SHIP STAMP SOCIETY

SHIP STAMP SOCIETY

Interested in Ships and Stamps? The Ship Stamp Society is an international society and publishes it’s journal, Log Book, six time a year.
Other benefits include the availability of a "Packet" for anyone who wants to purchase or sell ship stamps.
Full membership of £17 (UK only) includes receiving Log Book by post, but there is an online membership costing just £12pa.
Full details can be found on our web site at http://www.shipstampsociety.com where you can also join and pay your chosen subscription through Paypal or by cheque.
A free sample of Log Book is available on request.

Duarte Pacheco Pereira 1505.(Atlantic Navigation)

Duarte Pacheco Pereira c. 1460 – 1533),[1]called the Portuguese Achilles (Aquiles Lusitano) by the poet Camões, was a Portuguesesea captain, soldier, explorer and cartographer. He travelled particularly in the central Atlantic Ocean west of the Cape Verde islands, along the coast of West Africa and to India. His accomplishments in strategic warfare, exploration, mathematics and astronomy were of an exceptional level.
Pacheco Pereira was the son of João Pacheco and Isabel Pereira. In his youth he served as the King of Portugal's personal squire. In the year of 1455, having graduated with honors, he was awarded a study fellowship from the monarch himself. Later on, in 1488 he explored the west coast of Africa. His expedition fell ill with fever and lost their ship. Pacheco Pereira was rescued from the island of Príncipe in the Gulf of Guinea by Bartolomeu Dias when Dias was returning from rounding the Cape of Good Hope for the first time.
The knowledge he collected from Dias expedition as well as his own explorations granted him the post of official geographer of the Portuguese monarch. In 1494 he signed the Pope-sanctioned Treaty of Tordesillas, which shared the non-Christian world between Portugal and Spain.
In 1503 Duarte Pacheco Pereira departed for India as captain of Espírito Santo, one of the three ships in the fleet headed by Afonso de Albuquerque. In 1504, he was placed in charge of the defence of Cochin, a Portuguese protectorate in India, from a series of attacks between March and July 1504 by the ruling Zamorin of Calicut. (see Battle of Cochin (1504)). Having only 150 Portuguese and a small number of Malabarese auxiliaries at his disposal, Cochin was vastly outnumbered by the Zamorin's army of 60,000. Nonetheless, by clever positioning, individual heroics and a lot of luck, Duarte Pacheco successfully resisted attacks for five months, until the humiliated Zamorin finally called off his forces. His son Lisuarte (or Jusarte) took a leading part in the fight.
For his exploits in the defense of Cochin, Duarte Pacheco was given a grant of arms by the Trimumpara Raja of Cochin, and greeted with honors the King Manuel I of Portugal and public festivities upon his return to Lisbon in 1505.
Between 1505 and 1508 Duarte Pacheco Pereira composed a book, Esmeraldo de situ orbis, inspired on Pomponius Mela's De situ Orbis, which has been described as one of the first major scientific works "reporting on what was observed and experimented in the newly 'discovered' environment." Never completed, it was not published until 1892, possibly to avoid giving others information about Portugal's valuable Guinea trade.
Duarte Pacheco Pereira was probably the first man to scientifically study the relationship between the tides and the phases of the moon, which played a critical importance in the course of the Battle of Cochin, and carefully took notes on the timing of the tides. Pacheco is said to have been the first to notice their connection to the moon and establish rules for predicting the progress of tides by reference to lunar observations. He also sifted through his data to correct and improve astronomical observations (notably correcting the average daily deviation of the moon from the sun) and constructing nautical measurements to be used by future Portuguese navigators.
In 1508, Duarte Pacheco was commissioned by the Portuguese king to give chase to Mondragon French privateer which operated between the Azores and the Portuguese coast, where they attacked the ships coming from Portuguese India. Duarte Pacheco located and cornered Mondragon off Cape Finisterre in 1509, and defeated and captured him.
Later in life, while away governing São Jorge da Mina, he was slandered by his enemies at court with accusations of theft and corruption. He was recalled to the capital and briefly imprisoned until he was exonerated by the Crown being proved innocent. But the damage was done as he had lost his governorship, his wealth, and influence. Although he was acquitted his protector, King João II of Portugal had died and been replaced by a king who didn't acknowledge the value of Duarte Pacheco. He had many enemies abroad, and few friends in the capital to defend him. He died alone and penniless.
According to one of its most important biographers, the Portuguese historian Joaquim Barradas de Carvalho, who lived in exile in Brazil in the 1960s, Duarte Pacheco was a genius comparable to Leonardo da Vinci. With the anticipation of more than two centuries, the cosmographer was responsible for calculating the value of the degree of the meridian arc with a margin of error of only 4%, when the current error at the time varied between 7 and 15%.
It has also been suggested that Duarte Pacheco Pereira may have discovered the coasts of Maranhão, Pará and Marajó island and the mouth of the Amazon River in 1498, preceding the possible landings of the expeditions of Amerigo Vespucci in 1499, of Vicente Yáñez Pinzon in January 1500, and of Diego de Lepe in February 1500; and the Cabral`s expedition in April 1500, making him the first known European explorer of present-day Brazil. This claim is based on interpretations of the cipher manuscript Esmeraldo de Situ Orbis, written by Duarte Pacheco Pereira.
Duarte Pacheco Pereira's Esmeraldo de Situ Orbis is the first European navigation script book to mention the coast of Brazil.
Portugal 1993;4,0;SG?
Source: wikipedia.org/wiki/Duarte_Pacheco_Pereira.

