SHIP STAMP SOCIETY

SHIP STAMP SOCIETY

Interested in Ships and Stamps? The Ship Stamp Society is an international society and publishes it’s journal, Log Book, six time a year. Full membership includes receiving Log Book by post, but there is an online membership costing just £12pa.
Full details can be found on our web site at http://www.shipstampsociety.com where you can also join and pay your chosen subscription through Paypal or by cheque.
A free sample of Log Book is available on request.

Kasturi KD (Kasturi Class Corvette) 1984

KD Kasturi is one of the two Kasturi-class corvettes of the Royal Malaysian Navy, Her hull number is (F-25) and name of her sister ship is KD Lekir (F-26). They were acquired in the mid-1980s. The two ships constitute the Malaysian Navy's 22nd Corvette Squadron, their homeport being Lumut. After about 25 years of service, they underwent an extensive modernisation known as Service Life Extension Program (SLEP) starting in 2009, enabling them to be employed for another 10 to 15 years. They have since been returned to active duty.

The two ships of the class are named after Hang Kasturi and Hang Lekir, two heroic figures from the Malay 15th-century epic narrative Hikayat Hang Tuah. They share this characteristic with the two Lekiu-class frigates KD Lekiu and KD Jebat, as well as the old frigate-turned-trainingship KD Hang Tuah, all of which are named after figures from the epic as well.

The class was ordered in February 1981, and built by the German Howaldtswerke-Deutsche Werft (HDW) shipyard. Both ships were simultaneously launched on 14 May 1983 and commissioned on 15 August 1984. Two more were planned, but were never ordered. The Kasturi class is based off HDW's FS 1500 design. The two ships constitute the Royal Malaysian Navy's 22nd Corvette Squadron. Their homeport is Lumut at the west coast of the Malayan Peninsula, facing the Strait of Malacca and the Indian Ocean.

In August 2009, a Service Life Extension Programme (SLEP) was awarded to Boustead Heavy Industries to overhaul the aging corvettes, with work to be carried out locally at the Boustead Naval Shipyard in Lumut. By this time, the KD Kasturi had reportedly not been operational since 2007, and it would eventually take almost seven years for her to resume operational status in early 2014. The KD Lekiu against that remained in active duty until the SLEP work on her began in October 2011 and was completed in November 2014. The SLEP is estimated to have extended the corvettes' service life by around 15 years.

Despite the work being incomplete on the KD Lekiu at that time, both ships participated in the search for the missing Malaysia Airlines Flight 370 in March 2014.

The SLEP modernisation comprised extensive changes to the original configuration of the ships, aimed at both extending their service life as well as improving combat capabilities. The TACTICOS Combat Management System from Thales replaced the older Signaal SEWACO MA command system and the DR3000S Electronic Support Measures suite including the Therma SKWS Decoy Launching System was installed. The DA-08 search radar and the WM22 fire control radar were overhauled, and the Thales MIRADOR electro-optical sensor replaced the Signaal LIOD optronic director. A DSQS-24C hull-mounted sonar from Atlas Elektronik was installed to complement the new torpedo-launch capabilities.

The Kasturi class' original armament was heavily altered by the 2009 modernisation as well. The 57 mm Bofors was moved from the aft to the bow, where it replaced the 100 mm gun as the main gun. No new aft gun was installed. The two manually operated Emerlec 30 mm twin-barrel anti-air guns were replaced with 30 mm single-barrel MSI DS30B guns. Anti-submarine capabilities were enhanced by replacing the dated Bofors 375 mm anti-submarine rocket launcher with two EuroTorp B515 triple torpedo launchers equipped with Whitehead A244-S torpedoes. The launchers however were reportedly salvaged from the Laksamana-class corvettes, which thereby lost their anti-submarine capabilities.

There are conflicting reports about the Exocet anti-ship missiles. Some sources state that the Kasturi class prior to the SLEP had been equipped with the Exocet MM38, an old variant of the missile, and that the modernisation included an upgrade to the newer and more capable Exocet MM40 Block II variant. Other sources state that the ships had been equipped with MM40 Block II missiles straight from the beginning.

