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AURORE (Q129) submarine

Built as a submarine by Toulon Arsenal for the French Navy.
1934 Ordered
01 September 1936 laid down.
26 July 1939 launched as the AURORE (Q192) one of the Aurore class of which 15 were built for the French Navy.
Displacement 893 ton surfaced, 1,170 ton submerged, dim. 73.5 x 6.5 x 4.2m.
Powered by 2 Sulzer diesel, 3,000 shp, driving two electro motor 1,400 hp, speed surface 15.5 knots, submerged 9.3 knots.
Range by a speed of 10 knots, 6,400 mile.
Test depth 100 metres,
Armament 1 – 100mm deck gun, 1 – 13.2mm machine guns and 9 – 550 mm. torpedo tubes.
Crew 44.
15 February 1940 completed.
20 June 1940 completed.
First in service in Toulon, Morocco and French West Africa.
27 November 1942 in dry-dock for a refit in Toulon, not possible to sail due to sabotage and when the Germans investigated the dock she was scuttled.
03 April 1943 refloated and towed to 5 West de Milhaud then moored on a buoy, before finally moored at Brégaillon.
22 May 1944 taken to Lazaret.
1946 Pumped dry and demolished in two sections.

Chad 2014 700F sg?, scott?
Jane’s Fighting Ships of World War II.


The 30c stamp issued by the Cook Islands in 1975 shows most probably the flagship of the expedition the SAN PEDRO.

Since none of the expedition after Magellan from Loaisa to Villalobos had succeeded in taking over the Philippines, King Charles I stopped sending colonizers to the Islands. However, when Philip II succeeded his father to the throne in 1556, he instructed Luis de Velasco, the viceroy of Mexico, to prepare a new expedition – to be headed by Miguel Lopez de Legazpi, who would be accompanied by Andres de Urdaneta, a priest who had survived the Loaisa mission.
The vessel for this fleet were built in New Spain and completed in 1564, two galleons, two pinnaces and a small boat which was put on the poop-deck of the flagship. Not much is known on the ships. The flagship was the SAN PEDRO 550 ton skippered by Mateo del Saz, the other three were the SAN PABLO 400 ton, SAN JUAN around 80 ton and SAN LUCAS 40 ton, the small craft did not carry a name, given as brigantine rigged.
21 November 1564 the small fleet set sail from Puerto de Navidad, Mexico with on board a total of 350 men.
The fleet set a westerly course in the latitude 9-13N. making a call at Guam from 23 January till 3 February 1565, reaching the Samar Islands on 13 February. From there sailed through the Surigao Strait to Cubu Island
On 13 February, 1565, Legaspi's expedition landed in Cebu island. After a short struggle with the natives, he proceeded to Leyte, then to Camiguin and to Bohol. There Legaspi made a blood compact with the chieftain, Datu Sikatuna as a sign of friendship. Legaspi was able to obtain spices and gold in Bohol due to his friendship with Sikatuna. On 27 April 1565, Legaspi returned to Cebu; destroyed the town of Raja Tupas and establish a settlement.
I can find only that the SAN PABLO returned back to New Spain and the SAN LUCAS which had lost contact with the fleet and after made a call in the Philippines returned back to New Spain also. I have not any fate of the vessels of the fleet.
This ships are the beginning of the famous Manila galleons who for the next 250 years made the passage over the Pacific, at least 1 ship a year was making a voyage.

Cook Island 1975 30c sg517, scott?
Source various internet sites.


The vessel depict on this stamp is a “galleon”, see viewtopic.php?f=2&t=11966&p=12844&hilit=galleon#p12844

