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Dinis Eanes da Gra and Alvaro Freitas

On stamp10d two depicts the Portuguese captains(there is very little information), who took part in the slave raids at Arguin banks. In 1446 took second raid on the hunting of African slaves. Chroniclers believe that twenty-six ships set out from various ports (Lisbon squadron, Madeira squadron squadron Lagos) for the second wave of slave raids Arguin banks.
DINIS EANES DA GRA (Navigator)1446(on stamp to the left)
Lisbon squadron - Gonçalo Pacheco , treasurer of Casa de Ceuta, outfits a three-caravel expedition in Lisbon under the command of Dinis Eanes de Grã (squire of regent Peter of Coimbra). 1446 - Lisbon trio of Dinis Eanes de Grã is the first to arrive in the Arguin banks. Finding Arguin island devastated by the Gonçalves's raid, they conduct a slave raid on the Berber villages on the coast and take some 100 captives, but lose several crewmen in the fighting. 1446 - The main body of Lançarote's fleet arrives at Arguin island, where they find the idling trio of Dinis Eanes de Grã . Grã joins Lançarote's fleet in attacking Arguin again, then sailing down to devastate Tidra island and Serenni peninsula. Although the fighting is heavier, an additional 66 Berbers are taken captive. Grã's Lisbon trio leaves back for Portugal after the Tider raid.
ALVARO DE FREITAS(Navigator)1446(on stamp to the right),
Lagos squadron - The Company of Lagos sends out of massive fleet of fourteen ships for a slave-raid on Arguin banks . It is led by Lançarote de Freitas , and includes Soeiro da Costa ( alcaide of Lagos and Lançarote's father-in-law),Alvaro de Freitas (probably a relative of Lançarote)and other сapitans. Alvaro de Freitas takes part in all "exploits" of Lansarote.After failure on the southern coast of Alvaro de Freitas, Vicente Diaz and Lanzarote are returned to the banks Arguin, captured 59 prisoners and returned to Lagos. ((For more details about the raid –see “Lansarote de Freitas”).
Cabo Verde 1952;10e;SG354.çarote_de_Freitas

