SHIP STAMP SOCIETY

SHIP STAMP SOCIETY

Interested in Ships and Stamps? The Ship Stamp Society is an international society and publishes it’s journal, Log Book, six time a year. Full membership includes receiving Log Book by post, but there is an online membership costing just £12pa.
Full details can be found on our web site at http://www.shipstampsociety.com where you can also join and pay your chosen subscription through Paypal or by cheque.
A free sample of Log Book is available on request.

FRA-60 ex BLACK MAGIC (II) NZL-60 yacht

The yacht depict on this 80g stamp of Micronesia with sail number FRA-60 is the yacht used by the French syndicate K-Challenge Areva Challenge in the Louis Vuitton Cup race in Valencia in 2007.
Built for Team New Zealand for the 2000 America Cup races in Auckland, built by Cookson Boatyard in Auckland.
Designed by Laurie Davidson & Clay Oliver.
October 1999 completed as BLACK MAGIC (II) NZL-60.
Under skipper Russell Coutts she was defender in Auckland against the challenger the Italian yacht LUNA ROSA ITA-45.
The BLACK MAGIG (II) winning five races to nil and the America Cup stayed in New Zealand.

For the Louis Vuitton Cup races in 2007 was she leased by K-Challenge Areva Challenge as a training boat, renamed in FRA-60.
I am not sure when she came back to New Zealand but she is now (2014) in the Viaduct Harbour, Auckland and owned by SailNZ waiting for restoration.

Micronesia 2008 80c sg?, scott?
Source: Internet various sites.

SHOSHOLOZA RSA-83 yacht

The yacht depict on this stamp issued by Nevis is the SHOSHOLOZA built as a challenger for the 2008 America Cup in Valencia, Spain.
2007 Built as an ACC Rule V5 class yacht at the team boat yard in Somerset West near Cape Town for the Royal Cape Yacht Club.
Chief designer Jason Kerr.
November 2004 commenced building.
Weight 24 tonnes, dim. 26.0 x 4.5m.
April 2005 the hull was put on board a MSC container vessel for Valencia were she will be fitted out and mast and keel placed. MSC was also one of the sponsors for the yacht.
19 May 2005 was she officially launched as the SHOSHOLOZA RSA-83 by Rita Barbera the mayor of Valencia.
2007 Was she complete overhauled and modified.
2007 In the Louis Vuitton Race at Valencia she ended as 7th with 9 wins and 11 defeats.
2008 Took part in the Velalonga Regatta in Naples.
2009 Competed in the Louis Vuitton Pacific Series in Auckland, where she defeated defending champions ALINGHI in the last day of the regatta’s first Round Robin. http://www.theguardian.com/sport/2009/feb/03/sailing
2014 Still owned by South Africa owners.

Nevis 2008 $3 sg?, scott? (she is the yacht on the left of the stamp, the yacht on the right could be one with sail number NZL-?)
Source: Internet.
Not a yachting fanatic all corrections and additional info welcome.