Friar Andrés de Urdaneta, O.S.A., (November 30, 1498 – June 3, 1568) was a Spanish circumnavigator, explorer and Augustinian friar. As a navigator he achieved in 1536 the "second" world circumnavigation (after the first one led by Ferdinand Magellan and Juan Sebastián Elcano and their crew in 1522). Urdaneta discovered and plotted a path across the Pacific from the Philippines to Acapulco in the Viceroyalty of New Spain (present day Mexico) used by the Manila galleons, which came to be known as "Urdaneta's route." He was considered as "protector of the Indians" for his treatment of the Filipino natives; also Cebu and the Philippines' first prelate.
Early years
Urdaneta was born in the town of Ordizia in the Basque province of Gipuzkoa, Spain. He would have gone to sea at a young age, as was typical of the time.
Urdaneta was one of the few survivors of Loaísa Expedition to reach the Spice Islands late in the year 1526, just to be taken prisoner by the Portuguese. Undaneta spent the next eight and a half years in and around the Spice Islands, but eventually he managed to return to Europe in the Portuguese India Armada and under Portuguese guard. Upon his arrival in Lisbon on June 26, 1536, he achieved the second world circumnavigation, or rather the third or even the fourth circumnavigation in history, considering that Magellan and some of his men had been in the regions of Malaysia and Indonesia a decade before reaching the Philippines, or the route taken by other crew members of Magellan's expedition and later returned to Europe after Elcano`s ship, who were also brought by the Portuguese from Moluccas and then released in Lisbon. Urdaneta accomplished his trip around the world through a journey which lasted just shy of eleven years. In Lisbon the Portuguese authorities confiscated his charts and letters. Urdaneta then escaped to Spain, where he recreated much of the confiscated material, and presented it to the Spanish Court. King Charles I of Spain did not give him a very favourable reception either, and, wearied by his many adventures, he returned to New Spain and there entered the Order of Hermits of St. Augustine.
At the death of the viceroy, Don Luís de Velasco, in 1564, New Spain had passed under the government of the Audiencia, one of whose first cares was to equip an expedition for the conquest and colonization of the Philippines. This had been ordered by Philip II in 1559. Friar Andrés de Urdaneta having been designated as the Commander, the Viceroy had the matter under consideration at the time of his death. Urdaneta was considered a great navigator and especially fitted for cruising in Indian waters. Philip II wrote urging him to join the expedition and offering him the command. Urdaneta agreed to accompany the expedition but refused to take command; the adelantado, Don Miguel López de Legazpi, was appointed as Commander. The expedition, composed of the Capitana, which carried on board Legazpi and Urdaneta, the galleons SAN PABLO and SAN PEDRO, and the tenders SAN JUAN and SAN LUCAS, set sail on November 21, 1564.
Urdaneta founded the first Church dedicated to St. Vitales in the Philippines and the Basilica del Santo Niño and served as the first prelate of the Church in Cebu. After spending some time in the islands, Legazpi determined to remain and sent Urdaneta back for the purpose of finding a better return route and to obtain help from New Spain for the Philippine colony. (For the problem of sailing east across the Pacific, which Urdaneta solved, see Manila Galleon and Volta do Mar.) Urdaneta set sail from San Miguel (the island of Cebu), on June 1, 1565 and was obliged to sail as far as 38 degrees North latitude to obtain favourable winds. With the voyage in trouble, Urdaneta had to assume command himself. The ship reached the port of Acapulco, on October 8, 1565, having traveled 12,000 miles (20,000 km) in 130 days. Fourteen of the crew had died; only Urdaneta and Felipe de Salcedo, nephew of López de Legazpi, had strength enough to cast the anchors.
Upon arriving, Urdaneta discovered that a member of the crew of his expedition, Alonso de Arellano—who had abandoned them just after leaving the port—had actually beaten them across the ocean, arriving at Barra de Navidad in Jalisco in August of the same year. However, Arellano's notes were far less precise and professional than Urdaneta's, and so the latter's route became the famous and trusted one.
From Mexico, Urdaneta went to Europe to make a report on the expedition and then returned to New Spain, intending to continue on to the Philippines, but he was dissuaded by his friends. He wrote two accounts of his voyages: one giving the account of the Loaiza expedition was published; the other, which gives the account of his return voyage, is preserved in manuscript in the archives of the Council of the Indies.
For the remainder of the 16th and 17th centuries, Spanish ships, particularly the annual Manila-Acapulco trading Galleon, used "Urdaneta's route."
Urdaneta died in Mexico City in 1568.