GOMEL town

Gomel is one of the most ancient cities of Belarus, which arose at the end of the 1st millennium A. D. The official year of its foundation is 1142 when the city was mentioned in the Hypatian Codex.
The present Gomel is the second largest regional centre in the republic. It is a city with developed industry, science, culture, an important transport hub and socio-political centre for interregional relations between Russia, Ukraine and Belarus. Over one hundred enterprises of machine building, light, food, chemical and of other industries are operating in the city.
The man in the boat is a statue which is placed in the Lunacharsky Park in Gomel, a monument to the first man to set foot on the land of Gomel. At his feet sits a lynx - a symbol of the city.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gomel

Belarus 2017 Face value “M” is equal to the air-mail tariff of a postcard abroad.sg?, scott?

VENCEDORA corvette 1861

Built as a wooden hulled screw corvette by Arsenal de Cartagena for the Spanish Navy.
1861 Launched as the VENCEDORA one of the Narváez class.
Displacement 778 ton, dim. 58 x 9.6 x 4.3m.
Powered by one steam engine, 200 nhp, one screw, speed 8 knots.
Armament: 2 – 200mm and 2 – 160mm guns.
Crew?
1861 Completed.

VENCEDORA was a screw corvette with a wooden hull and propulsion by steam and with an auxiliary rig that served in the Spanish Navy between 1861 and 1888 belonging to the Narváez class.
With a length of 58 m and a displacement of 778 t, its propulsion was a steam engine of 200 nhp that powered a single propeller. It was armed with two 200-mm rotating guns on the sides and two 160-millimeter rotary guns at the bow.
History
1862 The VENCEDORA was sent under the command of Admiral Luis Hernández-Pinzón Álvarez along with the screw frigates TRIUNFO and RESOLUCION and the protected schooner VIRGEN DE COVADONGA as part of an scientific expedition to the Pacific as the flagship of that squadron, sailing from Cádiz on the 10th August 1862 with three zoologists, a geologist, a botanist, an anthropologist, a taxidermist and a photograph on board and via the Canary Islands, Cape Verde, Brazil, Rio de la Plata, from where they sailed from the city of Montevideo on 10 January 1863, and via Patagonia, Falkland Islands, passed Cape Horn in February, Chiloé, coasts of Chile and Peru and California, arriving in San Francisco on the 09 of October, sailing again from San Francisco on November 1, bound for Valparaíso, where she arrived on 13 January 1864.
Participated in the bombardment of Valparaiso, which had as intention to destroy the administration centre and the stock exchange, took part in the Battle of Callao, where she faced the defences of the northern area and towed away from the line of fire the damaged VILLA DE MADRID.
At the end the war she was ordered to sail to the Philippines where she intervened in all campaigns against Parang and Jolo between 1871 and 1882.
In 1888 it was disarmed and decommissioned.

