on 10 January 1863, and via Patagonia, Falkland Islands, passed Cape Horn in February, Chiloé, coasts of Chile and Peru and California, arriving in San Francisco on the 09 of October, sailing again from San Francisco on November 1, bound for Valparaíso, where she arrived on 13 January 1864.
Participated in the bombardment of Valparaiso, which had as intention to destroy the administration centre and the stock exchange, took part in the Battle of Callao, where she faced the defences of the northern area and towed away from the line of fire the damaged VILLA DE MADRID.
At the end the war she was ordered to sail to the Philippines where she intervened in all campaigns against Parang and Jolo between 1871 and 1882.
In 1888 it was disarmed and decommissioned.

Chile 2017 label

BLANCA frigate 1859

Built as a wooden screw frigate by Reales Astilleros de Esteira, Ferrol for the Spanish Navy.
09 October 1853 ordered.
Launched as the BLANCA one of the Petronila Class.
Displacement 3,800 ton, dim. ?
Armament 30 – 68 pdrs, and 14 – 32 pdrs, guns.
One steam engine, 360 nhp., one shaft, speed ?
Commissioned 1859.

The REINA BLANCA or BLANCA, was a screw frigate of the Spanish Navy, with wooden hull and powered by steam and sails, built on the Royal Shipyards de Esteira in Ferrol.
She received her name in memory of Queen Blanca de Navarra. She was ordered together with the frigates PETRONILA and BERENGUELA on 08 August 1863.

Since October 1859, under the command of Captain Manuel Sibila she participated in blockade operations and coastal bombing during the African War or First War of Morocco.
Between 1861 - 1862 , she participated in the expedition against Mexico together with forces of the United Kingdom and France , as part of the squadron under command of General Joaquín Gutiérrez de Rubalcava , commander general of the Apostadero de La Havana . When the French intentions to place Maximilian I of Habsburg as emperor of Mexico were put in place, BLANCA was ordered to return to Cuba.
During the Hispano-South American War, she was under the command of Juan Bautista Topete, she participated with the frigate VILLA DE MADRID, in the Battle of Abtao. On 17 February 1866, she sailed with the NUMANCIA from Valparaíso to the Chiloé Islands, anchoring on the 27th of the same month in Puerto Low and on 1 March in Puerto Oscuro and on the 9th at Arauco Bay the BLANCA captured that same afternoon a steamer called PAQUETE DEL MAULE , the next day, the BLANCA captured two coal barges, after which, on the 12 March, the five ships began their return to Valparaíso, where the NUMANCIA and the PAQUETE DEL MAULE arrived on 14 March and the rest of the ships the following day.
He also participated in the bombardment of Valparaíso and in the Battle of Callao, along with the rest of the Pacific squadron.
After the Battle of Callao on May 10, the Pacific squadron left the South American waters. The frigates VILLA DE MADRID, BLANCA and ALMANSA RESOLUTION via the Cape Horn route, while BERENGUELA and NUMANCIA, headed to the Philippines to repair the damages of the BERENGUELA, and the lack of coal in the NUMANCIA.
Between March and June of 1874, the BLANCA operated against the Carlist forces during the Second Carlist War, bombarding Santurce , Algorta and Carlist positions in San Pedro Abanto on 25 March, Santurce, Portugalete, Las Arenas and Carlist forces in the surroundings of Ciérvana on 26 March, Santurce, Portugalete and Las Arenas on 27 March and Ciérvana on 28th.
From 1874 to 1881, she was used as a school ship for the training of future officers of the Spanish Navy.
On the occasion of the inauguration of the Universal Exhibition of Barcelona , on 20 May, 1888 several ships of the Spanish fleet were at Barcelona, the armoured frigate NUMANCIA the screw frigate GERONA and BLANCA, the cruisers CASTILE and NAVARRE, ISLA DE LUZON, ISLA DE CUBA, the DESTRUCTOR, the gunboats PILAR and CÓNDOR and the transport LEGAZPI.
The BLANCA was decommissioned shortly after ceasing the school ship activity in 1882, but it looks in 1888 she was still around.
1893 Is given that she was broken up.

Chile 2017 label.

João da Nova (Isl.Ascension, Saint Helena)

