SHIP STAMP SOCIETY

SHIP STAMP SOCIETY

Interested in Ships and Stamps? The Ship Stamp Society is an international society and publishes it’s journal, Log Book, six time a year.
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TRAKAI CASTLE BRIDGE

For the Europa issues, Litauen issued two stamps in 2018 of 0.75 Euro, by the stamp with the Trakai Castle Bridge the Litauen Post gives.

Trakai Castle Bridge - a pedestrian bridge on Lake Galvė leading to one of the larger islands - Castle Island in Trakai. The bridge connecting the city with the castle consists of two parts, among which the Karaim or Cowan Island.

There are some medieval type vessels depict in the foreground of which I think by looking to the rigging that the small vessel on the left of the stamp is a “kurenas” see: viewtopic.php?f=2&t=8754
On the right of the stamp two ships of the “maasilinn” type are depict see: viewtopic.php?f=2&t=14743

Litauen 2018 0.75 Euro sg?, scott?

MAIL TRANSPORT PORTUGAL

For the 25 Anniversary van het Ministry of Transport in 1973 Portugal issued three stamps which shows us mail transports, on the 6$00 stamp which shows us a stylized vessel which looks like a ro-ro vessel. Have not any info on the ship.

Portugal 1973 6e00 sg?, scott?

MERIDIANAS

Litauen issued in 2018 two Europa stamps which shows us bridges of that country both are 0.75 Euro.
The stamp which shows us a stamp with a bridge in Klaipeda, is the Birzos Bridge, in the background is a cruise vessel of which I have not any information, the light tower is the rear leading light tower of the port.
In front of the bridge is a tall ship, which is the MERIDIANAS homeported in Klaipeda and used as a floating restaurant vessel in 2018.

Built as a wooden hulled training ship under yard No 5 by Oy Laivateollisuus Ab shipyard in Turkey, Finland for the Ministry of Fisheries in Moscow.
22 February 1947 laid down.
10 June 1948 launched as the MERIDIAN, two sisters the SEKSTANT and TROPIK.
Tonnage 322 brt, 41 nrt, 55 dwt., dim. 39.40 x 8.90 x 3.40m. (draught)
Powered with an auxiliary 2-stroke diesel engine, speed with engine 6.5 knots.
Barquentine rigged.
30 August 1948 completed.
01 October 1948 delivered to the Soviet Union.

After Finland signed a peace treaty with the Soviet Union on 19 September 1944 Finland agreed war reparations under which building of vessels for the Soviet Union, one of this vessels was the MERIDIAN.
03 May 1949 the Maritime School of Klaipeda receives the training vessel, her name was then MERIDIANAS.
1954 She joins the Baltic training fleet, thereafter she was used for training voyages with trainees from Kaliningrad, Riga and Klaipeda maritime schools.
1968 In the aftermath of an accident MERIDIANAS is deleted from the list of active training ships and moved to Klaipeda.
1970 She is handed over to the Public Trust of Eateries, Restaurants and Cafés of Klaipeda.
1971 A restaurant was opened on board of the MERIDIANAS.
1994 Was she privatised.
2001 For a token of 1 Litas she was sold, and a support fund was founded for the sailing ship MERIDIANAS, a symbol of the maritime city Klaipeda, which took over the management of the ship.
Early October 2012 the then head of the Fund applies to the Government of Litauen for a permit to sink the MERIDIANAS in the territorial waters of Litauen. The reason not any money is available for the repair and restauration of the vessel.
19 October 2012 the ship was handed over to Aloyzas Kuzmarskis and Aidas Kaveckis with intention to overhaul and repair the barquentine, she was moved to the Western Shipyard (AB Klasipédos laivu remontas AB) where she docked on 10 November 2012, and repair work on her hull commenced.
09 November 2013 after repaired and restoration she was moved to her permanent location at the embankment of the Dane River behind the Birzos Bridge.
19 July 2014 her sail were hoisted again for the first time after the restoration, and she is handed back to the city of Klaipeda.
18 December 2014 management is taken over by Friedrich pazazas.
2018 She is still in Klaipeda and a restaurant and bar are operating on board.

Source: http://www.restoranasmeridianas.lt/en/h ... ackground/ and internet.
Litauen 2018 0.75 Euro sg?, scott?