Sources: https://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vencedora_(1861)
Chile 2017 label

BLANCA frigate 1859

Built as a wooden screw frigate by Reales Astilleros de Esteira, Ferrol for the Spanish Navy.
09 October 1853 ordered.
Launched as the BLANCA one of the Petronila Class.
Displacement 3,800 ton, dim. ?
Armament 30 – 68 pdrs, and 14 – 32 pdrs, guns.
One steam engine, 360 nhp., one shaft, speed ?
Commissioned 1859.

The REINA BLANCA or BLANCA, was a screw frigate of the Spanish Navy, with wooden hull and powered by steam and sails, built on the Royal Shipyards de Esteira in Ferrol.
She received her name in memory of Queen Blanca de Navarra. She was ordered together with the frigates PETRONILA and BERENGUELA on 08 August 1863.

History
Since October 1859, under the command of Captain Manuel Sibila she participated in blockade operations and coastal bombing during the African War or First War of Morocco.
Between 1861 - 1862 , she participated in the expedition against Mexico together with forces of the United Kingdom and France , as part of the squadron under command of General Joaquín Gutiérrez de Rubalcava , commander general of the Apostadero de La Havana . When the French intentions to place Maximilian I of Habsburg as emperor of Mexico were put in place, BLANCA was ordered to return to Cuba.
During the Hispano-South American War, she was under the command of Juan Bautista Topete, she participated with the frigate VILLA DE MADRID, in the Battle of Abtao. On 17 February 1866, she sailed with the NUMANCIA from Valparaíso to the Chiloé Islands, anchoring on the 27th of the same month in Puerto Low and on 1 March in Puerto Oscuro and on the 9th at Arauco Bay the BLANCA captured that same afternoon a steamer called PAQUETE DEL MAULE , the next day, the BLANCA captured two coal barges, after which, on the 12 March, the five ships began their return to Valparaíso, where the NUMANCIA and the PAQUETE DEL MAULE arrived on 14 March and the rest of the ships the following day.
He also participated in the bombardment of Valparaíso and in the Battle of Callao, along with the rest of the Pacific squadron.
After the Battle of Callao on May 10, the Pacific squadron left the South American waters. The frigates VILLA DE MADRID, BLANCA and ALMANSA RESOLUTION via the Cape Horn route, while BERENGUELA and NUMANCIA, headed to the Philippines to repair the damages of the BERENGUELA, and the lack of coal in the NUMANCIA.
Between March and June of 1874, the BLANCA operated against the Carlist forces during the Second Carlist War, bombarding Santurce , Algorta and Carlist positions in San Pedro Abanto on 25 March, Santurce, Portugalete, Las Arenas and Carlist forces in the surroundings of Ciérvana on 26 March, Santurce, Portugalete and Las Arenas on 27 March and Ciérvana on 28th.
From 1874 to 1881, she was used as a school ship for the training of future officers of the Spanish Navy.
On the occasion of the inauguration of the Universal Exhibition of Barcelona , on 20 May, 1888 several ships of the Spanish fleet were at Barcelona, the armoured frigate NUMANCIA the screw frigate GERONA and BLANCA, the cruisers CASTILE and NAVARRE, ISLA DE LUZON, ISLA DE CUBA, the DESTRUCTOR, the gunboats PILAR and CÓNDOR and the transport LEGAZPI.
The BLANCA was decommissioned shortly after ceasing the school ship activity in 1882, but it looks in 1888 she was still around.
1893 Is given that she was broken up.

Source: https://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Blanca_(1859).
Chile 2017 label.

João da Nova (Isl.Ascension, Saint Helena)