The Kasturi class is powered by a CODAD propulsion system, provided by four MTU diesels driving two shafts and developing 23,460 horsepower (17,490 kW) driving two controllable pitch propellers. This gives a maximum speed of 28 knots (52 km/h; 32 mph), and a range of 5,000 nautical miles (9,300 km; 5,800 mi) at 14 knots (26 km/h; 16 mph).

The Kasturi class has a helideck aft suitable for the Malaysian Navy's Super Lynx 300 and Fennec helicopters. Lacking a hangar, it does not carry an embarked helicopter.

Malaysia 1993, S.G.?, Scott: 493.

Source: Wikipedia.

BALSA RAFT

Balsa raft was already mentioned by early travellers, in use from southern Colombia to central Peru. She were all made of Ecuadorian balsa logs.
Size, shape and rigging varied, indicating adaptations to meet special uses and geographical conditions. Modified by the colonial Spanish, who found them useful as river craft in lowland Ecuador, where they were sometimes 24m long and outfitted for comfortable travel. Some only a skeletal framework others solidly built surfaces of 2 layers of logs; 2 deck seagoing rafts also reported. Small balsas used mainly for ferrying and cargo transport, and some constructed as 1-way timber rafts that floated downstream. Many equipped with sails and 2 masted types were seen. The mast often the inverted “V” type. Then as now the sailing balsa used one or more daggerboards at each end to control direction under sail. On the smaller unrigged craft, a plank aft maneuverer in a sculling motion propels the craft. Recent balsas are recorded as having 5 -11 logs and up to 18m long, but most are shorter. Shaped bows on some; others squared off. On the sailing craft, the mast placed in a hardwood step and sets either a lug, sprit or gaff sail. A light spar may extend the lugsail. Large Ecuadorian balsas were in use until about 1920, often aiding in lightering from ships.

Thanks for the history of the raft Anatol: see viewtopic.php?f=2&t=12644

Ecuador 2006 $1.00 sg?, scott?
Source, Aak to Zumbra a Dictionary of the World’s Watercraft.

INDEPENDENCE LNG tanker

At the very beginning of 2015, Lithuania Post released the first pre-paid postcards of the current year. The postcard was released to commemorate one of the most important energy projects – the liquefied natural gas terminal (LNG) - launched during the period of independent Lithuania, and make Lithuania independent from the Russian energy supply to that country.
The vessel depict is the INDEPENDENCE a Floating Storage & Regasification Unit (FSRU) which was built under yard No 2549 by Hyundai Heavy Industries, Ulsan, South Korea, for Leif Hoegh LNG Klaipeda Pte. Ltd, Oslo, Norway.
2012 Keel laid down.
Launched as the INDEPENDENCE, she was christened by Mrs. Dalia Grybauskaite, President of Lithuania.
Tonnage 109,793 grt, 36,732 nrt, 82,028 dwt, dim. 294.07 x 50,0 x 46.0m., length bpp 282,02m, draught 12.6m.
Powered: Dual-fuel Propulsion System (DFDE) (Diesel electric) by Wärtsilä-Hyundai engines, speed 18 knots.
Cargo capacity in four LNG tanks, 170,132m³.
12 May 2014 delivered to owners. Building cost ca. 330 million US$. Registered in Singapore. Managed by Hoegh LNG AS, Oslo.
27 October 2014 arrived at Klaipeda, where she was moored as a LNG storage and regasification unit and LNG import terminal.
2015 Same name and owner, IMO No 9629536.

Lithuania 2015 pre-paid postcard
Source: Wikipedia and various internet sites.

HELSINGBORG HSwMS (K31)

Built as a stealth corvette by Kockums Kalrskrona yard for the Swedish Navy.
27 June 2003 launched as the HSwMS HELSINGBORG (K32) one of the Visby class.
Displacement 650 ton, dim. 72.8 x 10.4 x 2.4m. (draught)
Powered: GODAG, 4 Honeywell TF50 A gas turbines, total power 16 MW and 2 MTU Friedrichshafen 16V 2000 N90 diesel engines, total power 2.6 MW, which are connected gearboxes which run 2 – KaMeWa waterjets. She is also fitted out with rudders and bow thrusters for harbour manoeuvring.
Speed 40 knots.
Armament 1 – 57 Mk3 gun, 8 – RBS15 Mk2 AShM anti-ship missile. Mines and depth-charges.
Crew 43.
Hull is made of a sandwich construction comprising a PVC core with a carbon fibre and vinyl laminate.
Fitted out with a helicopter platform.
24 April 2006 delivered.