Pytheas of Massalia

Pytheas (Πυθέας), (ca. 380 BC – ca. 310 BC) was a Greek merchant, geographer and explorer from the Greek colony Massalia (today Marseille, France ). He made a voyage of exploration to northwestern Europe around 325 BC . He probably travelled around a considerable part of Great Britain , circumnavigating it between 330 and 320 BC. Pytheas is the first person on record to describe the Midnight Sun , the aurora and polar ice , and the first to mention the name Britannia and Germanic tribes . He may have been the first Mediterranean observer to distinguish between the Germanic and Celtic "barbarian" peoples of northern and western Europe. Pytheas described his travels in a periplus titled On the Ocean (Περί τού Ωκεανού). It has not survived; only excerpts remain, quoted or paraphrased by later authors, most familiarly in Strabo and Pliny's Natural History , who never saw Pytheas' text at firsthand. [3] Some of them, Polybius and Strabo, accused Pytheas of documenting a fictitious journey he could never have funded. His story is, however, geographically plausible. Pytheas estimated the circumference of Great Britain within 2.5% of modern estimates. There is some evidence reference required he used the Pole Star to fix latitude and understood the relationships between tides and phases of the Moon. In northern Spain , he studied the tides , and may have discovered that they are caused by the Moon . This discovery was known to Posidonius . Pytheas was not the first person to sail up into the North Sea territories and around Great Britain. Trade between Gaul and Great Britain was routine; fishermen and others would travel to Orkney , Norway or Shetland . The Roman Avienus writing in the 4th century mentions an early Greek voyage, possibly from the 6th century BCE. A recent conjectural reconstruction of the journey Pytheas documented has him traveling from Marseille in succession to Bordeaux , Nantes , Land's End , Plymouth , the Isle of Man , Outer Hebrides , Orkney, Iceland , Great Britain's east coast, Kent , Helgoland , returning finally to Marseille. The start of Pytheas's voyage is unknown. The Carthaginians supposedly had closed the Strait of Gibraltar to all ships from other nations. Some historians therefore believe that he travelled overland to the mouth of the Loire or the Garonne . Others believe that, to avoid the Carthaginian blockade, he may have stuck close to land and sailed only at night. It is also possible he took advantage of a temporary lapse in the blockade, known to have taken place around the time he travelled.Cornwall was important because it was the main source of tin . Pytheas studied the production and processing of tin there. During his circumnavigation of Great Britain, he found that tides rose very high there. He recorded the local name of the islands in Greek as Prettanike , which Diodorus later rendered Pretannia . This supports theories that the coastal inhabitants of Cornwall may have called themselves Pretani or Priteni , 'Painted' or 'Tattooed' people, a term Romans Latinised as Picti ( Picts ). He is quoted as referring to the British Isles as the "Isles of the Pretani." Pytheas visited an island six days sailing north of Great Britain, called Thule . It has been suggested that Thule may refer to Iceland or Greenland but parts of the Norwegian coast, Shetland and Faroe Islands have also been suggested by historians. Pytheas says Thule was an agricultural country that produced honey . Its inhabitants ate fruits and drank milk , and made a drink out of grain and honey. Unlike the people from Southern Europe, they had barns , and threshed their grain there rather than outside. He said he was shown the place where the sun went to sleep, and he noted that the night in Thule was only two to three hours. One day further north the "congealed" sea began, he claimed. As Strabo says (as quoted in Chevallier 1984):Pytheas also speaks of the waters around Thule and of those places where land properly speaking no longer exists, nor sea nor air, but a mixture of these things, like a "marine lung", in which it is said that earth and water and all things are in suspension as if this something was a link between all these elements, on which one can neither walk nor sail. The term used for "marine lung" (which caused much discussion in the past) actually means jellyfish , and modern scientists believe that Pytheas here tried to describe the formation of pancake ice at the edge of the drift ice , where sea, slush, and ice mix, surrounded by fog . Besides its texture, the appearance [1] of pancake ice is perhaps reminiscent of a group of jellyfish. After completing his survey of Great Britain, Pytheas travelled to the shallows on the continental North Sea coast. He may also have visited an island which was a source of amber . According to " The Natural History " by Pliny the Elder :Pytheas says that the Gutones, a people of Germany, inhabit the shores of an estuary of the Ocean called Mentonomon, their territory extending a distance of six thousand stadia; that, at one day's sail from this territory, is the Isle of Abalus, upon the shores of which, amber is thrown up by the waves in spring, it being an excretion of the sea in a concrete form; as, also, that the inhabitants use this amber by way of fuel, and sell it to their neighbours, the Teutones. The island could have been Helgoland , Zealand in the Baltic Sea or even the shores of Bay of Danzig , Sambia and or Curonian Lagoon which were historically the richest sources of amber in the North Europe (Pliny's Gutones might have been Germanic Goths or Balt Galindians ).Pytheas may have returned the way he came; or by land, following the Rhine and Rhône rivers.
Statue of Pytheas outside the Palais de la Bourse , Marseilles .
Antigua&Barbuda1991;15d;SG1504.
http://en.metapedia.org/wiki/Pytheas

