SHIP STAMP SOCIETY

SHIP STAMP SOCIETY

Interested in Ships and Stamps? The Ship Stamp Society is an international society and publishes it’s journal, Log Book, six time a year.
Other benefits include the availability of a "Packet" for anyone who wants to purchase or sell ship stamps.
Full membership of £17 (UK only) includes receiving Log Book by post, but there is an online membership costing just £12pa.
Full details can be found on our web site at http://www.shipstampsociety.com where you can also join and pay your chosen subscription through Paypal or by cheque.
A free sample of Log Book is available on request.

FREMM FRIGATE (AQUITAINE)

About 150 Years of Military Transmissions
The stamp issued in 2017 by the French Post commemorates the 150th anniversary of military transmissions. The founding act of military transmissions was the Niel Act of 1867 establishing the first military units responsible for military telegraphy.
The visual illustrates the evolution of military transmissions from the telegraphic sappers (beginning of the optical telegraph) to the transmitters of today;
Symbolization of transmissions in the service of the 3 armies (Rafale aircraft, Leclerc tank, FRégate Européenne MultiMmission Fremm), transmissions = "the weapon that unites all weapons";
The color of the uniforms worn by the units of the "Blue" (made up of the militarized personnel from the Telegraph Administration) is the emblem of the transmissions, the sky blue.

The vessel depict on the stamp is one of the Fremm class of which many till so far have been built for the French and other navies. It is not given which frigate is depict.
The first unit was launched as the AQUITAINE.

Built as a frigate at the DCNS shipyard in Lorient for the French Navy.
2007 Laid down.
29 April 2010 launched as the AQUITAINE (D650).
Displacement standard?, full load 6,000 tons, dim. 142.2 x 20 x 5m. (draught)
Powered CODLOG with two electric motors 5MW combined and a single gas turbine 42,900 shp. Speed 28 knots.
Range by a speed of 15 knots, 11,000 km.
Armament: 1 – 76mm dual purpose gun, 3 – 20mm cannons. 16 – Aster 15 SAM missiles, 16 – Scalp naval land attack cruise missiles. 8 – MM 40 Exocet anti ship missiles. 2 – twin 324mm torpedo tubes for MU90 lightweight torpedoes.
One NI-190 NFH helicopter.
Crew 145.
23 November 2012 commissioned.

The FREMM ("European multi-purpose frigate"; French: Frégate européenne multi-mission; Italian: Fregata europea multi-missione) is a class of multi-purpose frigates designed by DCNS/Armaris and Fincantieri for the navies of France and Italy. The lead ship of the class, AQUITAINE, was commissioned in November 2012 by the French Navy. In France the class is known as the Aquitaine class, while in Italy they are known as the Bergamini class. Italy has ordered six general purpose variants and four anti-submarine variants; the last two Italian general purpose FREMMs will have anti-aircraft warfare, anti-ballistic missile and surface attack capabilities. France has ordered six anti-submarine variants, and two air-defence variants.
Background
Three original variants of the FREMM were proposed; an anti-submarine variant (ASW) and a general-purpose variant (GP) and a land-attack variant (AVT) to replace the existing classes of frigates within the French and Italian navies. A total of 27 FREMM were to be constructed - 17 for France and 10 for Italy - with additional aims to seek exports, however budget cuts and changing requirements has seen this number drop significantly for France, while the order for Italy remained invaried. The land-attack variant (AVT) was subsequently cancelled.
A third anti-air warfare variant of FREMM was proposed by DCNS in response to French requirements for a new air-defence frigate, the new variant became known as FREDA ("FREgates de Défense Aériennes", "Air defence frigate"). This new French requirement was due to the third and fourth Horizon-class frigates being cancelled after the first two cost €1,350m each, but this decision left French Navy still in-need of replacements for its ageing Cassard-class air-defence frigates.
As of 2009, the FREDA design features a more powerful version of the Herakles (radar) passive electronically scanned array radar and 32 cells of SYLVER A50 in place of the 16 cells of A43 and 16 cells of A70. The SYLVER A50 would allow it to fire the 120 kilometres (75 mi)-range Aster 30 missile; the towed array sonar would not be fitted.
At Euronaval 2012 DCNS showed a new concept called FREMM-ER for the FREDA requirement, again based on the FREMM, but specifically mentioning the ballistic missile defence mission as well as anti-air. FREMM-ER has a modified superstructure replacing Héraklès with the new Thales Sea Fire 500 radar, whose four fixed plates resemble those of the US Navy's AN/SPY-1. However unlike the Héraklès and the SPY-1 (both using passive electronically scanned array technology), the Sea Fire 500 has active electronically scanned array antennas.
France
Original plans were for 17 FREMM to replace the nine D'Estienne d'Orves-class avisos and nine anti-submarine frigates of the Tourville and Georges Leygues classes. In November 2005 France announced a contract of €3.5 billion for development and the first eight hulls, with options for nine more costing €2.95 billion split over two tranches (totaling 17).
Following the cancellation of the third and fourth of the Horizon-class frigates in 2005 on budget grounds, requirements for an air-defence derivative of the FREMM called FREDA were placed – with DCNS coming up with several proposals. Expectations were that the last two ships of the 17 FREMM planned would be built to FREDA specifications; however, by 2008 the plan was revised down to just 11 FREMM (9 ASW variants and 2 FREDA variants) at a cost of €8.75 billion (FY13, ~US$12 billion). The 11 ships would cost €670 million (~US$760m) each in FY2014, or €860m (~US$980m) including development costs.
The 2013 White Paper on Defence and National Security committed France to 15 front-line frigates, which was initially wrongly interpreted as 2 Horizons, 5 La Fayettes and a reduction in the FREMM fleet down to 8 ships. The 2014/2019 defence plan restated a target of 11 FREMMs; the current plan is to deliver six ASW variants to replace the Georges Leygues-class frigates by 2019, followed by two anti-air variants to replace the ageing Cassard-class frigates and a decision will be taken in 2016 on what version the remaining three will be. In 2014, the French Navy's Chief of Staff, Adm. Bernard Rogel, confirmed that 11 FREMM frigates had been ordered but in 2015 the order was cut to 8 in order to allow the purchase of five FTI Mid-Size frigates from 2023. The FTI will replace the La Fayette-class class, which will be fitted with a sonar as an interim measure.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/FREMM_mul ... se_frigate and French Post and Internet.
French 2017 1.46 Euro sg?, scott?