HAMINA-CLASS fast attack craft

This Finish stamp shows us one of the Hamina-class fast attack craft, the stamp shows not a pennant no, that one of this class of four ships is depict.

All four were built by Aker Finnyard in Rauma, Finland for the Finnish Navy.
Displacement 250 tons, dim. 51 x 8.5 x 1.7m. (draught).
Powered by two MTU 16V 538 TB93 diesel engines 5,520 kW, two Rolls Royce Kamewa 90SII waterjets. Speed over 30 knots., range 500 mile.
Armament: 1 – Bofors 57mm/70 SAK Mk3, 2 – 12.7mm M.G. 8 Umkhonto-IR SAM (Denel), 4 – RRS-15 Mk2 SSM (Saab), 1 rail for depth charges or mines (sea mine 2000)
Crew 26.

The Hamina-class missile boat is a class of fast attack craft of the Finnish Navy. They are classified as "missile fast attack craft" or ohjusvene, literally "missile boat" in Finnish.
History
The vessels were built in the late 1990s, early 2000s, and are the fourth generation of Finnish missile craft. The first vessel was ordered in December 1996 and the fourth was handed over on 19 June 2006. Since the launch of the Helsinki-class missile boats, all fast attack craft have been named after Finnish coastal cities. The class was previously known also as Rauma 2000 following its predecessor the Rauma class.
The four vessels form what the Finnish Navy calls Squadron 2000 (Finnish: Laivue 2000). Initially the Finnish Navy considered several different compositions for the new squadron, and at one point only two Hamina-class vessels and four Tuuli-class ACV were to have been built. After a strategic shift of the Finnish Navy's role, the composition of the Squadron 2000 followed suit. The Tuuli-class prototype was never fully equipped, nor fitted for operational use and its three sisters were cancelled, instead two more Hamina-class boats have been built; with some of the equipment intended for the Tuulis being used in the Haminas. The fourth and final Hamina-class vessel was delivered in summer 2006.
The squadron reached its full operational capability in 2008 and have greatly improved the surface- and air surveillance as well as air defense capability of the Finnish Navy. Their electronic surveillance suite also increases the quality of information available to military leaders.
All ships were built at Aker Finnyards in Rauma, Finland. The vessels have their home base at Upinniemi.
In March 2014 it was announced that the Hamina-class missile boats will be upgraded in the near future.
MLU (Mid-Life Update
In January 2018, it was announced that the vessels will be equipped initially With Torped 45 and later with Torped 47 torpedoes. It was also announced that new Bofors 40mm Mk.4 guns had been selected as part of the MLU upgrade.
In February it was announced that Finland intended to buy RGM-84Q-4 Harpoon Block II missiles for the Haminas.
Design
The vessel's hull is constructed of aluminum and the superstructures are constructed of re-enforced carbon fiber composite. The vessels have a very low displacement and are very maneuverable. They are equipped with water jets instead of propellers, which allow them to operate in very shallow waters and accelerate, slow down and turn in unconventional ways.
The Hamina class are very potent vessels, boasting surveillance and firepower capacities which are usually found in ships twice the size.
Stealth technology
The Hamina class has been designed and constructed as stealth ships with minimal magnetic, heat and radar signatures.
The shape of the vessel has been designed to reduce radar signature. Metal parts have been covered with radar absorbent material, and the composite parts have radar absorbent material embedded in the structure. Radar transparent materials have been used where applicable.
Unlike glass fiber, carbon fiber blocks radio waves. This protects ship's electronics against electromagnetic pulse. In addition, it stops any radio frequency signals generated by ships electronic devices escaping outside. Except for the bridge, the vessel has no windows that would allow the signals to escape.
The vessel contains hardly any steel parts, thus generating very low magnetic field. The remaining magnetic field is actively canceled with electromagnets.
Exhaust gases can be directed underwater to minimize thermal signature, or up in the air to minimize sound in submarines direction. 50 nozzles around the decks and upper structures can be used to spray seawater on the vessel to cool it. In addition, the nozzles can be used to clean the ship after chemical attack or radioactive fall-out.
Weapons
The Hamina class have the latest in surveillance and weapons technology all integrated into an intelligent command system. A Hamina class vessel can monitor about 200 kilometres (120 mi) of air space and its Umkhonto surface-to-air missile system can simultaneously engage a maximum of eight aircraft, up to 14 kilometres (8.7 mi) away, while the vessel's anti-ship missiles have a range in excess of over 250 kilometres (160 mi).
The Hamina class' primary weaponry is four RBS-15 Mk.3 anti-ship missiles. The vessels are further equipped with a Bofors 57 mm gun against surface and aerial targets as well as the Umkhonto-IR surface-to-air missiles, MASS decoy system and two 12.7 mm heavy machine guns. It is also possible to use the ships for mine-laying.
The software of the centralized combat control system is COTS oriented, built on top of Linux running on redundant x86 rack servers, which makes maintenance and future updates and optimizations simpler.
In early 2018, Finland announced the mid-life upgrade program, which will equip all four boats in the class with new Swedish lightweight anti-submarine warfare torpedoes in the years 2023-2025 and extend the life of the boats to 2035