Hanno the Navigator

Hanno the Navigator was a Carthaginian explorer of the sixth or fifth century BC, best known for his naval exploration of the western coast of Africa. The only source of his voyage is a Greek periplus .
Carthage dispatched Hanno at the head of a fleet of 60 ships to explore and colonize the northwestern coast of Africa . He sailed through thestraits of Gibraltar , founded or repopulated seven colonies along the African coast of what is now Morocco, and explored significantly farther along the Atlantic coast of the continent. Hanno encountered various indigenous peoples on his journey and met with a variety of welcomes.
At the terminus of Hanno's voyage, the explorer found an island heavily populated with what were described as hirsute and savage people. Attempts to capture the males failed, but three of the females were taken. These were so ferocious that they were killed, and their skins preserved for transport home to Carthage. The skins were kept in the Temple of Tannit on Hanno's return and, according to Pliny the Elder , survived until the Roman destruction of Carthage in 146 BC, some 350 years after Hanno's expedition. The interpreters travelling with Hanno called the peoplegorillae , and when European explorers first encountered gorillas in the 19th century, the apes were given this name on the assumption that they were the "people" Hanno described.
The primary source for Hanno's expedition is a Greek periplus , supposedly a translation of a tablet Hanno is reported to have hung up on his return to Carthage in the temple of Ba'al Hammon , whom Greek writers identified with Kronos . The full title translated from Greek is The Voyage of Hanno, commander of the Carthaginians, round the parts of Libya beyond the Pillars of Heracles , which he deposited in the Temple of Kronos . The text was known to Pliny the Elder and Arrian , the latter mentioning it at the end of his Anabasis of Alexander VIII (Indica):
Moreover, Hanno the Libyan started out from Carthage and passed the Pillars of Heracles and sailed into the outer Ocean, with Libya on his port side, and he sailed on towards the east, five-and-thirty days all told. But when at last he turned southward, he fell in with every sort of difficulty, want of water, blazing heat, and fiery streams running into the sea. A number of modern scholars have commented upon Hanno's voyage. In many cases, the analysis has been to refine information and interpretation of the original account. Harden states a general consensus exists that the expedition reached at least as far as Senegal . Some agree he could have reached Gambia .
Antigua&Barbuda1991;10d;SG1503. Madagascar 1993;15f;SG1000.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Argonauts

The Argonauts ( Ancient Greek : Ἀργοναῦται Argonautai ) were a band of heroes in Greek mythology , who in the years before the Trojan War , accompanied Jason to Colchis in his quest to find the Golden Fleece .Their name comes from their ship, the Argo , named after its builder, Argus . "Argonauts" literally means "Argo sailors". They were sometimes called Minyans , after a prehistoric tribe in the area.
After the death of King Cretheus , the Aeolian Pelias usurped the Iolcan throne from his half-brother Aesonand became king of Iolcus in Thessaly (near the modern city of Volos ). Because of this unlawful act, an oracle warned him that a descendant of Aeolus would seek revenge. Pelias put to death every prominent descendant of Aeolus he could, but spared Aeson because of the pleas of their mother Tyro . Instead, Pelias kept Aeson prisoner and forced him to renounce his inheritance. Aeson marriedAlcimede , who bore him a son named Jason. Pelias intended to kill the baby at once, but Alcimede summoned her kinswomen to weep over him as if he were stillborn. She faked a burial and smuggled the baby to Mount Pelion . He was raised by the centaur Chiron , the trainer of heroes.
When Jason was 20 years old, an oracle ordered him to dress as a Magnesian and head to the Iolcan court. While traveling Jason lost his sandal crossing the muddy Anavros river while helping an old woman ( Hera in disguise). The goddess was angry with King Pelias for killing his stepmotherSidero after she had sought refuge in Hera's temple.
Another oracle warned Pelias to be on his guard against a man with one shoe. Pelias was presiding over a sacrifice to Poseidon with several neighboring kings in attendance. Among the crowd stood a tall youth in leopard skin with only one sandal. Pelias recognized that Jason was his nephew. He could not kill him because prominent kings of the Aeolian family were present. Instead, he asked Jason: "What would you do if an oracle announced that one of your fellow-citizens were destined to kill you?" Jason replied that he would send him to go and fetch the Golden Fleece , not knowing that Hera had put those words in his mouth.
This golden ram's fleece now hung from a tree in the grove of the Colchian Ares, guarded night and day by a dragon that never slept. Pelias swore before Zeus that he would give up the throne at Jason's return while expecting that Jason's attempt to steal the Golden Fleece would be a fatal enterprise. However, Hera acted in Jason's favour during the perilous journey.
Jason was accompanied by some of the principal heroes of ancient Greece . The number of Argonauts varies, but usually totals between 40 and 55;traditional versions of the story place their number at 50.
Some have hypothesized that the legend of the Golden Fleece was based on a practice of the Black Sea tribes; they would place a lamb's fleece at the bottom of a stream to entrap gold dust being washed down from upstream. This practice is still in use, particularly in the Svaneti region of Georgia .
Georgia1998;30,0;SG256.
Source:en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Argonauts

