The ship of Richard III

On the stamp-ship "Thomas", I did not find such a ship, but on the construction and sail I assumed that it belongs to the time of Richard III.
The construction of the ship belongs to the period of the reign of the English King Richard III (1483-1485). On the personal seal of the king, a detailed and clear depiction of the ship remained, which allowed it to be relatively reliably reconstructed. In its appearance, the ship differs little from the Scandinavian augers. The sharply curved and highly elongated stems are cut off, the battlegrounds for the soldiers of Richard III's personal guard represented a single whole with the ship. The ship is single-masted, with a combat platform for crossbowmen, a straight sail, richly ornamented. The stern steering wheel with the tiller was attached to the stern by means of steering pins. The largest length is 23-29 m, width 5.6 - 5.8 m, sludge 1.7 m. Displacement 180-250 m. Armament - up to 1 5 small-caliber guns. The crew - 75 sailors and 25 - 30 soldiers, archers, crossbowmen and gunners.
Source: VA Dygalo: Sailboats of the World. Part 1. Gabonaise 2017;1150f.

TAPUHI (N.Z.)

Built by Alexander Hall & Sons Ltd. Aberdeen, #706, launched on 27-07-1945, completed 08-’45 as EMPIRE SHIRLEY for Ministry of War Transport (MoWT) London.
Tug, Gt:232, Lbp:34.35m. B:8.35m. D:3.70m. Scotch boiler, fitted for oil fuel 1-3 cyl. triple expansion engine:123 nhp. IMO.5352575.
Sold in 1947 to Union Steamship Company of New Zealand and renamed TAPUHI.
On 10 April 1968, TAPUHI rescued 170 of 733 passengers of the stricken New Zealand inter-island ferry, WAHINE (see there) when the ship was hit by a storm and sunk during a routine channel crossing from New Zealand's South Island to its North Island.
Sold to Fijian owners in 1976 and renamed TUI TAWATE for Salvage Pacific Ltd., Suva. Used in salvage operations on the ss PRESIDENT COOLIDGE (see there) Carried salvaged oil to the passenger ship ARCADIA.
Sold in 1980 to Reece Discombe, Suva, Fiji and renamed TUI TUATE. Sold in 1987 to Clement Griffiths, Wellington, New Zealand. At this time, she was laid up at Port Vila, Vanuatu.
Mr. Griffiths intended to move the TUI TAWATE back to Wellington and renovate it as a floating restaurant to memorialize WAHINE Day. However, the tug was not sufficiently sea worthy to withstand the tow and so the TUI TAWATE was left abandoned in Espiritu Santo, Vanuatu. Now a Dive Site.

(New Zealand 2018, $1, StG.?) in the background.
Many websites

250th Anniversary of the Philippines Postal Service

“Two documents mark the start of the organization of the Renta de Correos (Post Office) in the Philippines: specific instructions from the Marquis of Grimaldi, sent respectively to the Governor General of the Islands and to the Acting Governor of Acapulco, with the date 27 September 1764. The transmittal of these instructions, resulted in the Governor General of the Philippine Islands entrusting the initial management of the Post Office, from 20 March 1766, to Ramon de Orendain, the Secretary of Government and Notary of the Royal Tribunal. The first annual report of the administration of Manila (post office) was presented on 29 July 1767. A royal order dated 31 May 1766 addressed to Governor General Joseph Raon, provided that the person that would serve in the nascent postal administration be elected. The said royal order assigned the new administrator a salary of 10% of the product (income).” (The First Postal Mark of the Philippine Islands" by Jose Manuel Lopez Bernal (Translated from Spanish, Published in the review, Atalaya Filatelica de la Sociedad Filatelica Sevillana, No. 120, April 1998.)
From the accounts of the Administration of Posts of Manila of 1767 and 1768, we can conclude the concrete basis of the date of establishment of the Philippine postal service. The heading of the document states: "Year 1767 and 1768. General Report from 17 July when the (Postal) Administration of this city was created until the same month and date of 1768 and 1769." On 20 March 1768 the Direccion General de Correos transmitted to the first Administrator of Posts of Manila, Antonio Diaz Conde, the "Instruction which the Administrator of the Post Office of these Islands should observe" for his guidance.