Lançarote de Freitas and Soeiro da Costa

Lançarote de Freitas(on the stamp to the left), better known as Lançarote de Lagos or Lançarote da Ilha , was a 15th-century Portuguese explorer and slave trader from Lagos, Portugal . He was the leader of two large Portuguese slaving raids on the West African coast in 1444-1446. Lançarote de Freitas (better known simply as Lançarote de Lagos) was trained as a squire and chamberlain in the household of the Portuguese prince Henry the Navigator . Sometime in the 1430s or early 1440s, Lançarote was appointed by Henry as almoxarife (customs-collector) of Lagos, Portugal . The naval expeditions that Henry the Navigator had been sending down the West African coast since at least the early 1430s had, during their first few years, yielded little profit. They had sailed mostly along the Sahara desert coast, with no native settlements in sight or encounters worth reporting. But in 1443, one of Henry's captains, Nuno Tristão , returned from an expedition with some 14 captive African natives, Sanhaja Berbers seized from small native fishing settlements he found in the Bay of Arguin . The prospect of easy and profitable slave-raiding grounds around the Arguin banks aroused the interest of numerous Portuguese merchants and adventurers. That same year (1443), the regent prince Peter of Coimbra granted his brother Henry the Navigator an exclusive monopoly on all trade south of Cape Bojador . A consortium of merchants of Lagos originate theCompanhia de Lagos ('Lagos Company).Тhe Lagos merchants elected Lançarote as their head. Having acquired their license, the Lagos company equipped a fleet of six ships and about thirty men that set out for the Arguin banks in the Spring of 1444. Lançarote's fleet headed straight to the southern end of the Arguin Bay, where they had been told byNuno Tristão 's captives that populous fishing settlements could be found. A pre-dawn raid on Nar ( Nairisland) yielded the first set of captives. This was followed up by raids on the larger neighboring island ofTider ( Tidra island) and Cerina (Serenni peninsula). In just a few days, the Lagos fleet had taken some 235 hapless Berber natives captive. The remaining population having fled the coastal settlements and hidden in the hinterlands, there was little point remaining in the area. By August, the fleet had arrived back in Lagos with their human cargo. The spectacle of the disembarcation, partition and sale of the Arguin slaves in Lagos, in the presence of Prince Henry, mounted on his horse, is described in heart-breaking detail in Zurara 's Crónica . [ 2 ] For this lucrative enterprise, Lançarote wasknighted by Henry on the spot (even though, according to Zurara, Henry gave away his own allotment - some 46 slaves, to which he was entitled as licenser of the expedition. Setting out in August, 1445 (or 1446), Lançarote's Lagos fleet was just one of several fleets that set out from Portugal for the Arguin banks that year.Caught by bad weather, Lançarote arrived at Cape Blanc with only nine ships still together, the remaining having strayed off. He proceeded to the northern end of the Arguin banks, anchoring in at ilha das Graças There, Lançarote was met by one of his missing ships, Vicente Dias , who had gone on ahead to Arguin island and stumbled across a small fleet of three Lisbon ships, headed by Dinis Eanes de Grã , who had preceded them and devastated the remaining settlements on the northern end of the bay, taking some 100 captives. At Grã's suggestion, Lançarote's fleet, now thirteen strong attacked Arguin island again (taking 4 captives), then headed to the southern end of Arguin Bay, taking 57 captives at Tider and an additional 5 somewhere further down (possibly around Cape Timris ). The element of surprise being gone and the bulk of the population having already evacuated the coast, Lançarote's captives were principally Sanhaja Berber tribesmen who had decided to stay and put up a fight. Dissatisfied with the meager number of captives and realizing that Arguin Bay was too thoroughly deserted to yield up any more, Lançarote decided to take his fleet south to raid the Wolof lands of Senegal , which had been discovered (but not yet raided) by Nuno Tristão and Dinis Dias the previous year. However, not all his ships were up for the journey, several of them running short on supplies. As a result, Lançarote partitioned his fleet, taking only six or seven caravels with him, sending the remaining ships back to Lagos under the command of Soeiro da Costa (a few of which would conduct an unauthorized slave raid on the Canary islands of La Palma and Gomera on their way home). Lançarote's squadron soon arrived at Barbary Point, the mouth of the Senegal River , which was as yet unexplored. After sending back yet another caravel to Lagos, Lançarote proceeded with his five remaining ships around Cape Vert into Dakar Bay . The squadron landed in the island of Bezeguiche ( Gorée island). Lançarote sent outGomes Pires on a launch to the mainland to open contact with the local Wolof chieftains, but Pires's approach was prevented by a hail of arrows. His first strategy foiled, Lançarote ordered the Portuguese to prepare a raid on the mainland Wolof villages 'in the style of Arguin', but this came to nought. Before being able to organize the attack, a sudden storm enveloped the area, and forced the Portuguese caravels out of Bezeguiche bay, scattering them in various directions. Lançarote managed to hold two other caravels (Álvaro de Freitas and Vicente Dias) together with him, but lost sight of the other two. Realizing they were now too few to launch an attack on the Wolof mainland, Lançarote's trio set sail back to the Arguin banks, where they anchored in at Tider and took an additional 59 captives, before returning to Lagos. The remaining two ships (Lourenço Dias and Gomes Pires) made their way back to Portugal by themselves . Little more is heard about Lançarote de Lagos. In number of captives, the 1445/6 slaving expedition had been somewhat of a disappointment (at least relative to the first 1444 expedition). The prospect for future slave raids seemed dim. The Arguin banks were devastated and it was unlikely the Berber populations would return to the coasts in significant numbers, or allow themselves to be taken by surprise. Lengthier expeditions which required probably more supplies and capital than what Lagos merchants were willing to front or captains willing to sail. The killing of Nuno Tristão and his crew the next year (1446 or 1447) probably dampened any remaining enthusiasm among Lagos merchants for renewing the slave raids.
SOEIRO DA COSTA 1446;1461;1470.

Soeiro da Costa(on the stamp to the right)is Portuguese navigator 15c, participated in the discovery of the coast of Africa and in the slave trade. In 1446 Commercial "Lagos Company" sends a massive fleet of fourteen vessels for slave raid on Arguin Bank . Haded by squadron Lançarote de Freitas. One of the captains squadron was Soeiro da Costa (Alcaide Lagos...

