MERCATOR. Gerardus 1512-1594

Gerardus Mercator  is best known for his work in cartography, in particular theworld map of 1569 based on a new projection which represented sailing courses of constant bearing as straight lines. He was the first to use the term " atlas " for a collection of maps.Before Mercator's time, world maps were basically useless to navigators plotting voyages of discovery and trade. The maps may have shown landmasses correctly, but generally they did not show proportional distance and direction so navigators could not plot a compass course. In his map, Mercator drew straight, equidistant longitude lines, perpendicular to latitude lines, forming a grid which could be used to accurately determine sea routes. Mercator created and published numerous other maps, many of which were posthumously published by his son as Atlas' or Cosmographic Meditations on the Structure of the World . This marked the first use of the world atlas in connection with a book of maps. Mercator also introduced the use of italics to the text of maps.                                                                                                                                                                      Mercator was born Gerhard Kremer on March 5, 1512, in Rupelmonde, Flanders, and changed his name when he became a student at the University of Louvain in1530. Though Mercator studied philosophy and theology, he also developed an interest in astronomy, mathematics, geography, art and engraving. He studied the first two subjects under Gemmy Phrysius, a cartographer and mathematician.While Mercator lived in Louvain, from 1530 until 1552, Mercator made scientific instruments and worked as a surveyor, while makings his first maps and globes. His earliest globe was finished about 1536, and he published his first map in 1537. Its subject was Palestine. In 1844, Mercator was imprisoned for several months in Louvain for heresy, though he was set free due to lack of evidence. In 1552, Mercator moved to Duisberg in what is now Germany, where he was employed by the Duke of Cleves. Mercator did his most significant work under Cleves's patronage in Duisberg.  In 1569, Mercator designed his Great World Map to facilitate sea travel, inspired by his contact with sea captains and navigators. His grid based of equidistant meridians (longitude lines) and parallels (latitude lines) drawn perpendicularly is known as a graticule. Mercator's graticule allowed constant compass bearing to be plotted as a straight line. While Mercator's map was useful for navigators because it preserved constant compass directions, it had drawbacks. Landmasses were not depicted in their true area and proportions, except at the equator. The further from the equator the landmass is, the bigger it looks on Mercator's map. Hence, Greenland looks much larger than the continent of South America, though it is really half its size. The North and South Poles cannot be projected at all. But the relationships between these landmasses are correctly depicted. Mercator's innovation did not become widespread until 1599, when Edward Wright published corrective tables for navigator's use.                                                                                                                                                                                                   Mercator also designed, engraved, and published many maps of Europe and its different parts. In 1554, for example, he published an accurate, detailed map of Europe. Eventually, 107 of these maps appeared in the atlas published by his son in 1595. Mercator also built globes on commission, including a one made of crystal and wood for the Holy Roman Emperor, Charles V. Mercator died in Duisberg on December 2, 1594.

Guinea 2012; 40000fg,5000fg,15000fg,20000fg;SG?
Belgium 2012;3f;SG?
Source:

http://www.madehow.com/inventorbios/54/ ... cator.html

By Anatoly

T-91 (Patrol Boat) 1970

This coastal patrol craft is one of three patrol boats built by Royal Thai Naval Dockyard, Bangkok. Commissioned in 1971.

Displacement; 87,5 tons standart, 104,3' x 17,5'. Draft; 5,5', 2 diesels, 1600 bhp, two screws, speed; 25 knots, Armament; 1 x 40 mm and 1 x 20 mm guns. Range; 700 miles at 21 knots, complement; 21.

Thailand 1979, S.G.?, Scott; 898.

Source: Janes Figthing Ships

Pioneer (Tugboat) 1859

She belongs to Colonial Government in Natal. She was built in 1859 in Marshall Bros., Shields shipyard. Gt. 95, nt. 51; diamentions; 89'4" x 18'5" x 9'3"; steam engine of 40Hp.


She was Port Natal's first tugboat. In 1877, she was sold to Port Shepstone Shipping Co. and used as a coaster. She was wrecked at Port St. Johns on 11 Jun 1902.