The vessel depict is a Spanish galleon from around 1571 see: http://factsanddetails.com/southeast-as ... -3835.html

http://www.philippinestamps.net/RP2017- ... ervice.htm
Philippines 2017 12p sg?, scott?

Falkland Islands Shipwrecks part 2 2018

The extraordinary voyages of 16th century seafarers transformed history as newly-developed deep-water sailing ships, equipped with the mariner’s compass, enabled Europeans to venture beyond the horizon and scour the oceans for new land, dreams and gold. During one such voyage in 1592, to the Magellan Straits, the little recognized but most accomplished navigator, John Davis, in his ship, Desire, was storm-blown under bare poles amongst these apparently unknown and unpeopled islands. But it is likely that the archipelago had been quietly known about for years by the major sea powers, as an ill-defined cluster of blobs appear, vaguely positioned near the eastern end of the Magellan Strait, on maps from 1507 onwards. Amerigo Vespucci may well have seen them from the deck of a Portuguese ship as early as 1502.

The 700 islands, islets, rocks and reefs which comprise the Falklands are situated some 315 nautical miles down-wind and down-stream from Cape Horn. Battered by frequent gales and surrounded by strong currents, the Islands have always provided both peril and sanctuary for the seafarer. Over 180 ships are known to have met their end in the wild seas which surround the Falklands. Without doubt there will have been others which sank without trace.

During the 1850’s there was a sudden upsurge in sea-borne traffic around Cape Horn. Vessels trading in Californian and Australian gold, Chilean copper and Peruvian guano began calling into Stanley for repair and provisions. The nearest alternative port was Montevideo a thousand miles to the north. Some ships attempting to round the Horn were overloaded, some unseaworthy, and others simply unlucky. Many suffered severe battering and, riding the prevailing westerlies, limped back into harbour to lick their wounds. A few lame ducks never recovered. Others were deliberately wrecked and their cargoes sold by unscrupulous dealers. The growing port gained a notorious reputation and a flock of worn-out windjammers. Several are still stuck in the Stanley harbour mud. But time and tide and two pernicious sea worms, the teredo and the gribble, have hastened their demise and in many cases their crumbling woodwork has all but disappeared.
This issue, the second in the Shipwrecks series, depicts some of those vessels which finished their days beached along the Falklands’ shorelines. They remain an integral part of the Islands’ history and a reminder of the salty men who sailed in them.

GLENGOWAN
GLENGOWAN was built of steel in Glasgow in 1895. Two months out on a maiden voyage from Swansea to San Francisco via Cape Horn, her cargo of coal became dangerously overheated and she made for Port Stanley. She caught fire in Port William, was scuttled, and remained as a burned-out hulk in Whalebone Cove for a decade. In 1910 she was purchased by the New Whaling Company and towed to New Island to be used as storage. She later broke her moorings in a gale and now rests on a rocky shoreline close to the present-day settlement.

Built as an iron hulled barque rigged vessel by Anderson & Rodgers Co., Port Glasgow for Archibald Sterling & Co, Glasgow.
Tonnage 1,967 grt, 74.7 x 11.4 x 6.9m.
1895 Completed.
15 October 1895 sailed on her maiden voyage from Swansea, Bristol Canal loaded with coal and under command of Capt. Doughty bound for San Francisco via Cape Horn.
The voyage and fire, loss of the vessel are given in: http://www.plimsoll.org/resources/sccli ... /16951.asp
1909 bought by the New Whaling Co. Ltd. (Chr. Salvesen & Co) Leith, Scotland and towed from Stanley to New Island, Falkland Islands for use as a coal storage hulk.
1910 A hole was cut in her stern and a ramp fitted between ship and shore, to allow small coal wagons more easily to enter the hold for discharging the coal.
In 1916 the whale station was closed on New Island and the GLENGOWAN abandoned and left behind there, she sank later at her moorings.
2018 Some of her hull is still visible till today.
Sources: various web-sites.