Vessels
FNS HAMINA
Pennant number: 80
Builder: Aker Finnyards
Ordered: December 1996
Commissioned: 24 August 1998
Home base: Upinniemi
Current status: In active service.
FNS TORNIO
Pennant number: 81
Builder: Aker Finnyards
Ordered: 15 February 2001
Commissioned: 12 May 2003
Home base: Upinniemi
Current status: In active service
FNS HANKO
Pennant number: 82
Builder: Aker Finnyards
Ordered: 3 December 2003
Commissioned: 22 June 2005
Home base: Upinniemi
Current status: In active service
FNS PORI
Pennant number: 83
Builder: Aker Finnyards
Ordered: 15 February 2005
Commissioned: 19 June 2006
Home base: Upinniemi
Current status: In active service

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hamina-class_missile_boat

Finland 2018 sg?, scott

VÄINÄMÕINEN or ILMARINEN

The Finish navy did have two coastal defence ships before World War II and one of this is depict on this stamp. The submarine in the foreground is the VESIKKO see viewtopic.php?f=2&t=16336

Both were built on the Ab Crichton-Vulcan Oy in Turkey for the Finish Navy.
The VÄINÄMÕINEN was ordered in 1927 the ILMARINEN in1929.
29 April 1932 launched as the VÄINÄMÕINEN.
Displacement 3,900 ton, dim. 93.0 x 16.8 x 5.0m. (draught)
Powered diesel electric by four Krupp engines each 1,173 hp each,two shafts,speed 14.5 knots.

Range 700 mile by 14.5 knots.

Armament: 2 – 254 mm Bofors, 4 – 105mm Bofors, 4 – 40mm Vickers and 2 – 20mm Madsens when built, four 20mm Madsens added in 1944.
Crew 410.
28 December 1932 commissioned.