After an extensive operational sea trials in which she returned to the yard several times, she left for her first voyage on 12 August 2006 for the Mediterranean, 11 September she returned back in Karlskrona, Sweden.
19 December 2009 in active service as a unit of the 31st Corvette Squadron, 3rd Naval Warfare Flotilla.
2015 In service.

Maldives 2015 Fr22 sg?, scott?
Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/HSwMS_Helsingborg_(K32) Internet.

Thomas Stephens (the iron clipper) 1869

A Beautiful Ship. The “Thomas Stephens”, a real clipper, was one of the finest models of an iron ship ever launched. When discussing this ship recently, "Sea Breeze," the writer of some articles appearing in the "Auckland Star" during December and January, 1923-4, and who had formerly been in company with the Thomas Stephens, remarked:—"When the builders put her off the stocks they established a model in iron ship building that has been followed in degree by builders the world over. In hull design her long sweeping sheer line was accentuated by the painter's art, and the grey bottom colour was carried high up the black.The top sides and gave the impression of extreme length, sitting on the water like a great canoe. In her spar and sail plan there was no fault, her main truck being over 200 feet above the deck. The area of her working canvas was enormous and this was supplemented by stunsails fore and aft. These supplementary sails were of prodigious spread, the lower stunsails projecting forty feet from the outer boom iron. Lying alongside of a ship I was in when in Rangoon in 1881 her spars dominated all shipping in spite of the fact that the American ship Sterling and other crack U.S. built ships were at anchor in the river."The “Thomas Stephens” was built to carry passengers to Australia and her appointments could not well be improved upon. Thomas Stephens and Sons of London were the owners of the ship and she was built in 1869 at Liverpool. Capt. Richards took command of her when she was launched and made many rapid passages from Liverpool to Melbourne. Ten years later he brought the ship to New Zealand. On this occasion she left London on April 27th, 1879, calling at Plymouth to take on board passengers. She made the run from Plymouth to the Snares in 72 days and reached Port Chalmers on the 75th day from Gravesend, dropping anchor on the 13th July, 1879. The “Thomas Stephens” had a great career. During the ten years she was running to Melbourne before coming to New Zealand she made several remarkable passages out and home. Capt. Richards on his arrival at Dunedin reported he had made three runs to Melbourne in 64, 65 and 66 day pilot to pilot. Other records from Liverpool to Melbourne were:—1871, 68 days; 1872, 72 days; 1873, 74 days; 1874, 73 days; 1878, 77 days—on one occasion when on her homeward run from Melbourne she covered the distance to Cape Horn in 16 days. The “Thomas Stephens” also made several very fast runs to Sydney after her visit to Dunedin, and on one occasion it is recorded she covered 1000 miles in 70 hours. The “Thomas Stephens” never met with any serious disaster until she was lost, but like all other ships when in the Southern Ocean, encountered on more than one occasion very severe gales. She experienced a terrific gale in 1893 when homeward bound from Melbourne. Her decks were completely swept by heavy seas and her bulwarks carried away. She put into Callao for repairs when it was found that her cargo of wheat had not suffered. The “Thomas Stephens” was eventually sold to the Portuguese and when shipping was scarce during the great war she was again fitted out and sailed for America. On her return passage she was posted as missing, probably sunk by a German submarine.
The painting of Jack Spurling.
Djibuti 2009;100f;SG?
Source:http://nzetc.victoria.ac.nz/tm/scholarly/tei-Bre01Whit-t1-body-d241.html

Pomone HMS (1805)