JHELUM
The 428-ton, three-masted barque, JHELUM , was launched on 24th May 1849. During her working life she completed 18 voyages, mainly between Europe and South America. Under the command of Captain James Beaglehole, she departed Callao on the return leg of her final voyage on 12th July 1870, bound for Dunkirk with a cargo of Peruvian guano from the Guanape Islands. Thirty-eight days out, and following a rough passage, she put into Stanley “leaky with jettison”. Her crew refused to continue and, following a survey, Jhelum was condemned and never sailed again. In recent years her remains were the most intact among the remarkable but fast decaying collection of 19th century wooden sailing ships which once decorated the fringes of Stanley Harbour. During a winter storm in October 2008 the bow finally collapsed. The stern followed suit in August 2013. All that remains today is part of the vessel’s midsection.
More info and details are given on: viewtopic.php?f=2&t=9685&p=18558&hilit=jhelum#p18558

GOLDEN CHANCE
GOLDEN CHANCE was a 90 ton Lowestoft steam drifter. She was launched in 1914. During the 2nd World War she worked as a barrage balloon boat. After failing the Board of Trade standards she was purchased by the Colonial Development Corporation and set off for the Falklands in August 1949. She eventually made it down but only after steel reinforcing in Montevideo prevented her from possibly breaking up on the high seas. For much of the voyage she was towed by the Protector 3, which now lies on the beach at New Island. GOLDEN CHANCE worked as a sealer for three years at Albemarle in West Falkland but was eventually pensioned off and now lies beached at the Canache at the east end of Stanley Harbour.
She was launched in 1914 as a steam drifter under the name GOLDEN CHANCE on the yard of Messr. John Chambers Ltd in Lowestoft, U.K. for Frederick James Offord, Lowestoft.
Tonnage ca. 90 ton, dim. 25.60 x 5.79m.
Powered by steam engine, manufactured by Messrs Crabtree & Co. Ltd., Great Yarmouth, hp?, speed?.
1915-1919 During World War I hired as a mine-sweeper armed with 1 – 3pdr. gun.
During World War II used as a barrage balloon boat.
After the war she steamed out from the U.K. together with the PROTECTOR III after she a was acquired by the Colonial Development Corporation for use as a sealer by the South Atlantic Sealing Co., Falkland Islands. The passage took two months.
Broke adrift from her moorings in a gale and became a total loss after grounding in the Canache.
Source: Ships of the Royal Navy Vol 2 by Colledge. Condemned at Stanley by John Smith.

Lady Elizabeth
The “Lady Liz”, as she is affectionately known, sits cradled in sand at Whalebone Cove. Amongst Stanley’s assortment of dead sailing ships, she alone retains her masts and her grandeur. A 223ft iron barque, built in Sunderland in 1879, she made several visits to the Falklands during the course of her working life. On one voyage, in 1899, she brought bricks and cement for the new Cathedral and wood for the rival Tabernacle. In December 1912, under Captain Petersen, Lady Elizabeth departed Vancouver with a cargo of Oregon pine, bound for Delagoa Bay in Mozambique by way of Cape Horn. It was to be her final voyage. Severely battered by gales some 300 miles to the west of the Cape, and with her deck cargo and four men washed overboard, she put into Berkeley Sound on 12th March 1913. At the northern entrance she struck the Uranie Rock, was holed, and lost a section of keel. Three days later she was towed into Stanley by the tug, SAMSON , for repairs. But LADY ELIZABETH was never to sail again. Instead, she was condemned and, together with her valuable cargo, sold to the Falkland Islands Company for just £3350. Stripped to bare essentials,...

Hanseatic Cog

Kogg is the main type of ship of the Hanseatic League. The case of the kogg, with a small ratio of length to width, had a high bead, the sheathing was made "clinker". The keel was made from one trunk of a tree in the form of a powerful beam, which passed in the nose and stern into the steeply rising stems. A straight-run straight sail with an area of 180-200 square meters was raised on a solid mast made up of several logs assembled and fitted into a single trunk. The fork superstructure was structurally connected with the hull. A platform with a toothed guard was attached to the stern post. On it, when an enemy attack was repulsed, archers and crossbowmen were located. The aft platform occupied more than one-third of the length of the ship. Below it lay a room with an entrance from the deck, and cabins, in the side walls of which sometimes the windows were cut through. On top of the deck floor there was also a skylight. The stem ended in an inclined mast - a bowsprit, which served to stretch the sails from the front. This was necessary to ensure maneuvering, i.e. the movement of the vessel in variable winds. The maximum length of the claw is 30 m, the length along the waterline is 20 m, the width is 7.3 m, the draft is 3 m, the carrying capacity is up to 300 tonnes. The design of the kogg has been improved over time. In the 13th-14th centuries, the kogg is a small single-masted vessel with a hinged the wheel. In the 15th century it was already a three-masted vessel of considerable displacement (500 tons and more). Success in the shipping of the Hansa is largely due to the good seaworthiness of the kogga - both a warship and a merchant ship. See also: viewtopic.php?f=2&t=6775
Source: VA Dygalo: Sailboats of the World. Part 1. Gabonaise 2017;880f.