Empress of China (1783)

Empress of China, also known as Chinese Queen, was a three-masted, square-rigged sailing ship of 360 tons, initially built in 1783 for service as a privateer. After the Treaty of Paris brought a formal end to the American Revolutionary War, the vessel was refitted for commercial purposes. She became the first American ship to sail from the newly independent United States to China, opening what is known today as the Old China Trade and transporting the first official representative of the American government to Canton. America began trade with China in 1784, with the Philadelphia ship the Empress of China. Popular trade goods were tea, porcelain and fabric. The Chinese were skeptical of foreign powers, and trading was restricted to certain ports, one of which was Canton. The Chinese government saw Canton as a major trading hub and felt that it needed to be controlled tightly to limit the influence of the foreigners. The actual port for Canton was called Whampoa Reach and it was about 12 miles down river from Canton. Western vessels had to anchor at Whompoa Reach and transfer their cargo to junks which transported the goods to the city for trading. The first American merchant vessel to enter Chinese waters left New York harbor on Washington's birthday, February 22, 1784. The Empress returned to New York on May 11, 1785 after a round voyage of 14 months and 24 days. The success of the voyage encouraged others to invest in further trading with China. President Washington bought a set of Chinese porcelain tableware from the ship. The ship's captain John Green (1736–1796) was a former U.S. naval officer, its two business agents (supercargos), Samuel Shaw (1754–1794) and Thomas Randall (1723–1797), were former officers in the U.S. Continental Army, and its syndicate of owners, including Robert Morris (1734–1806) were some of the richest men in the new nation. In 1986, China minted a silver 5-yuan to commemorate the voyage of the Empress. The design stamp is made after painting of Raymond-Massey: « Arrival «Empress of China» in Whampoa».
Mali 2017;420f;SG? Source:en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Empress_of_China_(1783); http://americanhistory.si.edu/collectio ... ah_1301925.