Alvaro Fernandez and Diogo Afonso

ALVARO FERNANDEZ (Navigator) 1445,1446(Cape of Masts, Cape Roxo):
Álvaro Fernandes(on stamp to the right), was a 15th-century Portuguese slave -trader and explorer from Madeira , in the service of Henry the Navigator . He captained two important expeditions (in 1445 and 1446), which expanded the limit of the Portuguese discovery of the West African coast, probably as far as the northern borderlands of modern Guinea-Bissau . Álvaro Fernandes's farthest point (approximately Cape Roxo ) would not be surpassed for ten years, until the voyage of Alvise Cadamosto in 1456. Alvaro Fernandez, one of the leading Portuguese explorers of the earlier 15th century, the age of Henry the Navigator. He was brought up (as a page or esquire) in the household of Prince Henry, and while still "young and audacious" took an important part in the discovery of "Guinea." He was a nephew of Joao Goncalvez Zarco, who had rediscovered the Madeira group in Henry's service (1418-1420), and had become part-governor of Madeira and commander of Funchal; when the great expedition of 1445 sailed for West Africa he was entrusted by his uncle with a specially fine caravel, under particular injunctions to devote himself to discovery, the most cherished object of his princely master, so constantly thwarted.. Fernandez,as a pioneer, outstripped all other servants of the prince at this time. After visiting the mouth of the Senegal, rounding Cape Verde, and landing in Goree (?), he pushed on to the "Cape of Masts" (Cabo dos Matos, or Mastos, so called from its tall spindle-palms), probably between Cape Verde and the Gambia, the most southerly point till then attained. Next year (1446) he returned, and coasted on much farther, to a bay one hundred and ten leagues "south" (ie SSE) of Cape Verde, perhaps in the neighbourhood of Konakry and the Los Islands, and but little short of Sierra Leone.This record was not broken till 1461, when Sierra Leone was sighted and named. A wound, received from a poisoned arrow in an encounter with natives, now compelled Fernandez to return to Portugal, where he was received with distinguished honour and reward by Prince Henry and the regent of the kingdom, Henry's brother Pedro.
DIOGO AFONSO1461-62(Islands of the Cape Green):
Diogo Afonso(on stamp to the left)was navigator of Prinz. About him very little information. In 1444, according to historian Azurara, Henry the Navigator sent Antao Gonçalves Gomes Pires and Diogo Afonso discover new lands and start trade relations with the tribes of Western Afriki.Diogo commanded by caravel an expedition to the Gold River. In 1445 expedition of Antão Gonçalves returned, accompanied by the caravels of Diogo Afonso and Garcia Mendes and to pick up overland explorer João Fernandes . They make a raiding stop at Arguin island, taking some 25 captives, destroying the main Berber village on Arguin island in the process.Soon they returned in Lisbon, where soldеd captives , and Prince Henry received his fifth. In 1461 Diogo Afonso discovered the western islands of the Cabo Verde group. In 1462g Antonio da Noli announce about the discovery of the Islands of the Cape Green.Spain’s chronicler Alfonso de Palenque through 20 years doubted in this.So as 1462 28 Oktober and 19 September of the same year were published 2 maps with 7 Western Cape Verde,discovered by Diogo Afonso. The charter of D. Afonso V, dated September 29, 1462g says that King makes a donation to the Children D. Fernando, his brother, the island "loesnoroeste of the Canary Islands and Madeira, and the other seven islands of Cape Verde" found squire Diego Affomsso. Islands assigned to the Prince Fernando brother the king of Portugal, Afonso.
Cabo Verde 1952;30,0c;SG348. ... andez.html.Álvaro_Fernandes.

Huni (Trawler) 1957

She was depicted on Iceland’s “Freedom from Hunger stamp”.

She is a motor trawler of 75 gross and 64 net tons.

Dimensions 21.33 x 5.63 meters.

Built in 1957 at Furstenberg, Germany, for Hunvetnigur and registered at Hodfakaupstaf.