João da Nova was a Galician explorer of the Atlantic and Indian Oceans at the service of Portugal . He is credited as the discoverer of Ascension and Saint Helena islands.
The Juan de Nova Island , in the Mozambique Channel , is named after him. The Farquhar atoll(in the Seychelles ) was, for a long time, known as the João da Nova islands. It is sometimes thought that the Agaléga islands (in the Indian Ocean) was also named after him (although it is almost certain he never visited them).
Juan da Nova was born into a noble family in Maceda on1460 , Galicia , then a constituent kingdom of the Crown of Castile . Nova was sent by his family to Portugal , where he grew up, to escape the struggles between aristocratic factions known as the Irmandiño wars . In Portugal, he was also known as João Galhego ("the Galician"). In 1496, he was appointed as Alcaide menor ( Mayor ) of Lisbon by king Manuel I .
On 9 or 10 March 1501, João da Nova departed as commander of the third Portuguese expedition to India , leading a small four vessel fleet under a joint private initiative of Florentine Bartolomeo Marchionni and Portuguese D. Álvaro of Braganza.On the outward leg of this expedition, in May 1501, Nova is believed to have sighted Ascension Island in the South Atlantic. After doubling the Cape , he is said to also have discovered what has since been called Juan de Nova Island in the Mozambique Channel.
Arriving in India, Nova established a feitoria (trading post) in Cannanore On December 31, 1501, João da Nova's little fleet engaged the fleet of the Zamorin of Calicut in a battle outside of Cannanore harbor, the first Portuguese naval battle in the Indian Ocean. Some historians have conjectured that Nova (or one of his captains) might also have visited the island of Ceylon at some point on this trip.
Nova's armada left India in January 1502. On his return journey, Nova is said to have discovered the South Atlantic island of Saint Helena on 21 May 1502, the feast day of Helena of Constantinople .
On 5 March 1505, he undertook another voyage to India as captain of the Flor de la Mar in the 7th Portuguese India armada commanded by Francisco de Almeida , the first Portuguese Viceroy of India. Nova had been granted credentials by the king entitling him to be Captain-Major of the Indian coast fleet if suitable. In East Africa, the armada captured Kilwa (in which event Nova played a critical role relaying secret missives between Almeida and local pretender Muhammad Arcone) and proceeded to raid Mombassa .
After crossing the Indian Ocean, the armada spent some time erecting forts and raiding ports, before eventually arriving at Cochin in October.There D. Francisco de Almeida inaugurated his term as Viceroy of Portuguese India , but refused to allow João da Nova to invoke his credentials as Captain-Major of the Indian coastal patrol. Almeida claimed that the Flor de la Mar was too large to enter the Indian coastal inlets and lagoons and thus unsuitable as a patrol ship. Almeida offered João da Nova the option of switching to a caravel , and sending the Flor back under another captain, but Nova chose to bring her back to Lisbon himself. Almeida then appointed his own son, Lourenço de Almeida , as captain-major of the patrol.
Leaving India in February 1506, Nova's heavy-laden Flor de la Mar , developed a leak in the hull in the environs of Zanzibar and was forced to stop for repairs in the islands of the Mozambique Channel . He would spend the next eight months in the area repairing the ship, a delay prolonged by illness and contrary winds.
He was still stranded with his leaky ship in February, 1507, when the 8th Armada , under command of Tristão da Cunha , arrived in Mozambique Island . Cunha helped complete the repairs, transferred its cargo to a Lisbon-bound transport, and annexed Nova and the Flor de la Mar into his own India-bound fleet.
João da Nova's took part in the Portuguese capture of Socotra in August 1507. Much to his surprise, he was assigned to remain in Socotra with the Red Sea patrol, a detachment of six ships under D. Afonso de Albuquerque 's command, rather than continue with Cunha on to India.But his presence in the Red Sea patrol turned out to be a disturbance to Albuquerque, even if his exact role in the subsequent "mutiny of the captains" may have been somewhat murky. Besides his own frustrations, Nova regaled fellow patrol captains with tales of Indian riches, a much more attractive option than the barren coasts of Arabia they were assigned to patrol. In August–September, 1507, Albuquerque led his little squad into the Gulf of Oman and began to raid a series of coastal cities in succession - Qalhat , Qurayyat , Muscat - signalling his intention to proceed in this manner all the way up the Arabian coast and across to the island of Hormuz . The patrol captains, who were lured to the East Indies with dreams of quick and easy riches, balked at the prospect of a tiring succession of profitless, dangerous fights with insufficient men-at-arms. After Muscat, the exhausted João da Nova submitted a formal request to Albuquerque for permission to leave the patrol and proceed to India (ostensibly to request reinforcements from the viceroy Almeida). When this was denied, Nova protested and was placed under arrest. He was later pardoned and released, as his command was needed for the Battle of Hormuz in October, 1507.
Shortly after the battle, Nova once again was at the center of a renewed series of complaints, this time over the establishment of a fortress in the city of Hormuz. In early 1508, during the construction of the fortress, three of the patrol ships slipped away from Albuquerque's sight and set sail to India, intending to lodge formal complaints against Albuquerque with the vice-roy Francisco de Almeida in Cochin . João da Nova was not among them, but Albuquerque nonetheless decided to let him go as well, hoping that by this belated magnanimous gesture, Nova might argue on his behalf. He didn't. Once in Cochin, João da Nova joined the three other captains in opening a formal case against Albuquerque.
João da Nova fought in the Battle of Diu in February 1509, his ship, the Flor de la Mar , being used by the vice-roy Francisco de Almeida as the flagship of the Portuguese battle fleet. In March of that year, Afonso de Albuquerque, by then in Cochin himself, invoked his own secret credentials to relieve Francisco de Almeida as governor of India. But João da Nova, along with the other captains, assembled a petition demanding that Almeida refused to yield it, characterizing Albuquerque as unfit to govern. In May of the same year, Almeida formally opened a council in Cochin to consider the reception of Albuquerque. Nova and the other patrol captains presented the case against him.
João da Nova died shortly after, in July 1509, just a couple of weeks before Almeida delivered the indictment and ordered Albuquerque's arrest. In spite of all this, Albuquerque is said to have personally paid for Nova's funeral in memory of his achievements in the Hormuz campaign.
Portugal 1992;65e;SG?
Source;wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_explorers