VÄINÄMÕINEN was a Finnish coastal defence ship, the sister ship of the Finnish Navy's flagship ILMARINEN and also the first ship of her class. She was built at the Crichton-Vulcan shipyard in Turku and was launched in 1932. Following the end of the Continuation War, VÄINÄMÕINEN was handed over to the Soviet Union as war reparations and renamed Vyborg.[i] The ship remained in Soviet hands until her scrapping in 1966.
Design
VÄINÄMÕINEN and ILMARINEN were planned to be mobile coastal fortresses for the defence of the Finnish demilitarized islands at Åland in particular. The two ships were not well suited for the open seas due to a design with emphasis on operations in the shallow waters of the archipelago: it has been said that they were volatile and rolled too much. The minimal depth keel, together with the high conning tower, made the ships' movements slow and wide. It was said that the ships were uncomfortable, but harmless to their crews.
The ship's heavy armament of 254-millimetre (10 in) Bofors guns could fire shells of 255 kilograms (562 lb) up to 31 kilometres (19 mi).
Fire control
In fire control, the two coastal ships were identical. The fire control centre and the gun towers were connected electrically so that ranging and orders could be given without spoken contact. With the aid of mechanical calculators, the values were transferred directly to the gun towers.
Operational history
Winter War
During the Winter War, the two coastal defence ships were transferred to the Åland islands to protect against invasion. When the ice cover started to become too thick in December, the ships were transferred to Turku, where their anti-aircraft artillery aided in the defence of the city.
Continuation War
The only time VÄINÄMÕINEN and ILMARINEN fired their heavy artillery against an enemy was at the beginning of the Continuation War, during the Soviet Red Army evacuation of their base at the Hanko Peninsula. VÄINÄMÕINEN also participated in the distraction manoeuvre Operation Nordwind on 13 September 1941, during the course of which her sister ship ILMARINEN was lost to mines.
In 1943 "Detachment VÄINÄMÕINEN", which consisted of VÄINÄMÕINEN, six VMV patrol boats and six motor minesweepers, was moved east to take positions along the coast between Helsinki and Kotka. She did not actively participate in many operations, since the heavier Soviet naval units never left Leningrad, where they were used as floating batteries during the siege. As a result, VÄINÄMÕINEN's primary operational duties were to patrol the Gulf of Finland between the minefields "Seeigel" and "Nashorn", as well as protection of the German-Finnish anti-submarine net across the gulf.
During the Soviet assault in the summer of 1944, the Soviets put much effort into trying to find and sink VÄINÄMÕINEN. Reconnaissance efforts revealed a large warship anchored in Kotka harbour and the Soviets launched an air attack of 132 bombers and fighters. However the target was not VÄINÄMÕINEN — instead it was the German anti-aircraft cruiser NIOBE .
Postwar
After the end of the Continuation War VÄINÄMÕINEN was handed over as war reparations to the Soviet Union. The ship was handed over on 29 May 1947 to the Soviet Baltic Fleet, where she was renamed VYBORG. The ship served over 6 years in the Red Fleet at the Soviet base in Porkkala, Finland. The ship was called Vanya (a Russian short form of the name Ivan) by the sailors of the Baltic Fleet.
VYBORG was modernized during the 1950s and served for a while as an accommodation ship in Tallinn. Preparations to scrap the ship were begun in 1958. During this time, there were talks to return the ship to Finland. The ship was, however, scrapped in 1966 at a Leningrad scrapyard. According to Soviet calculations, 2,700 tons of metal were recovered.

Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/V%C3%A4in ... fence_ship

The ILMARINEN was also ordered in September 1929.
09 July 1932 laid down.
09 September 1933 launched as ILMARINEN.
She has the same details as her sister.
17 April 1934 completed.

ILMARINEN was a Finnish Navy Panssarilaiva ("Armored ship"; a coastal defence ship by British classification). The unit was constructed at the Crichton-Vulcan shipyard in Turku, Finland, and named after the mythological hero ILMARINEN from the Finnish national epic, the Kalevala. ILMARINEN was the flagship of the Navy from 1 May 1933 until her demise on 13 September 1941.
During the early inter-war period the Finnish Navy consisted of some 30 ex-Russian vessels, most of them taken as war-trophies following the civil war. Never ideal types for the navy's needs, they were generally old and in poor condition. In 1925, a tragic incident highlighted the sorry state of the navy. An old torpedo boat was lost in a fierce storm, taking with her the entire crew of 53. A heated debate started, and intensive lobbying led to the adoption of a new Finnish Navy Act in 1927.
Prior to World War II, the fleet renewal program led to the acquisition or construction of five submarines, four torpedo boats, and two coastal defense ships. Among the last of their kind, VÄINNÄNÖINEN and ILMARINEN were two of the most concentrated naval artillery units ever built. They were designed by the Dutch company NV Ingenieurskantoor voor Scheepsbouw (a front for German interests circumventing the Treaty of Versailles), and were optimized for operations in the archipelagos of the Baltic Sea. Their open sea performance was de-emphasized in order to give the vessels their shallow draft and super-compact design.
Coastal defence ships were particularly popular in the Nordic countries, and began serving in the navies of Denmark, Sweden and Norway early in the 20th century. These vessels typically had heavy armament and good armor protection, but were relatively slow. Their sizes were around 4,000 tons, main armament consisted of guns between 210 and 240 mm (8 and 9 in), the armor corresponded to that of armoured cruisers, and speeds were between 15 and 18 knots (28 and 33 km/h; 17 and 21 mph). A coastal defence ship was somewhere between a cruiser and a monitor: slower than a cruiser but better armed, faster than a monitor, but with smaller guns. The coastal defence ships also varied among themselves; some of them were closer to cruisers, and others, such as the Finnish ones, were closer to monitors.
Being the second of her class, ILMARINEN was launched at the Turku shipyard on 9 September 1933. The ship went through its finishing trials and was handed over to the Finnish Navy on 17 April 1934. Her sister ship Väinämöinen had preceded her by two years.
The vessels had a compact design, with a high mast and large turrets for main and secondary artillery. Foreign comments on their design ranged from puns to praise. Not truly designed for open sea operations, the ships had a tendency to roll slowly and widely even in moderate seas. Travel on them was unpleasant, but deemed safe. Additional keels were later fitted, which improved the situation...