Iceland 1963, S.G.?, Scott: 355.

Source: Watercraft Philately.

VISIN-FLORIO ships 1873

The stamp depict four vessels, three barks and 1 brig owned by Visin-Florio in 1873.
The stamp is designed after a painting made by Vasi Ivankovic and is titled “Sailing ships of Visin-Florio of Precanj 1873), the painting is now in the Kotor Maritime Museum.
The ship in the foreground is the LIBERTAS with pennant No 265 and call sign HLQN. She has a black hull, richly ornamented stern.
The barque on the right background is the NEPTUN (HNTQ) while the barque on the left is probably COLUMBUS (HDVB) and the brig far left is probably the TEMPO.
The LIBERTAS was built by Charleston, S. Johns, New Brunswick, Canada for Moran & Co, Liverpool, England.
Launched as the KING OF TRUMPS.
Tonnage 599 tons, dim. 142 x 32 x 19ft.(draught).
Single deck and beams, built of mahogany, iron fastenings. Yellow-metalled coppered in May 1863.
Her first Captain was J.Carter.

Around 1865 sold to Florio and others and renamed LIBERTAS, and registered at Trieste, Austria. She was then measured at 669 tons. In the 1870 her owner was listed as Visin Carolina Vedova, Trieste (24 parts) and her captain was Antonio Lucovich.
In 1872 was she classed as a barque of 679 tons, and her owners were Carolina Vedova Visin (12 parts), Elia Florio (6 parts) and Trifone Baggio Florio (6 parts) all of Trieste. One of her owners, Arturo Visin was also her captain at that time. In 1874 her captain was Antonio Lucovich, and in 1879, Filippo Visin. At that time she was measured as 591 tons and owned by Carolina V. Visin (12 parts), Elia Florio (6 parts) and Trifone Florio (6 parts), all of Trieste.
Lloyds 1885, is she given then as 590 tons with dim. 142.8 x 32.3 x 19.5 ft. built of mahogany, iron and copper fastenings, repairs, coppered in May 1882.
She was last surveyed in October 1878 in New York, in the register of 1886 is she listed as sold on 28 April 1885 in Marseilles to a French citizen.
1891 Is given that she was sailing under Italian flag with the name NOSTRA GENITORI but I can’t find any trace of her under that name.
NEPTUN: she was built in St. Rocco, Trieste in 1862 for Holmhoe & Balchen.
Tonnage 487 ton, dim. 126 x 29 x 17ft (draught)
Barque rigged.
Single deck and beams, constructed of oak, copper and iron fastenings, yellow metaled (coppered) in November 1862.
Two cannons, crew 12.