Hatshepsut (Journey to the Land of Punt)

Hatshepsut meaning Foremost of Noble Ladies ; 1508–1458 BC was the fifth pharaoh of the Eighteenth dynasty of Egypt . Hatshepsut came to the throne of Egypt in 1478 BC. Officially, she ruled jointly with Thutmose III who had ascended to the throne as a child one year earlier. Hatshepsut established the trade networks that had been disrupted during the Hyksos occupation of Egypt during the Second Intermediate Period , thereby building the wealth of the eighteenth dynasty. She oversaw the preparations and funding for a mission to the Land of Punt . Hatshepsut built a Red Sea fleet to facilitate trade between the head of the Gulf of Aqaba and points south as far as Punt to bring mortuary goods to Karnak in exchange for Nubian gold. Hatshepsut personally made the most famous ancient Egyptian expedition that sailed to Punt. During the reign of Queen Hatshepsut in the 15th century BC, ships regularly crossed the Red Sea in order to obtainbitumen , copper, carved amulets, naptha and other goods transported overland and down the Dead Sea to Elat at the head of the gulf of Aqaba where they were joined ith frankincense and myrrh coming north both by sea and overland along trade routes through the mountains running north along the east coast of the RedSea. A report of that five-ship voyage survives on reliefs in Hatshepsut's mortuary temple at Deir el-Bahri . Throughout the temple texts, Hatshepsut "maintains the fiction that her envoy" Chancellor Nehsi , who is mentioned as the head of the expedition, had travelled to Punt "in order to extract tribute from the natives" who admit their allegiance to the Egyptian pharaoh. In reality, Nehsi's expedition was a simple trading mission to a land, Punt, which was by this time a well-established trading post. Moreover, Nehsi's visit to Punt was not inordinately brave since he was "accompanied by at least five shiploads of [Egyptian] marines" and greeted warmly by the chief of Punt and his immediate family. The Puntites "traded not only in their own produce of incense, ebony and short-horned cattle, but [also] in goods from other African states including gold, ivory and animal skins." According to the temple reliefs, the Land of Punt was ruled at that time by King Parahu and Queen Ati. This well illustrated expedition of Hatshepsut occurred in Year 9 of the female pharaoh's reign with the blessing of the god Amun :
The Land of Punt by the ancient Egyptians, was an Egyptian trading partner known for producing and exporting gold, aromatic resins, blackwood, ebony, ivory, and wild animals. The region is known from ancient Egyptian records of trade missions to it. Some biblical scholars have identified it with the biblical land of Put.
At times Punt is referred to as , the "land of the god".
The exact location of Punt is still debated by historians. Most scholars today believe Punt was located to the southeast of Egypt, most likely in the coastal region of what is today Somalia, Djibouti, Eritrea, Northeast Ethiopia and the Red Sea coast of Sudan. However, some scholars point instead to a range of ancient inscriptions which locate Punt in theArabian Peninsula.[6] It is also possible that the territory covered both the Horn of Africa and Southern Arabia.

Antigua&Barbuda1991;4d;SG1509. Libya1983;100dh;SG1305. Equatorial Guinea1974;0,10e;SG? Gambia1980;67b;SG442; Bulgaria1975;1s;SG2435. Madagascar 1993;5,0f;SG996. Mongolia1981;10m;SG1367. Egypt1926; 10m;SG139. 1995;15p;SG1965.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hatshepsut
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Land_of_Punt
$post_attachment_names[$j]$post_attachment_names[$j]$post_attachment_names[$j]$post_attachment_names[$j]$post_attachment_names[$j]$post_attachment_names[$j]$post_attachment_names[$j]

GENERAL GODDARD

The full index of our ship stamp archive

GENERAL GODDARD

Postby shipstamps » Sun Nov 02, 2008 4:28 pm


Click image to view full size
St Helena did issue a 6p stamp on 17 December 1973, which shows use the British East Indiaman GENERAL GODDARD, which captured seven Dutch East Indiamen off St Helena.
In June 1795 news reached St Helena that the Dutch Revolutionary Party had joined France in the war against England.
Captain William Taylor Money was at St Helena at that time with the GENERAL GODDARD during his fifth voyage from India.
In haste he fitted his ship out for battle, to intercept a Dutch merchant fleet known to be nearing the island.
The GENERAL GODDARD got help from the HMS SCEPTRE a 3rd Rate 64 gun ship, and the packet SWALLOW.