LEITH HARBOUR South Georgia

South Georgia and South Sandwich Islands issued in 1988 a set of stamps for the Lloyds of London Centenary of which the 29 p stamp shows us Leith Harbour with many whale catchers and a supply vessel, which could be the CORONDA (II) built in 1899. A photo on the net gives after which the stamp is designed that the RRS DISCOVERY II viewtopic.php?f=2&t=8704 is alongside the jetty, The design of the stamp is too small to make out if she is depict, but on the photo you can see her.

DISCOVERY II came in service in 1929, so the photo has been made after this date. By the photo is only given, Leith Harbour, showing catchers laid up for winter and DISCOVERY II at jetty, but not a year given when photo is made. When the CORONDA is depict it must between 1929 and 1940.

The large cargo vessel most probably the CORONDA (II) built under yard No 240 by C.S. Swan & Hunter Ltd., Newcastle for Charente S.S. Co. Ltd (T&J Harrison Ltd. managers), Liverpool.
19 October 1898 launched as the POLITICIAN.
Tonnage 7,380 gross, 4,830 net dim. 143.1 (bpp) x 17.2 x 9.75m.
Powered by one triple expansion 3 cyl. steam engine, 4,000 ihp, speed 11 knots.
September 1922 sold to South Georgia Co., Stanley (managed by Christian Salvesen, Leith), renamed in CORONDA and converted to carry whale oil in tanks.
15 September 1940 while on a passage from Iceland to Liverpool with herring oil, was damaged in enemy air attack.
18 September 1940 beached in Kaimes Bay, Firth of Clyde and used as a store ship. December 1940 refloated and moored at Tail of the Bank, Firth of Clyde.
March 1941 docked for repairs at Greenock.
July 1941 on voyage to New York involved in collision off Ailsa Crag, put back but later resumed voyage.
15 October 1945 laid up at the Firth of Clyde.
March 1946 sold to Van Heyghen Freres, Ghent for breaking up, broken up October 1947.

The catchers were laid up for the winter, Christian Salvesen had a large fleet of catchers, which are depict on the stamp is unknown.
Source: From 70 North to 70 South by Graeme Somner and Miramar.