Her first captain is listed as B. Florio.
March 1863 surveyed at New York. In 1865 her captain is listed as Elia Florio, one of her owners, and in 1868 Captain Trifone Giurovich who was also one of her owners. In 1871 her name is spelled NEPTUNE, with a tonnage of 480 and a draught of 11.4ft.. In the same register, she is also listed as “built of fir and oak, iron and copper fastenings, sheated with yellow metal (coppered) in August 1868.
In 1872, she is listed again with the name NEPTUN registered at Perzagno, and her owners are Elia Florio of Trieste (7¾ 3/2), Trifone B. Florio of Trieste (7¾ 3/2), Bernardo Giurovich of Perzagno (2¾ 0/2), Regina Giurovich of Perzagno(¾ 0/2), Edoardo Sbutega of Perzagno (3) and Antonio Verona of Venezia (2).
Her captains were 1872 , Antonio Lucovich; 1874, Trifone Giurovich; 1875, Natale Petricevich and tonnage then given as 390 tons.
1876 Was she registered in Trieste.
In 1877, her homeport was Perzagno (Prcanj), and she was captained by Alberto Pattay; in 1879 by Antonio Lucovich, in 1880 her tonnage was 382, In 1884 her homeport was again Trieste.
(Note difference in tonnage between American and Austro-Hungarian registers (BRT-NRT) or other measurement rule?), also the different owners (captain H. Florio) size 128.9 x 26.5 x 15.4, with a tonnage of 392, owned by E. Florio & Co., and last coppered in September 1879. In the Annuario Marittimo from 1886, her dimensions were 38.18 x 8.23 x 4.92m., Gt 388, nt 382, and owners Elia Florio and the late Filippo of Trieste (7¾ 3/2), Edoardo Sbutega of Perzagno (3), Bernardo Giurovich of Perzagno (2¾ 0/2), Regina Giurovich of Perzagno (¾ 0/2) and Antonio Verona of Venezia (2). She was captained by Filippo Visin of Perzagno.
13 February 1886 sold at Trieste to an Italian citizen.
In the American and Foreign ship register of 1890, under the name NEPTUN, her captain was listed as Alessandro Giraldi, tonnage 317, dim. 128.9 x 26.5 x 15.4ft., owned by Vinelio Moro Bros., registered at Messina, Italy, and last surveyed in March 1888 at Baltimore.
COLUMBUS: Built in 1858, as FOREST QUEEN at Venice (at that time part of Austria Empire.) for J. Florio, who was also her captain at that time.
1851 Registered as the COLUMBUS with the same owners and in 1865 her tonnage was listed as 439 ton, and her captain was Emilio Marco A. Florio. In 1870 , is she listed as owned by Elia Florio of Perzagno (6 1/3), Trifone Biagio Florio of Perzagno (6 1/3), Emilio Marco Florio of Constantin (4), Antonio Florio of Perzagno (1), Giovanni Carlo Florio of Constantin (1) and Caterina Sbutega of Perzagno (1/3), capitained by Mariano Bartoli.
In 1874 she is registered at Perzagno, Austria, and in 1879 back to Trieste with a tonnage of 363, and her owners as Elia Florio, Trieste (7), T.B. Florio, Trieste (7), E.M. Florio of Cospoli (4), Giov. Carlo Florio of Cospoli (1), Bernardo Giurovich of Perzagno (4) and Regina Ginrovich of Perzagno (1), captained by Nicolo Visin.
In 1881 her captain was Giuseppe Giurgevich and the next year her owners were Elia Florio of Trieste (9 ½, T.B. Florio of Trieste (9½), Bernardo Giurovich of Perzagno (4) and Regina Giurovich of Perzagno (1). In 1884 her captain was Paolo Meneghetti and in 1886, her tonnage were 363,
She was sold on 31 March 1885 in Trieste to an Ottoman citizen, where after she disappears.
In the book 12 Centuries of Boka Marina , the COLUMBUS is listed as navigated by Captain Petra Visin from Prcanj in 1879. There is a small discrepancy as the first name of the ship’s captain does not match the two other sources, although both refer to the year 1879.
The owners are the same as for the barque LIBERTAS (in 1873) and NEPTUN (1873,1879).
There was also another, slightly larger ship launched as COLUMBUS built the same year and at the same place (Venice), owned and captained by E. Florio. This ship appears in several US Registers.

TEMPO, not much about her, she was built in Trieste in 1867, for A. Verona & others and registered in Trieste. The captain was also the owner. Tonnage 321 ton.
1885 She appears for the last time in the American registers, still under Captain A Verona.

Yugoslavia 1998 5.00D sg?, scott2424.
Sources: Lloyds Registers. Record of American and Foreign Shipping. Annuario Marittime. 12 Centuries of Boka Marina. Horvath Jozef, A Nautica, Budapest.

Jason Junior (Remotely Operated Vehicle)

Jason Junior, also called JJ, was a small remotely operated vehicle (ROV) designed and built by the Deep Submergence Laboratory at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute (WHOI). Jason Jr. was a prototype for a larger, more capable ROV named Jason, which was being developed to complement the Argo unmanned undersea video camera sled.

Jason Jr. was first used in the exploration of the wreck of the RMS Titanic in 1986,

See Topic: “Titanic (White Star Line)”

during which it was attached to and controlled from aboard the DSV Alvin, a United States Navy manned deep-ocean research submersible operated by WHOI.

See Topic: “ALVIN submersible”

The ROV was connected to the submersible by a 300 feet (91 m) fiber optic cable, and allowed scientists to explore and photograph areas of the shipwreck that the submersible could not access. The ROV was deployed from a metal cage attached to the front of the Alvin, and controlled remotely by a pilot inside the submersible.