HSU FU bamboo raft

Ancient Chinese texts tell the story of Hsu Fu, a navigator and explorer sent by the first Emperor of China, Qin Shi Huang, in 218 BC into the "Eastern Ocean" in search of life-prolonging drugs. Hsu Fu completed the voyage on a bamboo raft, which some believe took him to America and back.

Tim Severin set out to prove that such a voyage really could have been made. On the beach at Sam Son, Vietnam, he oversaw the construction of a 60-foot (18.3 m) long, 15-foot (4.6 m) wide raft built of 220 bamboos and rattan cording, and driven by an 800 square foot (74 square metre), junk-rigged sail. After leaving Asia in May 1993, Severin and his crew faced monsoons, pirates, and typhoons before the rattan began rotting and the raft began falling apart in the mid-Pacific. After travelling 5,500 miles (8,850 km) in 105 days, they were forced to abandon the raft about 1,000 miles (1,600 km) short of their destination.

Although the Hsu Fu, as the craft was named, did not complete the trip, Severin believed the voyage had accomplished its purpose. In The China Voyage, published in 1994, he wrote that the expedition had proved that a bamboo raft of the second century BC could, indeed, have made a voyage across the Pacific, just as Hsu Fu's account recorded.

More on the voyage you can find on: http://www.personal.psu.edu/pjc12/From% ... dition.htm

Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tim_Sever ... oyage_(May–November_1993)
Surinam 2018 SRD 19.00 sg?, scott?
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Pandora HMS

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Pandora HMS

Postby shipstamps » Sat Sep 27, 2008 7:08 pm

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On August 8th 1966, Fiji issued three stamps commemorating the 175th anniversary of the discovery of Rotuma by Capt. Edward Edwards, R.N., in H.M.S. Pandora. In August 1790, the Pandora was commissioned by the Admiralty to search for mutineers from the Bounty. His orders were: "You are to keep the mutineers as closely confined as may preclude all possibility of their escaping, having however proper regard to the preservation of their lives, that they may be brought home to undergo the punishment due to their demerits".
After visiting Tahiti and neighbouring Pacific islands, Capt. Edwards had rounded up 14 of the Bounty crew on Tahiti. The voyage was continued westward and after passing Wallis Island he saw, on August 8, 1791, a fertile island which he named Grenville's Island, but which the local inhabitants called Rotuma. It was a long, narrow island, some eight miles in length and an average two miles in width, the most isolated island in the northern part of the Fiji group.
Three weeks later the Pandora ran aground of the north coast of Queensland while trying to negotiate the Endeavour Straits in the Great Barrier Reef on August 28, 1791, with the loss of 39 lives, including four prisoners.
The Pandora of 1779 was the first naval ship of the name, but in 1960 a yachtsman found in shallow water off the North Queensland coast, the wreckage of a wooden ship which was presumed to be H.M.S. Pandora, because of the ship's bell with this name, the size of the hulk and the approximate position of the wreck. A curious fact however was the inscription on the bell of this hulk: "Gift of Lady Herbert, daughter of Sir John Knatchbull, of Mearchim Hatch in Kent in the Kingdom of England, November 30, 1711".
The Dictionary of Natural Biography mentions a Sir John Knatchbull (1636-1696) but gives no details of his children. His uncle, Sir Norton Knatchbull, lived at Mersham Hatch. Other ships named Pandora were wrecked in the North Sea (1797) and Kattegatt (1811).
The 3d. stamp depicts the Pandora entering Split Island, Rotuma—the island is cleanly split in two, hence its name. On the Is. 6d. stamp Rotumans are shown signalling to a passing ship as they did in the old days and, indeed, still do, such is the infrequency of ships calling at Rotuma even now.
Sea Breezes 11/66

Fiji SG351,353,827,829.
Norfolk Is DG516/17.
Pitcairn Is SG316
Tokelau SG23
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Re: Pandora HMS