RUSSIAN FLEET 1996 MS

PRINCIPIUM galley, built in 1696 in Voronezh after a Dutch blueprint, became the first galley of the Sea Caravan, which later became the Azov Fleet. See: viewtopic.php?f=2&t=10741&p=18933&hilit=principium#p18933

Heavy nuclear submarine, built in 1981, is the biggest submarine ever made. (The only nuclear submarine commissioned in 1981 is the TK-208 later renamed DMITRY DONSKOY see: viewtopic.php?f=2&t=16146

AZOV battleship, built in 1826, was the first Russian ship to be awarded the Flag of St.George and a banner for the heroism of its crew. See: viewtopic.php?f=2&t=10077

Heavy aircraft carrier ADMIRAL KUZNETSOV built in 1985, is essentially new ship for the Russian as well as the world’s shipbuilding. It carries up to 50 aircraft and helicopters. Unlike foreign aircraft carriers, it also carries antiship missiles, see viewtopic.php?f=2&t=6570

In the centre of the block there is a cartouche framed by laurel branches on the background of St.Andrew's Flag. The stripes of the flag partially overlap the upper corners of the stamps. In the lower part of the composition there is an ornament of the guard glory band and anchors. The text reads: "The 300th Anniversary of the Russian Navy".

Source: http://www.rusmarka.ru/en/catalog/marka ... 13008.aspx
Russia 1996 1000r sgMS6619, scott 6346a/d

TK-208 renamed later in DMITRIY DONSKOY

Built as one of the Project 941 as a nuclear submarine for the Russian Navy.
30 June 1976 laid down under yard No 711 by the Severodvinsk Shipyard in Severodvinsk.
27 September 1980 launched as the TK-208 one of the Akula class (NATO Typhoon class).
Displacement 23,200 surface, 33,500 submerged, dim. 172.8 x 23.3 x 12m. (draught surfaced.)
Powered by two OK-650 pressurized-water nuclear reactors, 190 MWt each, two VV-type steam turbines 37MW each (49,000 hp each), twin shafts, speed 22.22 knots surfaced, 27 knots submerged.
Armament when built: 1 – 9K38 Igla SAM, 6 – 533mm torpedo tubes, RPK-2 Viyuga cruise missiles. Type 53 torpedoes, D-19 launch system, 20 – RSM-52 SLBMs.
Test depth 400 metre.
Crew 160.
29 December 1981 commissioned.

• 10 February 1982: Entered 18th division (Zapadnaya Litsa), NOR.
• December 1982: Transferred from Severodvinsk to Zapadnaya Litsa.
• 1983-1984: Tests of D-19 missile complex. Commanders: A.V.Olkhovikov (1980–1984).
• 3 December 1986: Entered Navy Board of the Winners of the Socialist Competition.
• 18 January 1987: Entered MoD Board of Glory.
• 20 September 1989–1991: Repairs and refit at Sevmash to Project 941U. 1991 refit cancelled.
• 1996: Returned to 941U refit.
• 2002: Named DMITRIY DONSKOY.
• 26 June 2002: End of refit.
• 30 June 2002: Start of testing.
• 26 July 2002: Entered sea trials, Re-entered fleet, without missile system.
• December 2003: Sea trials; refitted to carry a new Bulava missile system. New missile system expected to be operational by 2005.
• 9 October 2005: Successfully launched SS-NX-30 Bulava SLBM from surface.
• 21 December 2005: Successfully launched SS-NX-30 Bulava SLBM from submerged position on move.
• 7 September 2006: Test launch of the Bulava missile failed after several minutes in flight due to the problems in the flight control system. The missile fell into the sea about a minute after the launch. The sub was not affected and was returning to Severodvinsk base submerged. Later reports blamed the engine of the first stage for the failure.
• 25 October 2006: Test launch of the Bulava-M missile in the White Sea failed some 200 seconds after liftoff due to the apparent failure of the flight control system.
28 August 2008: Undergone successful testing at the Sevmash shipyard in Severodvinsk, Arkhangelsk Oblast. More than 170 men are currently working with the DMITRIY DONSKOY, hundred of them employees at the Sevmash plant and 70 from other involved companies

2017 In service. DMITRIY DONSKOY and the rest of the Typhoons are to be replaced by the Russian fourth generation submarine class, the Borey class

Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Russian_s ... oi_(TK-208)
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Typhoon-cl ... ed_October
Russia 1996 1000R sgMS6619, scott6346b.

TOTTORI EXPO 1997

For the Japan Expo Tottori in 1997 the Japanese Post issued one stamp.

The design shows us a bow of a cruise ship or ferry most probably a stylized design of a ship by the designer of the stamp. With a pear blossom on the bow and below some symbols of Tottori Prefecture.