On the stamp, she is shown around 1870.

The stamp set was designed by Sheila Nowers and printed by the Government Printer, Pretoria.

South Africa 1994 1.35 R, S.G.? Scott: 890.

Source: D. Rodlie; Lloyd's Lists 1863-64.

NORVEGIA (Nw.)

Built in 1919 by Jac. M. Iversen at Son (Nw.) for Skibs A/S Freda (Winge & Co.) Kristiana (now Oslo) as VESLE PER.
Sealer, Gt:285, Nt:126, L:34,84m. B:8,14m. D:4,24m. 2 cyl steam engine:350 hp. wooden hull.
in 1927 sold to Bryde & Dahls Hvalfangerselskab A/S (Lars Christiansen) Sandefjord, renamed in NORVEGIA, '27 -'31 trips to Antarctica.
1931 sold to A/S Kvitøy, Aalesund, renamed in KVITØY, 19-03-1933 sunk in the White Sea.
(AAT 1979/80 50 c. StG.50)

Nimanoa (Ketch) 1929

She was the Government vessel of Gilbert and Ellice Islands Colony, and carried administrative and treasury officers about the group of Islands, consisting of about forty, and covering an east to west distance of about 2000 miles.

She also carried mails, sometimes rations and also occasionally lepers to the Makogai Leper Asylum in Fiji.

She was, to quote a late Treasurer of the Colony, “a ketch-rigged auxiliary engined abortion” built in 1929 and just over 100 feet long, with a tonnage of 100.

She looks attractive enough on the stamp. The ketch was lying at Tarawa when the Japanese invaded the Island. Her chief officer, who was senior officer aboard at the time, decided to run her on the reef and so prevent her falling into Japanese hands. This he successfully accomplished in the face of enemy machine-gun fire. The Japanese, on their temporary departure from the island left the ship’s company on Tarawa, thinking escape impossible. All, however, managed to get to Fiji. The remains of the Nimanoa can still be seen at low tide.

Gilbert & Ellice Islands 1939 S.G? Scott:49.

Source: Watercraft Philately

San Francisco Xavier (Brig Schooner, Training Ship)

Not much info about this ship, and more info needed.

San Francisco Xavier was the first ship of practice of the National Nautical School Manuel Belgrano of Argentina. Type of her was the brig schooner.

She took in its crew, students and teachers and she was engaged in combat in front of the coasts of Brazil on 12 October 1801.

This brave ship captured three Portuguese ships.

Argentina, 1999, 75c, S.G.?, Scott; 2092.

Source: M. Rosner; Correo Argentino No. 851.