TUG and LOG RAFT

For the prevention of tuberculosis, Finland issued in 1971 three stamps which shows us images of the timber industries, what this stamps has to do with tuberculosis is for me a puzzle. One stamp has a maritime theme, it shows us a steam tug towing a log raft.

Mr. Meliberg has contacted the stamp designer who said that the design of the 30 + 6p stamp was based on photographs he himself had taken of a steam tugboat in the Lake District in southwestern Finland. The designer could not remember the tugboat name.

Source: Watercraft Philately 1990 page 11.
Finland 1971 30 + 6p sg 780, scott B 192.
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Pandora HMS

The full index of our ship stamp archive

Pandora HMS

Postby shipstamps » Sat Sep 27, 2008 7:08 pm

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On August 8th 1966, Fiji issued three stamps commemorating the 175th anniversary of the discovery of Rotuma by Capt. Edward Edwards, R.N., in H.M.S. Pandora. In August 1790, the Pandora was commissioned by the Admiralty to search for mutineers from the Bounty. His orders were: "You are to keep the mutineers as closely confined as may preclude all possibility of their escaping, having however proper regard to the preservation of their lives, that they may be brought home to undergo the punishment due to their demerits".
After visiting Tahiti and neighbouring Pacific islands, Capt. Edwards had rounded up 14 of the Bounty crew on Tahiti. The voyage was continued westward and after passing Wallis Island he saw, on August 8, 1791, a fertile island which he named Grenville's Island, but which the local inhabitants called Rotuma. It was a long, narrow island, some eight miles in length and an average two miles in width, the most isolated island in the northern part of the Fiji group.
Three weeks later the Pandora ran aground of the north coast of Queensland while trying to negotiate the Endeavour Straits in the Great Barrier Reef on August 28, 1791, with the loss of 39 lives, including four prisoners.
The Pandora of 1779 was the first naval ship of the name, but in 1960 a yachtsman found in shallow water off the North Queensland coast, the wreckage of a wooden ship which was presumed to be H.M.S. Pandora, because of the ship's bell with this name, the size of the hulk and the approximate position of the wreck. A curious fact however was the inscription on the bell of this hulk: "Gift of Lady Herbert, daughter of Sir John Knatchbull, of Mearchim Hatch in Kent in the Kingdom of England, November 30, 1711".
The Dictionary of Natural Biography mentions a Sir John Knatchbull (1636-1696) but gives no details of his children. His uncle, Sir Norton Knatchbull, lived at Mersham Hatch. Other ships named Pandora were wrecked in the North Sea (1797) and Kattegatt (1811).
The 3d. stamp depicts the Pandora entering Split Island, Rotuma—the island is cleanly split in two, hence its name. On the Is. 6d. stamp Rotumans are shown signalling to a passing ship as they did in the old days and, indeed, still do, such is the infrequency of ships calling at Rotuma even now.
Sea Breezes 11/66

Fiji SG351,353,827,829.
Norfolk Is DG516/17.
Pitcairn Is SG316
Tokelau SG23
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Re: Pandora HMS