João da Nova was a Galician explorer of the Atlantic and Indian Oceans at the service of Portugal . He is credited as the discoverer of Ascension and Saint Helena islands.
The Juan de Nova Island , in the Mozambique Channel , is named after him. The Farquhar atoll(in the Seychelles ) was, for a long time, known as the João da Nova islands. It is sometimes thought that the Agaléga islands (in the Indian Ocean) was also named after him (although it is almost certain he never visited them).
Juan da Nova was born into a noble family in Maceda on1460 , Galicia , then a constituent kingdom of the Crown of Castile . Nova was sent by his family to Portugal , where he grew up, to escape the struggles between aristocratic factions known as the Irmandiño wars . In Portugal, he was also known as João Galhego ("the Galician"). In 1496, he was appointed as Alcaide menor ( Mayor ) of Lisbon by king Manuel I .
On 9 or 10 March 1501, João da Nova departed as commander of the third Portuguese expedition to India , leading a small four vessel fleet under a joint private initiative of Florentine Bartolomeo Marchionni and Portuguese D. Álvaro of Braganza.On the outward leg of this expedition, in May 1501, Nova is believed to have sighted Ascension Island in the South Atlantic. After doubling the Cape , he is said to also have discovered what has since been called Juan de Nova Island in the Mozambique Channel.
Arriving in India, Nova established a feitoria (trading post) in Cannanore On December 31, 1501, João da Nova's little fleet engaged the fleet of the Zamorin of Calicut in a battle outside of Cannanore harbor, the first Portuguese naval battle in the Indian Ocean. Some historians have conjectured that Nova (or one of his captains) might also have visited the island of Ceylon at some point on this trip.
Nova's armada left India in January 1502. On his return journey, Nova is said to have discovered the South Atlantic island of Saint Helena on 21 May 1502, the feast day of Helena of Constantinople .
On 5 March 1505, he undertook another voyage to India as captain of the Flor de la Mar in the 7th Portuguese India armada commanded by Francisco de Almeida , the first Portuguese Viceroy of India. Nova had been granted credentials by the king entitling him to be Captain-Major of the Indian coast fleet if suitable. In East Africa, the armada captured Kilwa (in which event Nova played a critical role relaying secret missives between Almeida and local pretender Muhammad Arcone) and proceeded to raid Mombassa .
After crossing the Indian Ocean, the armada spent some time erecting forts and raiding ports, before eventually arriving at Cochin in October.There D. Francisco de Almeida inaugurated his term as Viceroy of Portuguese India , but refused to allow João da Nova to invoke his credentials as Captain-Major of the Indian coastal patrol. Almeida claimed that the Flor de la Mar was too large to enter the Indian coastal inlets and lagoons and thus unsuitable as a patrol ship. Almeida offered João da Nova the option of switching to a caravel , and sending the Flor back under another captain, but Nova chose to bring her back to Lisbon himself. Almeida then appointed his own son, Lourenço de Almeida , as captain-major of the patrol.
Leaving India in February 1506, Nova's heavy-laden Flor de la Mar , developed a leak in the hull in the environs of Zanzibar and was forced to stop for repairs in the islands of the Mozambique Channel . He would spend the next eight months in the area repairing the ship, a delay prolonged by illness and contrary winds.
He was still stranded with his leaky ship in February, 1507, when the 8th Armada , under command of Tristão da Cunha , arrived in Mozambique Island . Cunha helped complete the repairs, transferred its cargo to a Lisbon-bound transport, and annexed Nova and the Flor de la Mar into his own India-bound fleet.
João da Nova's took part in the Portuguese capture of Socotra in August 1507. Much to his surprise, he was assigned to remain in Socotra with the Red Sea patrol, a detachment of six ships under D. Afonso de Albuquerque 's command, rather than continue with Cunha on to India.But his presence in the Red Sea patrol turned out to be a disturbance to Albuquerque, even if his exact role in the subsequent "mutiny of the captains" may have been somewhat murky. Besides his own frustrations, Nova regaled fellow patrol captains with tales of Indian riches, a much more attractive option than the barren coasts of Arabia they were assigned to patrol. In August–September, 1507, Albuquerque led his little squad into the Gulf of Oman and began to raid a series of coastal cities in succession - Qalhat , Qurayyat , Muscat - signalling his intention to proceed in this manner all the way up the Arabian coast and across to the island of Hormuz . The patrol captains, who were lured to the East Indies with dreams of quick and easy riches, balked at the prospect of a tiring succession of profitless, dangerous fights with insufficient men-at-arms. After Muscat, the exhausted João da Nova submitted a formal request to Albuquerque for permission to leave the patrol and proceed to India (ostensibly to request reinforcements from the viceroy Almeida). When this was denied, Nova protested and was placed under arrest. He was later pardoned and released, as his command was needed for the Battle of Hormuz in October, 1507.
Shortly after the battle, Nova once again was at the center of a renewed series of complaints, this time over the establishment of a fortress in the city of Hormuz. In early 1508, during the construction of the fortress, three of the patrol ships slipped away from Albuquerque's sight and set sail to India, intending to lodge formal complaints against Albuquerque with the vice-roy Francisco de Almeida in Cochin . João da Nova was not among them, but Albuquerque nonetheless decided to let him go as well, hoping that by this belated magnanimous gesture, Nova might argue on his behalf. He didn't. Once in Cochin, João da Nova joined the three other captains in opening a formal case against Albuquerque.
João da Nova fought in the Battle of Diu in February 1509, his ship, the Flor de la Mar , being used by the vice-roy Francisco de Almeida as the flagship of the Portuguese battle fleet. In March of that year, Afonso de Albuquerque, by then in Cochin himself, invoked his own secret credentials to relieve Francisco de Almeida as governor of India. But João da Nova, along with the other captains, assembled a petition demanding that Almeida refused to yield it, characterizing Albuquerque as unfit to govern. In May of the same year, Almeida formally opened a council in Cochin to consider the reception of Albuquerque. Nova and the other patrol captains presented the case against him.
João da Nova died shortly after, in July 1509, just a couple of weeks before Almeida delivered the indictment and ordered Albuquerque's arrest. In spite of all this, Albuquerque is said to have personally paid for Nova's funeral in memory of his achievements in the Hormuz campaign.
Portugal 1992;65e;SG?


For the prevention of tuberculosis, Finland issued in 1971 three stamps which shows us images of the timber industries, what this stamps has to do with tuberculosis is for me a puzzle. One stamp has a maritime theme, it shows us a steam tug towing a log raft.

Mr. Meliberg has contacted the stamp designer who said that the design of the 30 + 6p stamp was based on photographs he himself had taken of a steam tugboat in the Lake District in southwestern Finland. The designer could not remember the tugboat name.

Source: Watercraft Philately 1990 page 11.
Finland 1971 30 + 6p sg 780, scott B 192.

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