Jodocus Hondius

Jodocus Hondius ( Latinized version of his Dutch name: Joost de Hondt ) (14 October 1563 – 12 February 1612), sometimes called Jodocus Hondius the Elder to distinguish him from his son Jodocus Hondius II, was a Flemish / Dutchengraver , and cartographer . He is best known for his early maps of the New World and Europe , for re-establishing the reputation of the work of Gerard Mercator , and for his portraits of Francis Drake . He helped establish Amsterdam as the center of cartography in Europe in the 17th century. Hondius was born in Wakken and grew up in Ghent . In his early years he established himself as an engraver , instrument maker and globe maker. In 1584 he moved to London to escape religious difficulties in Flanders.While in England, Hondius was instrumental in publicizing the work of Francis Drake , who had made a circumnavigationof the world in the late 1570s. In particular, in 1589 Hondius produced a now famous map of the bay of New Albion , where Drake briefly established a settlement on the west coast of North America . Hondius' map was based on journal and eyewitness accounts of the trip and has long fueled speculation about the precise location of Drake's landing, which has not yet been firmly established by historians. Hondius is also thought to be the artist of several well-known portraits of Drake that are now in the National Portrait Gallery in London. In 1593 he moved to Amsterdam, where he remained until the end of his life. In co-operation with the Amsterdam publisher Cornelis Claesz. in 1604 he purchased the plates of Gerard Mercator's Atlas from Mercator's grandson.Mercator's work had languished in comparison to the rival Theatrum Orbis Terrarum by Ortelius . Hondius republished Mercator's work with 36 additional maps, including several which he himself had produced. Despite the addition of his own contributions, Hondius gave Mercator full credit as the author of the work, listing himself as the publisher. Hondius' new edition of Mercator's work was a great success, selling out after a year. Hondius later published a second edition, as well as a pocket versionAtlas Minor . The maps have since become known as the "Mercator/Hondius series". In the French edition of the Atlas Minor we find one of the first instances of a thematic map using map symbols . This is a map entitled Designatio orbis christiani (1607) showing the dispersion of major religions. Between 1605 and 1610 he was employed by John Speed to engrave the plates for Speed's The Theatre of the Empire of Great Britaine . Hondius died, aged 48, in Amsterdam . After his death, his publishing work in Amsterdam was continued by his widow, two sons, Jodocus II and Henricus , and son-in-law Johannes Janssonius , whose name appears on the Atlas as co-publisher after 1633. Eventually, starting with the first 1606 edition in Latin, about 50 editions of the Atlas were released in the main European languages.In the Islamic world, the atlas was partially translated by the Turkish scholar Katip Çelebi . The series is sometimes called the "Mercator/Hondius/Janssonius" series because of Janssonius's later contributions. Scholars have argued that the celestial globe depicted in celebrated 17th century painter Johannes Vermeer 's 1668 «The Astronomer» was based on a work by Hondius. It appears that Vermeer copied the design of a celestial globe offered for sale in 1618 in Amsterdam crafted by Hondius. The globe can be found in the Scheepvaartmuseum in Amsterdam.
Belgium 2012;3f;SG?
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Calpe HMS

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Calpe HMS

Postby john sefton » Fri Sep 03, 2010 9:01 pm

SG638.jpeg
SG638
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SG748MS 5.jpg
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HMS Calpe was one of thirty-two Type II Hunt Class destroyers. Built by Swan Hunter and Wigham Richardson at Tynemouth, she was launched on 28 April 1941 and commissioned on 29 November 1941.
She displaced 1,200 tons and had a speed of approx. 27 knots.
Her armament consisted of six 4" guns in twin HA/LA mountings, four 40mm pom-pom guns and two depth charges rails.
Whilst in the Mediterranean she spent most of June 1943 going between Gibraltar and Mers-El-Kebir escorting capital ships of Force H. She subsequently moved eastwards
escorting convoys in support of the invasion of Sicily in 1943.
Amongst the many actions she was involved in during her Mediterranean services she is best remembered for two encounters. On 13 December 1943, whilst on anti-submarine operations with USN Wainwright, her depth charges were successful in forcing the
Germany submarine U-593 to surface, to be subsequently sunk by gunfire. In October 1944, whilst in company with HMS Cleveland, she made offensive raids on German defences in the Aegean and also engaged and destroyed six German assault craft off the Island of Piscopi. She was awarded 8 battle honours of which 6 were for her
actions in the Mediterranean.
She left Gibraltar for the last time on 10 November 1946 flying her paying off pennant and was paid off into the Reserve Fleet on the 16 January 1946.
After the war she was reconstructed and in 1953 went on loan to the Royal Danish Navy as the 'RoIf Kraken' and was eventually scrapped in 1962.
The present holder of the name HMS Calpe is the Royal Naval
Reserve Headquarters Unit based in Gibraltar (the only RNR HQ
Unit outside the United Kingdom) which was formed in July 1965.
Gibraltar Philatelic.
Gibraltar SG638

Type II HUNT Class Escort Destroyer ordered from Swan Hunter at Wallsend in December 1939 under the 1939 War Emergency Programme. The ship was laid down as Job No 4196 on 12th June 1940. The ship was launched on 28th April 1941 as the 2nd RN warship to carry the name which was first used for a Prize (SAN JOSEF) captured in 1800. She was completed on 11th December 1941 and was adopted by Abingdon, Berkshire after a successful WARSHIP WEEK National Savings campaign in February 1942.