Cook Island1975 25c sg516, scott
Source Wikipedia

Houqua (clipper)1844

The Houqua was an early clipper ship with an innovative hull design, built for A.A. Low & Brother in 1844. She sailed in the China trade. The Houqua was named "in honor of the beloved Canton Hong merchant Houqua, who had died the year before, and with whom the Low brothers had traded with in China for many years." Houqua, (also spelled Howqua or Hoqua), was the most prominent Hong merchant of the day. He "was to take her delivery in China as a warship on behalf of the Chinese government. However, upon arrival, she was found to be too small, and so she spent her career in merchant service for A.A. Low. The Houqua design combined the practical experience of an experienced sea captain with the mathematical insights of a leading naval architect of the time, John W. Griffiths. In 1843, the A. A. Low & Bros. representative in Canton, William Low, and his pregnant wife Ann had been passengers on a very slow and frustrating trip home from Canton with Captain Nathaniel Palmer on the Paul Jones. "To vent his frustration [Captain Nat] began carving a block of wood into the shape of what he thought the ideal hull of a Canton trader should look like, one that .. 'would outsail anything afloat' ... "He incorporated John W. Griffiths' ideas concerning a sharp concave bow with his own ideas of a fuller flat-bottomed hull." Upon arrival in New York, they approached A. A. Low & Bros. with the new design, which was further developed and built by David Brown of Brown & Bell shipyard. Captain Nathaniel Palmer "became an advisor to the Lows as a marine superintendent." In 1853, the ferry Tonawanda collided with Houqua in the fog in New York Harbor, necessitating repairs before she could set sail for San Francisco. "Subsequently, off the Horn, on this passage, she had very heavy weather, lying to, off and on, for many days. On May 5th, in a violent squall, a meteor, apparently about the size of a man’s head, broke at the masthead, throwing out the most violent sparks. Coming down the mast it passed to leeward and the two men standing near were sensibly affected and much frightened." "She sailed from Yokohama, August 15, 1864, for New York, and was thereafter never heard from again. It is assumed she foundered in a typhoon."
Rwanda 2013;200f;SG?

Oberon (Clipper ship)1869

She was built at Glasgow in 1869, for Bhaw * Maxton, for their China Tea Clipper Line, and, together with the Ariel and Titania, two sister vessels, was designed expressly for speed. While in the China trade they were assisted in calm weather by steam, having an auxiliary screw.
Basil Lubbock in his book "The Chine Clippers" writes: Before turning to the tea race of 1870,I must say words about “Oberon”,the ship which Captain Keay left “Ariel” to take command of. ”Oberon”was experiment of Maxton’s,one of those failures as auxiliary steamers which, when their screws were remowed,proved very fine sailing vessels.It is curious that this was by no means uncommon with early full-rigged steamers.The mention of the following names,the “Tweed”,”Oberon”,Daeling Downs”,”Lady Jocelyn”,and “Lancing” will show how successful the steamship design has been under sail. But her best speed under steam,at a coal concumption of 7 tons a day,was only 7 knots an hour,and she proved to be quite unable to stem a strong head wind and sea. She cost 35000 to build,and thus was a very constly experiment.Her black squad consisted of two engineers and three firemen.These poor wretches had a very bad time in the tropics,as in those days the ventilation of engine room and stokehole was most primitive.Capitain Keay,after a very worrying voyage, managed to get her home from Hankow via the Cape in 115days.He then left her for another troublesome steam kettle. Oberon's second voyage, with a less experienced captain, was an even greater disappointment than her first. She started well by making Port Said under sail alone in 18 days from Plymouth. The sails were then put in the gaskets and steam raised for the passage of the Canal and Red Sea. All went well until she was nearing the southern end of the Red Sea, when a strong southerly wind absolutely stopped her headway. Hoping that this would soon take off, the captain anchored off Mocha. But eight days passed and still the southerly wind blew as strong as ever, so Oberon was at last compelled to beat through Laage Strait under both steam and canvas. This soon consumed her limited supply of coal, and she was obliged to put into Aden to refill her bunkers. Coaling was again a necessity at Labuan. Her next trouble was going up the Yangtze to Hankow. With great difficulty she managed to stem the 7 -knot current as far as the Orphan Rock, but here the current became so fierce that her headway was completely stopped. Thereupon her engineer did what many another engineer was compelled to do in those early days of the steam engine, he jammed down the safety valve and raised the working pressure from 30 to 45 lbs. This desperate expedient just got her past the Orphan Rock in safety. On the homeward run she took 134 days from Hankow via the Cape. Two such voyages were enough. Her machinery was removed, and hence- forth she depended on sail alone with infinitely better results. The Obеron is a composite ship, and a glance at the vessel below shows that for strength nothing can surpass her. Her planking, of teak-wood, is as smooth as glass, and, with her beautiful entrance and fine ran, there Is nothing to prevent her from sailing. ”Oberon” was heavily rigged with three skysail yards,and when under sail alone proved a very fast,handy vessel and splendid sea boat.Her great length (241 feet, with a beam of but 36 feеt.) gives her good sailing power, and that she possesses this power In a remarkable degree has been fairly proved by various performances, which we give as follows : She made a voyage from Melbourne to London in 74 days and from Sydney to Melbourne in 8O days ; was 76 days from London to New Zealand ; made a voyage from this port lo Liverpool in 91 days, and came from Hongkong to this port In 37 days. One of her most remarkable performances was her last round voyage from London to New Zealand, and thence to this port in 121 sailing days, considerable less than the average of passages from New York or England direct to this port. The design of the Malawi stamp is made after painting of Montague Dawson.
Malawi:2013;350k;SG? ... 7_djvu.txt. ... 2.19&srpos.