Postby john sefton » Fri Jan 07, 2011 12:17 am

H.M.S. Pandora; built at Deptford, 1779, by Adams and Barnard. Sixth Rate of 24 guns; 520 tons; length 114'/2 ft., beam 32 ft. in 1791, she was commissioned by Capt. Edwards, R.N., to search for the Bounty mutineers, picking up 14 at Tahiti. After calling at Rotuma Island on August 8, 1791, she ran aground on the Great Barrier Reef with the loss of 39, including four prisoners.
SG23 Sea Breezes 1/71
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Re: Pandora HMS

Postby Anatol » Wed Nov 19, 2014 11:19 pm

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Pandora HMS
Tokelau1999;3d;SG? Niuafo’ou1994;80s;SG210. Niuafo’ou1991;57s;SG154.
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Re: Pandora HMS

Postby aukepalmhof » Mon Oct 09, 2017 8:22 pm

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Built as a sixth rate by Adams & Barnard, Grove Street shipyard in Deptford for the Royal Navy.
11 February 1778 ordered.
02 March 1778 keel laid down.
17 May 1779 launched as the HMS PANDORA.
Tonnage 524 tons burthen, dim, 34.39 x 9.83 x 3.12m, draught 3.4m, length of keel 28.89m.
Armament: Upper deck 22 – 9 pdrs., quarterdeck 2 – 6 pdrs., in 1815 altered to 14 – 9 pdrs, 8 x 18 pdrs carronades, quarterdeck 2 – 6 pdrs.
Crew 160 when built, in 1815 140.
May 1779 commissioned.
03 July 1779 completed at Deptford Dockyard.