Japan 1997 80 yen sg?, scott2314

Christianity and the Ottoman Empire

THE OTTOMAN EMPIRE was a major threat to the hegemony of Christian Europe from the fourteenth to the seventeenth centuries. The origins of the Ottoman dynasty lie in northwestern Anatolia, though it is difficult to say why they suddenly emerged as such a powerful force. One theory proposes that it was because they were strategically well placed to attack the Christian Byzantine Empire, and therefore attracted Muslim fighters who wished to wage holy war against Christianity. They first drove the Byzantines from Anatolia – which they achieved by 1338 – and in 1354 occupied Gallipoli, their first base in Europe, and the one from which they launched their drive into southeastern Europe. The greatest shock to Christian Europe came, however, with the fall of Constantinople to the Ottomans in 1453 . Many Byzantine scholars fled westward, particularly to Italy, and made a substantial contribution to the Renaissance. The first notable Christian victory was a sea battle at Lepanto (the Gulf of Corinth) on 7 October 1571 . The victorious army was that of the Holy League, a coalition of the Papal States, Genoa, Venice and Spain, originally put together in 1511 by Pope Julius II . At Lepanto the Holy League forces were led by Don John of Austria. The victory, though hailed as a great triumph by the Christians (the Pope established the Feast of the Holy Rosary on 7 October to mark the event), in effect altered little. The Ottoman Turks were not forced to withdraw from any territory. Тhey continued sea battles with Christians conquering new territories. The design stamp is made after painting of Cornelis Wael: "Sea battle between Christians and Turks". Cornelis de Wael was a Flemishpainter, engraver and merchant who was known for his sea battle scenes. Scenes of battles between Christian and Ottoman forces such as the present work were particularly popular. The artist did not depict a concrete battle, but a general picture of the sea battles that occurred during the creation of the Turkish empire. Here's how the battle for the island of Djerba is described: The Duke of Medinaseli expected to see the Turks in the middle of June, but at the end of May Ottoman galleys and galliots appeared near the coast of Tunisia and began to land on the island. The Janissaries immediately rushed into the battle, attacking the Christians loaded with ships. Combat ships of the Turks not only covered the landing of the landing, but also attacked the ships of the Spaniards and Italians, who were completely unprepared for the battle. The Christian was panic-stricken, and the mountains of valuable goods that were bought in the last month only aggravated the situation. None of the soldiers wanted to fight. While some tried at any cost to climb on some ship with their cargo, others resolutely stopped the maneuvers of traders and let their goods go overboard. In the sea, bales of wool, bales of leather, jugs of oil, even horses and camels were dropped. Clashes began between soldiers, on the one hand, and cargo owners, captains and crews of vessels, on the other.In this situation, the order of the Duke of Medinaseli about the loading of soldiers was not thought of anyway, especially since there was no evacuation plan. The first inhospitable Djerbu began to leave wage ships, whose owners were most interested in saving their capitals. Without entering into battle with the Turks, they tried to break free into the sea, and many of them succeeded. Much worse was the case with the ships of the regular fleet of the Holy Roman Empire, who could not evade the battle and fell under the powerful blow of the Ottoman fleet. 24 May 1560 ended the battle near the island of Djerba between the Ottoman fleet and the squadrons of Spain, Venice, Genoa, the Papal States, Savoy and Malta. The Turkish armada under the command of Piale Pasha scored a brilliant naval victory over the combined forces of the Christian fleet. As a result, the European powers lost more than half of their ships and at least 9,000 people. The Turkish flotilla lost only a few galliots and about a thousand soldiers. The victory at Djerba strengthened the sea dominance of the Ottomans in the Mediterranean and marked the power of the Ottoman Empire.
Rwanda 2017;650f;SG?
Source:www.oxfordislamicstudies.com/article/opr/t253/e2, e-minbar.com/facts/967-1560-srazhenie-u-ostrova-dzherba, еn.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cornelis_de_Wael
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ABU ABDALLAH IBN BATTUTA

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ABU ABDALLAH IBN BATTUTA

Postby shipstamps » Tue Jan 06, 2009 4:13 pm


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Abu Abdallah Ibn Battuta was a Berber, born in the city of Tangier, Morocco, on 25 February 1304. he was born into a family of Muslim legal scholars. A very devout Muslim himself, he left his birthplace at the age of 22 soon after finishing his studies. On 14 June 1325 he set out to make the hajj, the pilgrimage to Mecca and Medina that is required of Muslims who can afford it.
“I set out alone with neither companion to delight in nor caravan to accompany, my sole inspiration coming from an uncontrollable impulse and a desire long-cherished in my bosom to visit the holy places,” he wrote in his memoirs.