Over the whale station I found the following web-site.
On September 13th 1909, 100 years ago, the SS STARLIGHT arrived at South Georgia with men and materials to erect a shore whaling station. Her destination was a cove in Stromness Bay which became known appropriately as Leith Harbour because the company building the station was Christian Salvesen's of Leith, on the outskirts of Edinburgh.
The site of Leith Harbour had been reconnoitred the previous year by Henrik Henriksen, who became the first manager. The station was built at the head of the cove, at a site known as Jericho, but after two avalanches and a rock-fall, which killed three men, much of the station was relocated to its present position, one kilometre southward. A second ship CORONDA arrived on November 30th, incidentally bringing South Georgia's first magistrate James Innes Wilson, and the first whale was caught on December 10th by the whale-catcher SEMLA.
Henriksen was succeeded by Leganger Hansen in 1916. He remained until 1937, earning the unofficial title of 'King of South Georgia'. As well as making Leith Harbour pre-eminent among the Island's shore stations, he planned the operations of Salvesen's pelagic factory ships.
Salvesen's of Leith, as the name suggests, had its origins in Norway (until recently the company logo was based on the Norwegian flag). In 1851 Christian Salvesen settled in Scotland and established a successful company with shipping and other interests, including Arctic whaling. His son Theodore took the company to the South Atlantic, whaling first at New Island in the Falklands and then at Leith Harbour. Salvesen's later dominant place in the whaling industry was driven by Theodore's son Harold. He became a leader in the negotiations to restrict catches and preserve whale stocks and drove the technical developments that increased the efficiency of the whaling process. He also confronted a Norwegian union's attempts to reserve whaling jobs for its own nationals and, by the 1950s, half Salvesen's employees were British.
From the outset, Salvesen's were required by the terms of their lease with the government of the Falkland Islands Dependencies to utilise the whole whale, rather than wastefully strip the blubber and jettison the rest of the carcass as was the practice at Grytviken.
Leith Harbour survived the overproduction crisis of 1931, which forced some other land stations to close. This was due to the financial strength of Salvesen's. Operation was able to continue because of the station's technical efficiency and its use as a forward base for Salvesens' factory ships. Stromness whaling station was leased in 1931 and used for maintaining the company's whale-catchers.
By the end of the 1950s, Leith Harbour was utilising every part of the whale, including the baleen which was used in the manufacture of brushes. Nevertheless whaling was going into a steep decline through over-fishing of the whales. Salvesen's ceased operations at Leith Harbour in the 1961/2 season but the station was sub-leased to a Japanese company which operated until December 15th 1965.
This was the end of whaling at South Georgia but there is a postscript. Salvesen's bought the leases of all the whaling stations on the Island in the mid-1970s, on the off-chance that whaling or some other industry might become viable in the future.
In 1979, Constantino Davidoff of Buenos Aires contracted with Salvesen's to salvage machinery and other items from the abandoned whaling stations. The involvement of the Argentine navy in Davidoff's venture was a prelude to the invasion of South Georgia and the Falkland Islands in 1982.

(*) The article was posted in the South Georgia Newsletter, credited to Bob Burton
South Georgia and Sandwich Islands 1988 29p sg185, scott?

Ancient Ships

The testimonies of ancient authors, largely illustrated nowadays by archaeological finds and scientific reconstructions, enthrallingly describe the "affairs of bygone days" in the history of the culture of mankind. A clear example of this is the development of shipbuilding and navigation, the construction of ports and lighthouses. In ancient times people settled along the banks of rivers, lakes and seas. The water was convenient by way of communication and trade, and man mastered this path first on boats and then on ships. Great masters-shipbuilders and skillful navigators of antiquity were considered Phoenicians. In the technology of shipbuilding, they adopted much from the Cretans, who, according to the researchers of antiquity, were the first to apply keel and frames, which increased the strength of the hull. It is believed that, thanks in part to these technical improvements, Crete was the first sea power in the Mediterranean. Gradually other nations - the Etruscans, Greeks, Carthaginians and Romans begin to challenge the Phoenicians dominant position in shipbuilding. The desire to increase speed, maneuverability, the impact force of a ram against an enemy ship led to the appearance of ships with two, three, four and five tiers of oars. For several centuries Rome had no rivals at sea. Hundreds of oarsmen with muscular power set in motion biremes, triremes (the Greeks called these ships of the trireme), quintiles and penthers. History knows the ships of the Ancient World and with a large number of tiers of oars. The invention of the sail greatly improved the maneuverability of the ships and allowed covering long distances. However, the first sailing armament initially consisted of a straight rake sail, which could only be used with a favorable wind. The longship was a type of ship that was developed over a period of centuries and perfected by its most famous user, the Vikings, in approximately the 9th century. The ships were clinker-built, utilizing overlapping wooden strakes. On the sheetlet of Gabon depict ancient battle sailing-oared ships:
600f -VIKING LONGSHIP- see more details: : viewtopic.php?f=2&t=10360.
880f-TRIERA GRECA- see more details: viewtopic.php?f=2&t=14874.
1150f- QUINQUEREME-see more details: viewtopic.php?f=2&t=16210
1500f-TRIREME- see more details: viewtopic.php?f=2&t=12113.

Gabonaise 2017;600f;880f;1150f;1500f;Ms.
Source:http://travel-in-time.org/istoriya-izobreteniy/korabli-v-drevnosti/. http://litresp.ru/chitat/ru/%D0%90/aver ... orablya--1
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