18 May 1795 a Dutch fleet of 16 VOC ships sailed from the Cape, escorted by two warships the SCIPIO and KOMEET bound for the Netherlands. Due to bad weather and adverse winds, eight ships returned to the Table Bay where she arrived on 20 May. One day later the eight ships sailed out again, but had lost the contact with the convoy.
14 June 1795 were these 8 ships captured by the British ships off St Helena. (Not much is given in the Dutch books I have on the VOC about this loss)

The HMS SCEPTER under command of Captain Essington arrived at St Helena in May with a convoy of homebound ships, and she brought the news that armies of France had overran the Netherlands.
Then the packet SWALLOW arrived on 2 June from the Cape with the news that an important Dutch convoy was underway from the Cape to the Netherlands.
Capt Essington made a request to the Governor of St Helena that some of the East Indiamen of the company could be put under his orders, to assist them in the search and capturing of the Dutch convoy.
The MANSHIP, GENERAL GODDARD and the SWALLOW were put under his command, and some troops from the island embarked on this vessels.
03 June this small squadron sailed out and the search for the Dutch convoy began. Five other East Indiamen were prepared to join the squadron, the ASIA, LORD HAWKESBURY, ESSEX, AIRLY CASTLE and BUSBRIDGE. All available space on the island was loaded with the goods unladed from the ships, even the church was used.

The LORD HAWKESBURY, after sailing and in an attempt to weather the island, split her sails, and returned to St Helena. The ESSEX got also in problems when her fore-top-mast sprung. The BUSBRIDGE was the only ship what made contact with the squadron.

10 June one of the ships of the Dutch fleet the HOUGLY was seized and send to the roads of St Helena accompanied by the SWALLOW, after she delivered her at the roads the SWALLOW returned to the squadron with a number of additional seamen to reinforce the squadron.
The weather was not so good; a lot of gales and the MANSHIP and BUSBRIDGE lost the contact with the squadron.
On the afternoon of 14 June, seven sails were sighted on the weather bow, steering down before the wind.
GENERAL GODDARD sailed through the Dutch convoy on about 01.00 a.m. and was fired at, without returning fire.
The next morning at day-break, the Dutch fleet was still on the starboard bow of the HMS SCEPTRE and SWALLOW, and at 07.00 a.m. she displayed Dutch colours, whilst their commodore fired a gun to leeward. This was repeated by the SCEPTRE, and Capt. Essington supposed it would be followed by
‘heaving to’ of the Dutch ships, but the Dutch ships sailed on, three shots fired by the SCEPTRE ahead of the Dutch convoy did not give the result the British hoped for.
A signal was given to the GENERAL GODDARD to chase the Dutchmen to the SCEPTRE, when the GENERAL GODDARD instantaneously appeared under a cloud of canvas and was laid alongside the Dutch commodore ship ALBLASSERDAM who from her imposing appearance thought that she was a warship, and the ALBLASSERDAM followed Money’s directions to bear down.
The Dutch crews of the other ships fired several shots to the SCEPTRE and at the boats that were sent out with boarding parties. After the SCEPTRE did give a few broadsides the Dutch surrendered. At the same time the ASIA and BUSBRIDGE arrived and all seven Dutch vessels were boarded and taken as a prize, without the loss of any person.
All the ships came to anchor in the night of 17 June on the road of St Helena.
01 July the SCEPTRE with her prizes and British convoy sailed for England, the prizes arrived at Shannon, Ireland, where she were sold. The ZEELELIE (not visible on stamp) which had attempted to escape was wrecked off the Scilly Islands that year.

A painting, which depicts this battle, was made by the British artist Thomas Luny (1759 – 1837) for Captain Money of the GENERAL GODDARD (other source gives the painting was made for Robert Wigram the owner); the painting is now in the National Maritime Museum, Greenwich.
After this painting the stamp is designed. Not the complete painting is shown but only the central portion of the painting.
The ZEELELIE and HMS SCEPTRE and the packet SWALLOW are not shown on the stamp.
The GENERAL GODDARD, in foreground of stamp, with the six remaining Dutch ships, which can be seen in the background of the stamp.