HMS PANDORA was a 24-gun Porcupine-class sixth-rate post ship of the Royal Navy launched in May 1779. She is best known as the ship sent in 1790 to search for the BOUNTY and the mutineers who had taken her. She was wrecked on the return voyage in 1791.
Early service
Her first service was in the Channel during the 1779 threatened invasion by the combined fleets of France and Spain. She was deployed in North American waters during the American Revolutionary War and saw service as a convoy escort between England and Quebec. On 18 July 1780, while under the command of Captain Anthony Parry, she and DANAE captured the American privateer JACK. Then on 2 September, the two British vessels captured the American privateer TERRIBLE. On 14 January PANDORA captured the brig JANIE. Then on 11 March she captured the ship MERCURY. Two days later PANDORA and HMS BELISARIUS were off the Capes of Virginia when they captured the sloop LOUS, which had been sailing to Virginia with a cargo of cider and onions.[ Under Captain John Inglis PANDORA captured more merchant vessels. The first was the brig LIVELY on 24 May 1782. More followed: the ship MERCURY and the sloops PORT ROYAL and SUPERB. 22 November 1782), brig NESTOR (3 February 1783), and the ship FINANCIER (29 March). At the end of the American war the Admiralty placed PANDORA in ordinary (mothballed) in 1783 at Chatham for seven years.
Voyage in search of the BOUNTY
PANDORA was finally ordered to be brought back into service on 30 June 1790 when war between England and Spain seemed likely due to the Nootka Crisis. However, in early August 1790, 5 months after learning of the mutiny on HMS BOUNTY, the First Lord of the Admiralty, John Pitt, 2nd Earl of Chatham, decided to despatch her to recover the BOUNTY, capture the mutineers, and return them to England for trial. She was refitted, and her 6-pounder guns were reduced to 20, though she gained four 18-pounder carronades.
PANDORA sailed from Portsmouth on 7 November 1790, commanded by Captain Edward Edwards and manned by a crew of 134 men. With his crew were Thomas Hayward, who had been on the BOUNTY at the time of the mutiny, and left with Bligh in the open boat. At Tahiti they were also assisted by John Brown, who had been left on the island by an English merchant ship, THE MERCURY.
Unknown to Edwards, twelve of the mutineers, along with four sailors who had stayed loyal to Bligh, had by then already elected to return to Tahiti, after a failed attempt to establish a colony (Fort St George) under Fletcher Christian's leadership on Tubuai, one of the Austral Islands. They were living in Tahiti as 'beachcombers', many of them having fathered children with local women. Fletcher Christian's group of mutineers and their Polynesian followers had sailed off and eventually established their settlement on then uncharted Pitcairn Island. By the time of PANDORA's arrival, fourteen of the former BOUNTY men remained on Tahiti, Charles Churchill having been murdered in a quarrel with Matthew Thompson, who was in turn killed by Polynesians who considered Churchill their king.
The PANDORA reached Tahiti on 23 March 1791 via Cape Horn. Three men came out and surrendered to Edwards shortly after PANDORA's arrival. These were Joseph Coleman, the BOUNTY's armourer, and Peter Heywood and George Stewart, midshipmen. Edwards then dispatched search parties to round up the remainder. Able Seaman Richard Skinner was apprehended the day after PANDORA's arrival. By now alerted to Edwards' presence, the other BOUNTY men fled to the mountains while James Morrison, Charles Norman and Thomas Ellison, tried to reach the PANDORA to surrender in the escape boat they had built. All were eventually captured, and brought back to PANDORA on 29 March. An eighth man, the half blind Michael Byrne, who had been fiddler aboard BOUNTY, had also come aboard by this time. It was not recorded whether he had been captured or had handed himself in. Edwards conducted further searches over the next week and a half, and on Saturday two more men were brought aboard PANDORA, Henry Hilbrant and Thomas McIntosh. The remaining four men, Thomas Burkett, John Millward, John Sumner and William Muspratt, were brought in the following day. These fourteen men were locked up in a makeshift prison cell, measuring eleven-by-eighteen feet, on the PANDORA's quarter-deck, which they called "PANDORA's Box".
On 8 May 1791 the PANDORA left Tahiti and subsequently spent three months visiting islands in the South-West Pacific in search of the BOUNTY and the remaining mutineers, without finding any traces of the pirated vessel. During this part of the voyage fourteen crew went missing in two of the ship's boats. In the meantime the PANDORA visited Tokelau, Samoa, Tonga and Rotumah. They also passed Vanikoro Island, which Edwards named Pitt's Island; but they did not stop to explore the island and investigate obvious signs of habitation. If they had done so, they would very probably have discovered early evidence of the fate of the French Pacific explorer La Perouse's expedition which had disappeared in 1788. From later accounts about their fate it is evident that a substantial number of crew survived the cyclone that wrecked their ships ASTROLABE and BOUSSOLE on Vanikoro's fringing reef.
Wrecked
Heading west, making for the Torres Strait, the frigate ran aground on 29 August 1791 on the outer Great Barrier Reef. She sank the next morning, claiming the lives of 31 of her crew and four of the prisoners. The remainder of the ship's company (89 men) and ten prisoners – seven of them released from their cell as the ship was actually sinking – assembled on a small sand cay and after two nights on the island they sailed for Timor in four open boats, arriving in Kupang on 16 September 1791 after an arduous voyage across the Arafura Sea. Sixteen more died after surviving the wreck, many having fallen ill during their sojourn in Batavia (Jakarta). Eventually only 78 of the 134 men who had been on board upon departure returned home.
Captain Edwards and his officers were exonerated for the loss of the PANDORA after a court martial. No attempt was made by the colonial authorities in New South Wales to salvage material from the wreck. The ten surviving prisoners were also tried; the various courts martial held found four of them innocent of mutiny and, although the other six were found guilty, only three (Millward, Burkitt and Ellison) were executed. Peter Heywood and James Morrison received a Royal pardon, while William Muspratt was acquitted on a legal technicality.