Postby john sefton » Fri Jan 07, 2011 12:17 am

H.M.S. Pandora; built at Deptford, 1779, by Adams and Barnard. Sixth Rate of 24 guns; 520 tons; length 114'/2 ft., beam 32 ft. in 1791, she was commissioned by Capt. Edwards, R.N., to search for the Bounty mutineers, picking up 14 at Tahiti. After calling at Rotuma Island on August 8, 1791, she ran aground on the Great Barrier Reef with the loss of 39, including four prisoners.
SG23 Sea Breezes 1/71
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Re: Pandora HMS

Postby Anatol » Wed Nov 19, 2014 11:19 pm

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Pandora HMS
Tokelau1999;3d;SG? Niuafo’ou1994;80s;SG210. Niuafo’ou1991;57s;SG154.
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Re: Pandora HMS

Postby aukepalmhof » Mon Oct 09, 2017 8:22 pm

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Built as a sixth rate by Adams & Barnard, Grove Street shipyard in Deptford for the Royal Navy.
11 February 1778 ordered.
02 March 1778 keel laid down.
17 May 1779 launched as the HMS PANDORA.
Tonnage 524 tons burthen, dim, 34.39 x 9.83 x 3.12m, draught 3.4m, length of keel 28.89m.
Armament: Upper deck 22 – 9 pdrs., quarterdeck 2 – 6 pdrs., in 1815 altered to 14 – 9 pdrs, 8 x 18 pdrs carronades, quarterdeck 2 – 6 pdrs.
Crew 160 when built, in 1815 140.
May 1779 commissioned.
03 July 1779 completed at Deptford Dockyard.