The VOC ships taken were used regular between Holland and the Far East after she were built, the URL gives a search engine for the VOC ships http://www.inghist.nl/Onderzoek/Projecten/DAS/search for more information on the voyages.
The SURCHEANCE is not given, so most probably she was never used from Holland, or a hired vessel.

ALBLASSERDAM: Named after a town in the Netherlands. Built in 1782 on the yard of the VOC at Zeeland for the Chamber of the VOC at Amsterdam.
1150 ton.
She sailed from Ceylon in 1795, with a cargo on board with a total value of 457.491 Dutch Guilder, under command of Capt. Klaas Keuken, with on board 165 persons, one died during the voyage and 11 disembark at the Cape.

MENTOR: Built on the VOC yard of Zeeland in 1789 for the Chamber of the VOC in Zeeland.
Tonnage 560 ton.
Sailed from Batavia on 22 November 1794, with a cargo on board with a total value of 61.361 Dutch Guilder. She was under command of Capt. Ulke Barendsz with on board 50 persons.

(I believe this MENTOR is also depict on the British Indian Ocean Territory stamp issued in 1999 60p sg 229, not any MENTOR is mentioned in Rowan Hackman book on the “Ships of the East India Company”. The year on the stamp is the same as when the MENTOR was built)

MEERMIN: (Mermaid). Built in 1782 at the VOC yard at Amsterdam for the Chamber of the VOC at Amsterdam.
Tonnage 500 ton.
Sailed in 1795 from Batavia under command of Capt. Gerard Ewoud Overbeek with on board 40 persons.

DORDWIJK: Built in 1787 in Rotterdam for the Chamber of the VOC of Delft/Rotterdam.
Tonnage 800 ton
22 November 1794 she sailed from Batavia under command of Capt. Hendrik Willem Ketjen with on board 40 persons.

GENERAL GODDARD:
Built in 1782 by Randall, Rotherhite for William Money.
30 January 1782 launched under the name GENERAL GODDARD.
She made her first voyage under command of Captain Thomas Foxall for the British East India Company to Bombay, she made three voyages more to India, before she was sold in 1790 to Robert Wigram.
Her next voyage to Bengal was under command of Capt. Thomas Wakefield, thereafter she made a voyage under command of Captain W.T.Money, and during this voyage she assisted HMS SCEPTRE in the capture of seven Dutch East Indiamen off St Helena.
Thereafter she made one more voyage under command of Captain Thomas Graham from 1796 till 1798 to the Coromandel Coast and Bengal.
1798 After her arrival back in England, sold as a West Indiamen for the trade to the West Indies.
January 1800 taken by a Spanish 1st Rate, 80 gun and a frigate, 32 guns off Cuba, while on a passage from London to Jamaica and taken to Havana.
Then she disappears in history.
Tonnage 799 tons, dim. 116.7 x 35.11 x 14.9ft.

VROUWE AGATHA: (Lady Agatha). Built ?, she was hired by the Chamber of the VOC of Amsterdam.
Tonnage 900 ton.
22 November 1794 she sailed from Batavia under command of Capt. Herman Pieter Murk, crew ?
On board was a cargo with a total value of 115.960 Dutch Guilders.

SURCHEANCE: Bought in 1786.
Tonnage 768 ton.
Sailed 22 November 1794 from Batavia under command of Capt. Christiaan Zummack, crew ?
Cargo on board with a total value of 81.527 Dutch Guilder.
1795 The SURCHEANCE was lost on her voyage between St Helena and the U.K.

Source: Van Compagnie naar Koopvaardij by Dr. E S van Eyck van Heslinga. Log Book Volume 14 page 234. http://www.bweaver.nom.sh/brooke/brooke_ch8.html Ships of the East India Company by Rowan Hackman.
shipstamps
Site Admin
 
Posts: 19
Joined: Fri Mar 13, 2009 8:12 pm

Return to Ship Stamps Collection

Who is online

Users browsing this forum: D. v. Nieuwenhuijzen, Google Adsense [Bot], Google [Bot] and 24 guests

Sponsored Links