LCA 1377 (Landing Craft Assault)

On the stamp depicted Royal Navy Landing Craft LCA-1377 carries American troops to a ship near Weymount in Southern England on June 1, 1944, during preparations for the Normandy invasion. British soldiers can be seen in the conning tower. For safety measures, U.S. Rangers remained consigned on board British ships for five days prior to the invasion of Normandy for "Operation Overlord".

The Landing Craft Assault (LCA) was a landing craft used extensively in World War II. Its primary purpose was to ferry troops from transport ships to attack enemy-held shores. The craft derived from a prototype designed by John I. Thornycroft Ltd. of Woolston, Hampshire, UK. During the war it was manufactured throughout the United Kingdom in places as various as small boatyards and furniture manufacturers.

Her displacement; 9 long tons (9,144 kg), tons burthen; 4 long tons (4,064 kg), length; 41.5 ft (12.6 m), beam; 10 ft (3.0 m), draught; light: 1 ft 1 in fwd, 1 ft 9 in aft loaded: 1 ft 9 in fwd, 2 ft 3 in aft, ramps; 1, propulsion; 2 × 65 hp Ford V-8 petrol, speed; 10 kt (light), 6 kt (loaded), range; 50–80 miles, troops; 36 troops or 800 lb (363 kg) cargo, crew; four; coxswain, two seamen and a stoker plus one officer per group of three boats, armament; 1 × Bren light machine gun, possibly 2 × Lewis Gun, 2 × 2-inch mortar fitted aft (later models), armour; 10 lb. DIHT (3/4") on bulkheads and sides 7.8 lb. DIHT (1/4") on decks above the troop well and engine space.

Most LCAs were fitted with a compass. The craft were steered by twin rudders. The LCA propulsion system was designed to be quiet. At low speeds the engines could not be heard at 25 yards. The power-plant, while quiet, has been criticized for being underpowered. Nevertheless the bow lines and small ramp made the LCA a reasonably good sea boat.

Typically constructed of hardwood planking and selectively clad with armour plate, this shallow-draft, barge-like boat with a crew of four could ferry an infantry platoon of 31, with space to spare for five additional specialist troops, to shore at 7 knots. Men generally entered the boat by walking over a gangplank from the boat deck of a troop transport as the LCA hung from its davits. When loaded, the LCA was lowered into the water. Soldiers exited by the boat's bow ramp.

The LCA was the most common British and Commonwealth landing craft of World War II, and the humblest vessel admitted to the books of the Royal Navy on D-Day. Prior to July 1942, these craft were referred to as "Assault Landing Craft" (ALC), but "Landing Craft; Assault" (LCA) was used thereafter to conform with the joint US-UK nomenclature system.

Landing craft could hardly be adored by soldiers required to endure rides in them through any sea conditions. Still, the design’s sturdy hull, load capacity, low silhouette, shallow draft, little bow wave, and silenced engines were all assets that benefited the occupants. The extent of its light armour, proof against rifle bullets and shell splinters with similar ballistic power recommended the LCA. Also, many a Tommy and GI looked favourably upon the luxury of seating in the well for the soldier passengers. Throughout the war in the Atlantic, the Mediterranean, and the Indian Ocean, the LCA was the most likely sea assault transport of British Commandos, United States Army Rangers, and other Special Forces.

Perhaps 1,500 LCAs survived the war in serviceable condition. But many of these LCAs were discarded, as when the LSI HMS Persimmon, returning to Britain from the Far East in 1946, dumped her lower deck LCAs overboard to lighten ship and make better speed. Many LCAs used in the Far East were not sent back to the United Kingdom. Damaged LCAs, along with other damaged landing craft, were sunk rather than repaired. In Cochin, India, at the shore establishment HMS Chinkara (home of the Landing Craft Storage), many LCA were towed out to the 10 fathom mark and sunk by various means from axe to Bofors gun fire. In home waters, the end of the war meant the merchant ships and passenger liners that had served as LSIs were returned to their owners and refitted to civilian trim. This left an LCA surfeit that was sold off for civilian uses. They were popular acquisitions among riparian holiday-makers and canal enthusiasts in Britain. Their holds covered and ramps sealed, LCAs became charming little houseboats.