HMS PANDORA was a 24-gun Porcupine-class sixth-rate post ship of the Royal Navy launched in May 1779. She is best known as the ship sent in 1790 to search for the BOUNTY and the mutineers who had taken her. She was wrecked on the return voyage in 1791.
Early service
Her first service was in the Channel during the 1779 threatened invasion by the combined fleets of France and Spain. She was deployed in North American waters during the American Revolutionary War and saw service as a convoy escort between England and Quebec. On 18 July 1780, while under the command of Captain Anthony Parry, she and DANAE captured the American privateer JACK. Then on 2 September, the two British vessels captured the American privateer TERRIBLE. On 14 January PANDORA captured the brig JANIE. Then on 11 March she captured the ship MERCURY. Two days later PANDORA and HMS BELISARIUS were off the Capes of Virginia when they captured the sloop LOUS, which had been sailing to Virginia with a cargo of cider and onions.[ Under Captain John Inglis PANDORA captured more merchant vessels. The first was the brig LIVELY on 24 May 1782. More followed: the ship MERCURY and the sloops PORT ROYAL and SUPERB. 22 November 1782), brig NESTOR (3 February 1783), and the ship FINANCIER (29 March). At the end of the American war the Admiralty placed PANDORA in ordinary (mothballed) in 1783 at Chatham for seven years.
Voyage in search of the BOUNTY
PANDORA was finally ordered to be brought back into service on 30 June 1790 when war between England and Spain seemed likely due to the Nootka Crisis. However, in early August 1790, 5 months after learning of the mutiny on HMS BOUNTY, the First Lord of the Admiralty, John Pitt, 2nd Earl of Chatham, decided to despatch her to recover the BOUNTY, capture the mutineers, and return them to England for trial. She was refitted, and her 6-pounder guns were reduced to 20, though she gained four 18-pounder carronades.
PANDORA sailed from Portsmouth on 7 November 1790, commanded by Captain Edward Edwards and manned by a crew of 134 men. With his crew were Thomas Hayward, who had been on the BOUNTY at the time of the mutiny, and left with Bligh in the open boat. At Tahiti they were also assisted by John Brown, who had been left on the island by an English merchant ship, THE MERCURY.
Unknown to Edwards, twelve of the mutineers, along with four sailors who had stayed loyal to Bligh, had by then already elected to return to Tahiti, after a failed attempt to establish a colony (Fort St George) under Fletcher Christian's leadership on Tubuai, one of the Austral Islands. They were living in Tahiti as 'beachcombers', many of them having fathered children with local women. Fletcher Christian's group of mutineers and their Polynesian followers had sailed off and eventually established their settlement on then uncharted Pitcairn Island. By the time of PANDORA's arrival, fourteen of the former BOUNTY men remained on Tahiti, Charles Churchill having been murdered in a quarrel with Matthew Thompson, who was in turn killed by Polynesians who considered Churchill their king.
The PANDORA reached Tahiti on 23 March 1791 via Cape Horn. Three men came out and surrendered to Edwards shortly after PANDORA's arrival. These were Joseph Coleman, the BOUNTY's armourer, and Peter Heywood and George Stewart, midshipmen. Edwards then dispatched search parties to round up the remainder. Able Seaman Richard Skinner was apprehended the day after PANDORA's arrival. By now alerted to Edwards' presence, the other BOUNTY men fled to the mountains while James Morrison, Charles Norman and Thomas Ellison, tried to reach the PANDORA to surrender in the escape boat they had built. All were eventually captured, and brought back to PANDORA on 29 March. An eighth man, the half blind Michael Byrne, who had been fiddler aboard BOUNTY, had also come aboard by this time. It was not recorded whether he had been captured or had handed himself in. Edwards conducted further searches over the next week and a half, and on Saturday two more men were brought aboard PANDORA, Henry Hilbrant and Thomas McIntosh. The remaining four men, Thomas Burkett, John Millward, John Sumner and William Muspratt, were brought in the following day. These fourteen men were locked up in a makeshift prison cell, measuring eleven-by-eighteen feet, on the PANDORA's quarter-deck, which they called "PANDORA's Box".
On 8 May 1791 the PANDORA left Tahiti and subsequently spent three months visiting islands in the South-West Pacific in search of the BOUNTY and the remaining mutineers, without finding any traces of the pirated vessel. During this part of the voyage fourteen crew went missing in two of the ship's boats. In the meantime the PANDORA visited Tokelau, Samoa, Tonga and Rotumah. They also passed Vanikoro Island, which Edwards named Pitt's Island; but they did not stop to explore the island and investigate obvious signs of habitation. If they had done so, they would very probably have discovered early evidence of the fate of the French Pacific explorer La Perouse's expedition which had disappeared in 1788. From later accounts about their fate it is evident that a substantial number of crew survived the cyclone that wrecked their ships ASTROLABE and BOUSSOLE on Vanikoro's fringing reef.
Wrecked
Heading west, making for the Torres Strait, the frigate ran aground on 29 August 1791 on the outer Great Barrier Reef. She sank the next morning, claiming the lives of 31 of her crew and four of the prisoners. The remainder of the ship's company (89 men) and ten prisoners – seven of them released from their cell as the ship was actually sinking – assembled on a small sand cay and after two nights on the island they sailed for Timor in four open boats, arriving in Kupang on 16 September 1791 after an arduous voyage across the Arafura Sea. Sixteen more died after surviving the wreck, many having fallen ill during their sojourn in Batavia (Jakarta). Eventually only 78 of the 134 men who had been on board upon departure returned home.
Captain Edwards and his officers were exonerated for the loss of the PANDORA after a court martial. No attempt was made by the colonial authorities in New South Wales to salvage material from the wreck. The ten surviving prisoners were also tried; the various courts martial held found four of them innocent of mutiny and, although the other six were found guilty, only three (Millward, Burkitt and Ellison) were executed. Peter Heywood and James Morrison received a Royal pardon, while William Muspratt was acquitted on a legal technicality.