Jason Jr. was lost at sea in late 1991, when a barge carrying it and other equipment to the Galápagos Islands sank in the Pacific Ocean during the Jason III expedition.

Palau Republic 1998, S.G.?, Scott: 459.

Source: Wikipedia.

Ilala II

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Ilala II

Postby shipstamps » Tue Jan 06, 2009 7:14 pm

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The motorship Ilala II built for service on Lake Nyasa, is featured a Nyasaland stamp of the Is. 3d. denomination and shown off Monkey Bay on the lake-1,400 miles from the coast and almost 1,600 ft. above sea level..The ship had of course to be built and dismantled before being shipped in pieces and erected on the edge of the lake.
In 1949 the Nyasaland Railways gave the contract for this specialised construction to Yarrow and Co. Ltd., Scotstoun, Glasgow who have been builders of shallow-draft craft for re-erection almost since the firm's foundation in 1866 on the Thames. In point of fact the Ilala II is herself an interesting link with the earlier history of the company for the first Ilala was built at Poplar in 1875 at a cost of £6,000. She was built to fulfil an oft-expressed wish of David Livingstone in connection with the suppression of slavery on Lake Nyasa. The old Ilala was named after the area in which Chitambo's village is situated where Livingstone died in 1873 and where his heart is interred.
In all, the Ilala II cost £120,000 and was brought in pieces by rail from Beira to Chipoka on the lake shore. Of the 780 cases in which the parts were transported the heaviest weighed 18 tons and the lightest 78 lbs. The construction of the vessel was carried out under the supervision of Sir J. H. Biles and Company and Livesey and Henderson, consulting engineers to Nyasaland Railways.
Every care has been taken to ensure that she will be able to stand up to the severe gales encountered on Lake Nyasa. The hull of the ship is sub-divided into eight watertight compartments by seven transverse bulkheads—almost double the number required for an orthodox vessel of her size. The design provides for an adequate reserve of stability and was drawn up after extensive tests had been carried out at the National Physical Laboratory. The hull embodies all the recommendations of this institution. The Ilala II is 172 ft. long (overall) and can carry a total of 365 passengers. She has a gross tonnage of 620, a moulded breadth of 301/2 ft., and a loaded draft of 7 ft. 4 in. Deadweight cargo capacity is
100 tons and a crew of 38 carried. There is accommodation on the promenade deck for the master, two officers and 12 first-class passengers in 10 well-appointed cabins. Also on the promenade deck are a large dining saloon, well-equipped toilets, bathrooms and a galley for first class passengers.
Six second-class passengers are carried and have two large cabins on the main deck forward with an adjacent dining saloon. The after end of the main deck comprises the third-class section with provisions for 350 passengers and a saloon in the hold amidships. Propelling machinery comprises two sets of Crossley 5-cylinder oil engines, rated at 425 b.h.p. for 400 r.p.m., giving a service speed of 12 knots. Early in 1951 the vessel was named and launched on the lake in the presence of the Bishop of Nyasaland and a large crowd of Africans, Europeans and Indians by Lady Colby, wife of the Governor of Nyasaland, Sir Geoffrey Colby.
Monkey Bay is near Cape Maclear where the first Scottish Mission in Central Africa was founded in 1875 by Doctor Laws who brought out the first Ilala to the lake in that year. It is interesting to recall that this pioneer craft was shipped out in pieces to Cape Town in the holds of the Walmer Castle, thence up the East coast to the mouth of the Zambesi in the schooner Hara where she was assembled to sail up the Zambesi and Shire rivers to Murchison Cataracts.
Here she was dismantled and carried overland by 800 Africans to the Upper Shire River at Matope where she was re-assembled so that she could sail into Lake Nyasa-380 miles long—seven months after leaving the United Kingdom. The Ilala was in service on the lake for 28 years in which she carried out excellent work in suppressing the slave trade then carried on by Arab dhows. Eventually the Ilala was dismantled and taken from the lake, ending her career towing barges at Chinde where she was broken up.
SG26. Sea Breezes 1/60
Malawi SG487, 549, 731, 931.
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