It took Ibn Battuata ten months to cross North Africa, passing through what are now Algeria, Tunisia and Libya, before arriving in Alexandria, the main port of Egypt. There he saw the Pharos at Alexandria, a giant lighthouse in the harbor that was one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. He traveled to the nearby retreat of a famous mystic where he had a dream that he was on the wing of a giant bird that took him to Mecca and then flew him onto the east to a “dark and greenish” country.

From Cairo, Ibn Battuta traveled up the Nile River to Aswan and then overland to the port of Aidhab on the Red Sea. From there, he had planned to take a ship across the Red Sea to the Arabian port of Jeddah. However, he arrived at a time when a local rebellion in progress, and none of the ships were leaving the harbor. He was forced to return to Cairo and from there set out across the Sinai Peninsula to Jerusalem.

At the time of Ibn Battuta’s visit, Jerusalem was a small city of 10.000 people that subsisted by catering to pilgrims of the three great monotheistic religions-Jews, Christians, and Muslims.
After seeing the main sights of the Holy Land, Ibn Battuta went to Damascus, where he arrived on 09 August 1326. He studied with some of the famous Islamic scholars in the ancient city and married, apparently for the second time. In the course of his travels he married several times, but his wives drop out of the narrative almost as quickly as they enter it.

Ibn Battuta joined the main pilgrim caravan in September 1326. They journeyed south through Arabia by the Derb-el-Haj, the pilgrim road to Medina and Mecca, on a trip that took 55 days. Ibn Battuata devotes only a short section in his narrative to the performance of the traditional rites in these two cities because they were well known to his Muslim audience. He left Medina in Mid-November. Rather than returning home, he headed off to Iraq with a group of pilgrims who were returning to Baghdad.

Ibn Battuta left the caravan and stopped in Najaf in southern Iraq, a holy city for the Shi’ite sect of the Islam. From there, he went south to the port of Basra, which had once been a center of Islamic learning but had sadly declined. He made a side trip to Persia, visiting the cities of Shiraz and Isfahan. Back in Iraq he went on to Baghdad, which had long been the center of the Islamic world but was then still in ruins after having been sacked by the Mongols in 1258. While waiting for the next hajj caravan he went to Mosul on the Tigris and to the walled city of Diyarbakir in what is now southeastern Turkey. He then returned to Baghdad and joined a caravan headed south for Mecca.

Ibn Battuta stayed in Mecca from September 1327 to the fall of 1330, studying Islamic law. He used this knowledge to finance his future travels, he became an itinerant qadi, or Muslim legal scholar. Leaving Mecca, he went to Jeddah where he took a ship sailing down the Red Sea to Yemen and traveled in the interior of that country to Ta’iz and the capital Sana’a. From the port city of Aden he sailed as a trader across the Gulf of Aden to Zeila in Somalia, which he said was “the dirtiest, most disagreeable, and most stinking town in the world.” He sailed down the east coast of Africa to Mombassa and as far south as Kilwa, 600 miles south of the equator in what is now Tanzania.

From east Africa, Ibn Battuta sailed to Oman in Arabia and then went back to Mecca for a third pilgrimage in 1332. From there he wanted to go to India, but went about it from the “back door.” He took a ship from Jeddah to Egypt and then traveled up the eastern coast of the Mediterranean to Anatolia (Turkey). He traveled across the Anatolian plateau by an unknown route that included a stay in the trading city of Konya. From Sinope on the Black Sea, he sailed to the Genoese port of Kaffa in the Crimean Peninsula, one of his rare sojourns among Christians.

From the Crimea, Ibn Battuta headed inland through the steppes of what are now southern Russia, entering the domains of the Mongol Özbeg Khan (whose name was later taken by the people of Uzbekistan). At the request of one of the Khan’s wives he accompanied her back to her native city of Constantinople where he met the Byzantine Emperor Andronicus III.
Ibn Battuta stayed in that great city for five weeks and then returned to the Kahn’s capital at New Sarai on the Volga River. (Today, New Sarai is an archeological site not far from the Russian city of Volgagrad, formerly Stalingrad.)