She was the lead boat from HMS Prince Baudouin to Omaha Dog Beach (D-Day Landing) and gave a dry landing to the 5th Ranger Infantry Battalion troops. During the landing the crew of LCA 1377 not only held their boat onshore, but also used their machine guns to spray the hillside ahead of the troops, hoping to suppress some enemy fire while Rangers left the craft and tried to survive on Omaha Beachead. Just an artillery shell hit the fantail of her but this brave ship survived on Omaha Beach Assault.

Fate of her unknown at the end of WW-II.

Palau 2004, S.G.?, Scott: 777a.

Source: Wikipedia.

Ilala II

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Ilala II

Postby shipstamps » Tue Jan 06, 2009 7:14 pm

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The motorship Ilala II built for service on Lake Nyasa, is featured a Nyasaland stamp of the Is. 3d. denomination and shown off Monkey Bay on the lake-1,400 miles from the coast and almost 1,600 ft. above sea level..The ship had of course to be built and dismantled before being shipped in pieces and erected on the edge of the lake.
In 1949 the Nyasaland Railways gave the contract for this specialised construction to Yarrow and Co. Ltd., Scotstoun, Glasgow who have been builders of shallow-draft craft for re-erection almost since the firm's foundation in 1866 on the Thames. In point of fact the Ilala II is herself an interesting link with the earlier history of the company for the first Ilala was built at Poplar in 1875 at a cost of £6,000. She was built to fulfil an oft-expressed wish of David Livingstone in connection with the suppression of slavery on Lake Nyasa. The old Ilala was named after the area in which Chitambo's village is situated where Livingstone died in 1873 and where his heart is interred.
In all, the Ilala II cost £120,000 and was brought in pieces by rail from Beira to Chipoka on the lake shore. Of the 780 cases in which the parts were transported the heaviest weighed 18 tons and the lightest 78 lbs. The construction of the vessel was carried out under the supervision of Sir J. H. Biles and Company and Livesey and Henderson, consulting engineers to Nyasaland Railways.
Every care has been taken to ensure that she will be able to stand up to the severe gales encountered on Lake Nyasa. The hull of the ship is sub-divided into eight watertight compartments by seven transverse bulkheads—almost double the number required for an orthodox vessel of her size. The design provides for an adequate reserve of stability and was drawn up after extensive tests had been carried out at the National Physical Laboratory. The hull embodies all the recommendations of this institution. The Ilala II is 172 ft. long (overall) and can carry a total of 365 passengers. She has a gross tonnage of 620, a moulded breadth of 301/2 ft., and a loaded draft of 7 ft. 4 in. Deadweight cargo capacity is
100 tons and a crew of 38 carried. There is accommodation on the promenade deck for the master, two officers and 12 first-class passengers in 10 well-appointed cabins. Also on the promenade deck are a large dining saloon, well-equipped toilets, bathrooms and a galley for first class passengers.
Six second-class passengers are carried and have two large cabins on the main deck forward with an adjacent dining saloon. The after end of the main deck comprises the third-class section with provisions for 350 passengers and a saloon in the hold amidships. Propelling machinery comprises two sets of Crossley 5-cylinder oil engines, rated at 425 b.h.p. for 400 r.p.m., giving a service speed of 12 knots. Early in 1951 the vessel was named and launched on the lake in the presence of the Bishop of Nyasaland and a large crowd of Africans, Europeans and Indians by Lady Colby, wife of the Governor of Nyasaland, Sir Geoffrey Colby.
Monkey Bay is near Cape Maclear where the first Scottish Mission in Central Africa was founded in 1875 by Doctor Laws who brought out the first Ilala to the lake in that year. It is interesting to recall that this pioneer craft was shipped out in pieces to Cape Town in the holds of the Walmer Castle, thence up the East coast to the mouth of the Zambesi in the schooner Hara where she was assembled to sail up the Zambesi and Shire rivers to Murchison Cataracts.
Here she was dismantled and carried overland by 800 Africans to the Upper Shire River at Matope where she was re-assembled so that she could sail into Lake Nyasa-380 miles long—seven months after leaving the United Kingdom. The Ilala was in service on the lake for 28 years in which she carried out excellent work in suppressing the slave trade then carried on by Arab dhows. Eventually the Ilala was dismantled and taken from the lake, ending her career towing barges at Chinde where she was broken up.
SG26. Sea Breezes 1/60
Malawi SG487, 549, 731, 931.
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