Shipwrecks: Capturing our maritime past - Part 2
The Shipwrecks stamp issue, which will be released on 29 August 2017, presents three historically and archaeologically significant shipwrecks. The stamps feature paintings by maritime artists of each wreck event, together with a recovered relic, to show the context of each voyage.
In our first instalment of this three-part article series, we spoke to artist Adriaan de Jong about the meticulous process involved in researching and painting the ZUYTDORP shipwreck. In this article, we move from a Dutch VOC trade ship to a Royal Navy ship sent to hunt down some famous insurgents.
HMS PANDORA
HMS PANDORA sank on 29 August 1791, on the outer Great Barrier Reef, while returning home from its mission to locate the mutinous BOUNTY crew in the Pacific Ocean. In total, 35 lives were lost during the wrecking including four of the captured BOUNTY mutineers.
While 14 of the 25 BOUNTY mutineers were captured upon PANDORA’s arrival in Tahiti, Fletcher Christian, fearing reprisal from the powerful Royal Navy, had fled Tahiti in BOUNTY with a small band of his supporters – destination unknown. The captured mutineers were shackled in leg irons within a wooden cell, 3.5 metres by 5.5 metres, located on the quarterdeck of PANDORA. The prisoners dubbed this “PANDORA’s Box”. With the prisoners secure, HMS PANDORA searched the Tokelau Islands, Tongan Islands and Fiji for five months, but still could not locate Fletcher Christian and his men. It was then that Captain Edwards decided to head for home.
The wreck of PANDORA and its artefacts are looked after by the Cultures and Histories Program at the Queensland Museum Network. Dr Madeline Fowler is the Senior Curator Maritime Archaeology, and her role is to care for the objects to national standards, increase access to the objects and undertake new research on the collection. Alison Mann is the Assistant Collections Manager and is also based at the Museum of Tropical Queensland.
Both Alison and Madeline find the PANDORA a fascinating and intriguing story.
“I feel it’s the intertwined stories,” says Alison. “The First Fleet depart England in May 1787, six months later BOUNTY sets sail. One month after that we have European settlement in Australia, while BOUNTY is still sailing around the world following orders from the Admiralty. Fourteenth months after the British colonise Australia there is the mutiny on board BOUNTY and then, after many more months the Admiralty send PANDORA out into a largely uncharted Pacific to hunt down the mutineers … this story is just short of four years in the making!” notes Alison.
For Madeline, the PANDORA story starts when the wreck was discovered in 1977 and the subsequent nine seasons of excavation in the 1980s and 1990s.
“The archaeological methods used to record the site differ in some ways to how the site would be documented if it were discovered today. It is interesting to understand how the management of underwater cultural heritage changes over time,” says Madeline.
The museum holds thousands of artefacts from PANDORA, including the pistol featured on the stamps and some incredible carved wooden clubs from Polynesia, which the crew would have collected while searching for the mutineers.
I have held that pistol, the one on the stamp, in my hand. It is a tangible connection to this story. All Royal vessels had an armoury, had the weapons to deal with whatever threat came their way. This pistol would have been prepared and ready to fire as PANDORA discovered some of the mutineers in the islands of the Pacific. The sailor who held the weapon would have had the orders to shoot if necessary … and our carved wooden clubs from Polynesia? We have the ship’s log of where and when the islands were visited by PANDORA. We can date and locate the clubs to island groups. We see the artistry of the work by the carvers. We can do research today and see how the styles, icons and designs may have changed over 200 years. But also by where the clubs were located in the wreck (in the Officer’s Store, and we know this through the use of archaeological techniques). We believe the clubs were collected by one or more of the officers with the long term view of profiting from the unique circumstances that found them on a voyage in the vast Pacific Ocean. In the late 1700s, museums back in Britain and Europe would pay good money for these ‘artificial curiosities’ (today, we would call them souvenirs). The PANDORA clubs are similar to other significant international collections of Polynesian objects collected during the late 1700s,” says Alison.

“While these artefacts [the pistol and wooden clubs] are significant, they should be interpreted as part of the entire assemblage,” says Madeline. “The pistol is on object within a collection of weapons and accessories that include ordnance, small fire arms, shot for guns and small arms, kegs, gunner’s equipment and bladed weapons. While the war clubs are one example of Polynesian material culture that also includes adze blades, shell blades, poi pounders, lures, hooks, octopus lures, and the modified coconut husks and shell fragments that comprise the Tahitian mourning dress,” adds Madeline.
“Our collection is special because of its diversity and intactness … PANDORA wasn’t smashed against a rocky coastline and broken into thousands of pieces. The ship ran onto a reef and had a large hole ripped out of the side. One of the pumps on board whose job it was to pump water out of the hold in a situation like this broke down, the ship took on too much water. There was time to get the long boats off the vessel and get the crew and some prisoners on board. Hence the low loss of life. Then the tide lifted the stricken vessel off the reef but it didn’t get far – it sank in 30 metres of water. Gently, over the next 200 years it was covered in sand. It was this process, this action that gives us the collection we have today,” adds Alison.
To learn more about the HMS PANDORA, visit Queensland Museum’s website. To learn more about the entire shipwrecks collection, read Madeline Fowler’s blog article.
In our third and final article, we look at the wrecking of the luxury paddle steamer CLONMEL on only her second voyage.

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