By this time, Ibn Battuta had become a wealthy man. Everywhere he went he was welcomed by the princely courts and given presents, including, in many cases slaves and concubines. He and the entourage he had accumulated along the way traveled across the steppes to Khwarizam south of the Aral Sea. From there they went by camel to Bukhara and Samarkand and stayed with the Khan of Chagatay, another of the Mongol rulers of central Asia. Leaving Samarkand, he and his party went south across the Amu Darya River to Meshed in Persia and then into Afghanistan. They passed through the Hindu Kush Mountains, Ibn Battuta being the first to record their name. He reached the Indus River in September 1335.

Visiting Multan in present Pakistan, Ibn Battuta sent word ahead to the court of the great Mughal Emperor in Delhi of his impending arrival. The Emperor Muhammad Tughluq, was noted for his capriciousness, and Ibn Battuta wrote that “there was no day that the gate of the palace failed to witness alike the elevation of some subject to affluence and the torture and murder of some living soul.” The Emperor was however, also a patron of scholars and Islamic learning, and Ibn Battuta remained at his court for seven years in the capacity of judge and was paid a large salary. Spending lavishly, he fell into depth and was rescued by the Emperor. But he fell out of favor with Tughluq when he visited a local mystic who had offended the Emperor.

Ibn Battuta was put under house arrest for five months and was then called to the Emperor’s court- where he was named the head of a mission to travel to the court of the last Mongol ruler of China with 15 returning Chinese emissaries. Unfortunately, the junk carrying the envoys and gifts was wrecked by a violent storm at Calicut, on the south coast of India. Ibn Battuta was left destitute, having lost a child in the disaster. Afraid of returning to Tughluq, he sailed for the Maldives Islands in the Indian Ocean, 400 miles southwest of Sri Lanka, where he was befriended by Queen Khadija. He was given an official post and married and divorced six times in the eight months that he stayed there. He became involved in local politics, however, and was forced to leave in August 1344 for Sri Lanka.

In Sri Lanka Ibn Battuta visited Adam’s Peak a mountain with a large imprint on its summit that Muslim legends says is the footprint of Adam, the first man, as he took his first step on Earth after being cast out of heaven. Traveling up the coast of India, Ibn Battuta’s ship was attacked by pirates, and he was once again left destitute. He eventually made it to Bengal and then sailed on board a Chinese junk to Sumatra, he was well received by the Muslim ruler of Samudra on the northeast coast of Sumatra, who gave him a junk and supplies to travel on to China. He left Sumatra in April 1346 and went to Zaiton or Quanzhou, on the Fyjian coast of China, and from there to Sin-Kalan, the Arabic name for Canton.

Ibn Battuta was impressed by Chinese civilization but deplored its “paganism.” His itinerary in China is not clear, but he left Canton in the fall of 1346 and returned to the West by way of Sumatra, India, Arabia, Persia and Damascus, where he saw the results of the great epidemic know as the Black Death. He made another pilgrimage to Mecca in November 1348 and then went back to Egypt. He took a boat along the North African coast and reached Fez in Morocco on 08 November 1349. he returned to his hometown of Tangier, where he learned that his mother had died a few months previously. He was 45 years old and had been away for 24 years.

Soon after his return, Ibn Battuta went to the northern city of Ceuta (now part of Spain) and then joined a military expedition that was being sent to defend the Muslim fortress of Gibraltar from a Christian army. Following the successful defense, he traveled in Southern Spain, which was still a Muslim kingdom, and visited the cities of Malaga and Granada.

In 1852 Ibn Battuta set out with a camel caravan that was headed southwards, through the Atlas Mountains across the Sahara desert. It took them 25 days to reach the salt mines of Terhazza, in what is now Mali. From there, he visited the trading center of Timbuktu and left one of the earliest written records of its growth, about 100 years before it reached the peak of its prosperity. On his return, Ibn Battuta went eastward into what is now Niger and then returned north to the Al-Haggar Mountains of southern Algeria.
He arrived back in Fez in January 1354. It is estimated that in the course of his lifetime he had traveled at least 75.000 miles, not counting detours.

On Ibn Battuta’s return to Morocco, the Sultan provided him with a secretary to help him write down and edit the narrative of his travels. This took about two years, and the Rihla, or travel book was ready in December 1355. In it he proclaimed that off all the lands that he had seen, his native Morocco was superior to all others. Ibn Battuta spent the rest of his life as a judge somewhere in the region of Fez. He died in 1369 at the age of 64.

Morocco 2004 6.50Dr sg?, scott?

Copied from: Explorers and Discoverers of the World, edited by Daniel B. Baker.
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