B a t t l e H o n o u r s
GUT OF GIBRALTAR 1801 - DIEPPE 1942 - ENGLISH CHANNEL 1942 - NORTH AFRICA 1942-43 - MEDITERRANEAN 1943 - SICILY 1943 - SALERNO 1943 - AEGEAN 1943 - SOUTH FRANCE 1944
H e r a l d i c D a t a
Badge : On a Field per fess wavy Red and Blue. a chess Rook Gold in front of two hunting horns in saltire White.
P o s t W a r N o t e s
HMS CALPE served with the Flotilla in the Indian Ocean until November 1946 when she took passage to UK to Pay-off and reduce to Reserve status. She was laid up at Sheerness on 17th January 1946 and transferred to Portsmouth in 1947. Later she went to Harwich and was transferred on loan to Denmark during 1952. Renamed ROLFE KRAKE this ship was sold to Denmark after 9 years on loan and deployed on the Active List until October 1966 when she was sold for breaking up locally.

http://www.naval-history.net/
Gibraltar SG748ms
john sefton
 
Posts: 1636
Joined: Sun Mar 22, 2009 1:59 pm

Re: Calpe HMS

Postby aukepalmhof » Fri Dec 30, 2011 8:01 pm

Photo11deCalpe1NP.jpg
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Built as destroyer of the Hunt II type under yard No 1595 by Swan, Hunter & W. Richardson, Wallsend, for the Royal Navy.
20 December 1939 ordered.
12 June 1940 keel laid down.
28 April 1941 launched as the HMS CALPE (L71). The second ship under that name in the Royal Navy
Displacement 1,050 standard, 1,430 tons full load. Dim. 85.34 x 9.61 x 4.42m length bpp. 80.5m.
Powered by two geared stem turbines, 19,000 shp, twin shafts, speed 26 knots.
Range 2,560 miles by a speed of 20 knots.
Armament: 6 – 4 inch guns, 1 – 2 pdr. pompom, 2 – 20mm Oerlikon guns, 50 depth charges.
Crew 164.
11 December 1941 commissioned.

After commissioned joined the First Destroyer Flotilla, and serves there for over one year.
During that time she took part in the Raid on Dieppe on 19 August 1942 when she embarked the naval and military force commanders, during the raid she received minor damage from an air attack.
Then joined the Torch Operation in the Mediterranean as a unit of the 59th Destroyer Division till August 1943. Mostly used for the escort of capital ships between Gibraltar and Mers-El-Kebir.
From August 1943 until September 1943 a unit of the 48th Escort Group.
September 1943 until November 1943 a unit of the 50th Escort Group.
12 December 1943 as unit of the Mediterranean Hunts together with USS NIBLACK, WAINWRIGHT and BENSON and HMS HOLCOMBE she sank U 593 off the Algerian coast.
1944 She took part in the South of France landings, and on October 1944 carried the occupying forces to the Aegean Islands.
She returned briefly to the UK before heading again to the Mediterranean. Underwent a refit at Ferryville, Tunisia from 03 January 1945, after three months she left for Malta for further repairs.
11 May 1945 she returned home to Chatham of a unit of the 18th Destroyer Flotilla.
Stayed for a short time in Chatham before leaving for the Far East to join the 14th Destroyer Flotilla Eastern Fleet at Trincomalee where she was on VJ Day.
Returned thereafter to the UK to pay off into reserve at Sheerness on 17 January 1946.
January 1947 transferred to Portsmouth and later to Harwich.
1952 Was she transferred to Sheerness for a refit in preparation for her transfer to Denmark.
28 February 1952 loaned to the Danish Navy as ROLF KRAKE (F 342).
18 October 1954 commissioned in the Danish Navy.
Armament 3 – 102mm guns, 4 – 40mm MG. 4 depth charge mortars Mk. IV and 2 depth charge launchers.
Crew 148.
1962 Decommissioned.
26 October 1966 sold to Otto Danielsen for demolition in Denmark.

Gibraltar 1995 5p sg MS748, scott684a

Source: The Hunts by John English. http://www.navalhistory.dk/english/TheS ... Krake(1954).htm
aukepalmhof
 
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