Shipwrecks: Capturing our maritime past - Part 2
The Shipwrecks stamp issue, which will be released on 29 August 2017, presents three historically and archaeologically significant shipwrecks. The stamps feature paintings by maritime artists of each wreck event, together with a recovered relic, to show the context of each voyage.
In our first instalment of this three-part article series, we spoke to artist Adriaan de Jong about the meticulous process involved in researching and painting the ZUYTDORP shipwreck. In this article, we move from a Dutch VOC trade ship to a Royal Navy ship sent to hunt down some famous insurgents.
HMS PANDORA
HMS PANDORA sank on 29 August 1791, on the outer Great Barrier Reef, while returning home from its mission to locate the mutinous BOUNTY crew in the Pacific Ocean. In total, 35 lives were lost during the wrecking including four of the captured BOUNTY mutineers.
While 14 of the 25 BOUNTY mutineers were captured upon PANDORA’s arrival in Tahiti, Fletcher Christian, fearing reprisal from the powerful Royal Navy, had fled Tahiti in BOUNTY with a small band of his supporters – destination unknown. The captured mutineers were shackled in leg irons within a wooden cell, 3.5 metres by 5.5 metres, located on the quarterdeck of PANDORA. The prisoners dubbed this “PANDORA’s Box”. With the prisoners secure, HMS PANDORA searched the Tokelau Islands, Tongan Islands and Fiji for five months, but still could not locate Fletcher Christian and his men. It was then that Captain Edwards decided to head for home.
The wreck of PANDORA and its artefacts are looked after by the Cultures and Histories Program at the Queensland Museum Network. Dr Madeline Fowler is the Senior Curator Maritime Archaeology, and her role is to care for the objects to national standards, increase access to the objects and undertake new research on the collection. Alison Mann is the Assistant Collections Manager and is also based at the Museum of Tropical Queensland.
Both Alison and Madeline find the PANDORA a fascinating and intriguing story.
“I feel it’s the intertwined stories,” says Alison. “The First Fleet depart England in May 1787, six months later BOUNTY sets sail. One month after that we have European settlement in Australia, while BOUNTY is still sailing around the world following orders from the Admiralty. Fourteenth months after the British colonise Australia there is the mutiny on board BOUNTY and then, after many more months the Admiralty send PANDORA out into a largely uncharted Pacific to hunt down the mutineers … this story is just short of four years in the making!” notes Alison.
For Madeline, the PANDORA story starts when the wreck was discovered in 1977 and the subsequent nine seasons of excavation in the 1980s and 1990s.
“The archaeological methods used to record the site differ in some ways to how the site would be documented if it were discovered today. It is interesting to understand how the management of underwater cultural heritage changes over time,” says Madeline.
The museum holds thousands of artefacts from PANDORA, including the pistol featured on the stamps and some incredible carved wooden clubs from Polynesia, which the crew would have collected while searching for the mutineers.
I have held that pistol, the one on the stamp, in my hand. It is a tangible connection to this story. All Royal vessels had an armoury, had the weapons to deal with whatever threat came their way. This pistol would have been prepared and ready to fire as PANDORA discovered some of the mutineers in the islands of the Pacific. The sailor who held the weapon would have had the orders to shoot if necessary … and our carved wooden clubs from Polynesia? We have the ship’s log of where and when the islands were visited by PANDORA. We can date and locate the clubs to island groups. We see the artistry of the work by the carvers. We can do research today and see how the styles, icons and designs may have changed over 200 years. But also by where the clubs were located in the wreck (in the Officer’s Store, and we know this through the use of archaeological techniques). We believe the clubs were collected by one or more of the officers with the long term view of profiting from the unique circumstances that found them on a voyage in the vast Pacific Ocean. In the late 1700s, museums back in Britain and Europe would pay good money for these ‘artificial curiosities’ (today, we would call them souvenirs). The PANDORA clubs are similar to other significant international collections of Polynesian objects collected during the late 1700s,” says Alison.

“While these artefacts [the pistol and wooden clubs] are significant, they should be interpreted as part of the entire assemblage,” says Madeline. “The pistol is on object within a collection of weapons and accessories that include ordnance, small fire arms, shot for guns and small arms, kegs, gunner’s equipment and bladed weapons. While the war clubs are one example of Polynesian material culture that also includes adze blades, shell blades, poi pounders, lures, hooks, octopus lures, and the modified coconut husks and shell fragments that comprise the Tahitian mourning dress,” adds Madeline.
“Our collection is special because of its diversity and intactness … PANDORA wasn’t smashed against a rocky coastline and broken into thousands of pieces. The ship ran onto a reef and had a large hole ripped out of the side. One of the pumps on board whose job it was to pump water out of the hold in a situation like this broke down, the ship took on too much water. There was time to get the long boats off the vessel and get the crew and some prisoners on board. Hence the low loss of life. Then the tide lifted the stricken vessel off the reef but it didn’t get far – it sank in 30 metres of water. Gently, over the next 200 years it was covered in sand. It was this process, this action that gives us the collection we have today,” adds Alison.
To learn more about the HMS PANDORA, visit Queensland Museum’s website. To learn more about the entire shipwrecks collection, read Madeline Fowler’s blog article.
In our third and final article, we look at the wrecking of the luxury paddle steamer CLONMEL on only her second voyage.

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