Portrait of Robert Barrie, c.1825. HMS Pomone was a 38-gun Leda-class fifth rate of the Royal Navy, built by Josiah and Thomas Brindley at Frindsbury and launched in 1805. She saw action during the Napoleonic Wars, primarily in the Mediterranean while under the command of Captain Robert Barrie. She was wrecked off The Needles, part of the Isle of Wight, in 1811.
Pomone was commissioned in February 1805 under Captain William Lobb for Channel Service. Under his command she took a smuggler and two privateers, of which only the first privateer appears to have put up any resistance. On 6 May Pomone captured the smuggling vessel Fortune. On 5 November 1805, Pomone captured the Spanish privateer Golondrina, a lugger of four guns and with a crew of 29 men, on the coast of Spain. She had been out six weeks and had not made any captures. Before she surrendered she suffered two men wounded; Pomone had no casualties. Lobb set fire to Golondrina.
1806 on 25 January 1806, Pomone's boats captured the Spanish privateer lugger Bengador, off Lisbon. She had one gun and a crew of 28 men. She was six weeks out ofBayonne and had taken one prize, the Maid of the Mill, William Dearing (master), which had been on a voyage from Newfoundland to Lisbon. Pomone destroyed the lugger and retook her prize, which Lobb sent on to Lisbon. He then destroyed the privateer. Avon shared in the recapture of Maid of the Mill. Captain Sir Robert Barrie took command in May 1806.
In 1807, Pomone operated in the Channel. On 20 February 1807 Pomone was in company with Penelopewhen she captured the San Josef y Animas.
Between 21 April and 7 June, Pomone captured or destroyed 21 French vessels. On 5 June, Pomone saw three armed brigs near the Île d'Yeu. The British squadron was too far away to notify, so Barrie decided to try to prevent them from reaching the Les Sables-d'Olonne. As Pomone approached the brigs she observed that they were escorting a convoy. Two brigs ran on shore and Pomone 's boats succeeded in capturing another whose crew had abandoned her. Barrie then sent his boats to the harbour of St Giles where he had observed a number of vessels siting becalmed.
In all, Pomone and her boats succeeded in cutting out 14 vessels from the harbour - seven brigs, five sloops, a dogger and a chasse-maree laden with wheat, flour and provisions. In addition to the two brigs that Pomone had driven ashore she also drove a schooner on shore. Another of the vessels captured that day was the Angelique. By agreement, Pomone shared the prize money for her with a number of British warships.
On 27 September 1807 Pomone was in company with Revolutionaire when she captured the Danish ship Resolution.
On 27 March 1808 Pomone recaptured the Susannah. Then On 27 July Barrie sailed Pomone for the Mediterranean.
Almost a year later, on the morning of 13 June 1809, off Cape Bon, she took the 3-gun Neapolitan privateer bombard Lucien Charles after a short chase. Then on 21 October, Pomone and Alceste were watching Toulon and spotted the French fleet putting to sea. Barrie immediately sailed to Cape St. Sebastian on the Catalonian coast to notify Admiral Lord Collingwood in Ville de Paris that three French ships-of-the-line, two frigates and two smaller ships had separated from a convoy of about 20 sail. On the 23rd, Barrie, and Captain Charles Bullen in Volontaire were able to signal the French squadron's position. That afternoon Pomone was able to burn two brigs, two bombards and a ketch belonging to the convoy before losing the enemy in the darkness.[13] Rear Admiral George Martin, with eight vessels, chased the French squadron under Rear Admiral Francois Andre Baudin with the result that two French ships of the line, the Lion and the Robuste grounded near Frontignan, where their crews burnt them.
On 10 March 1810, Seahorse, while in company with Pomone and Cepahlus, captured the Bella Nina. Then on 3 April Pomone captured the Carducci.
On 18 January 1811, Pomone captured the French privateer brig Dubourdieu, out of Toulon. She a crew of 93 men and was armed with fourteen 12-pounder guns.
On 30 April, Pomone reached the Bay of Sagone in Corsica, in company with the 40-gun frigate Unite, Captain Chamberlayne. The next morning the 18-gun Cruizer class brig-sloop Scout, joined them. There were three vessels in the bay: the 26-gun Giraffe of about 1100 tons, the 24-gun Nourrice of about 900 tons, and an armed merchant vessel of about 500 tons.[19] A battery of four guns and a mortar covered the vessels, there were regular troops with field pieces on site, and what Barrie described as a Martello towerabove the battery had a cannon too. Barrie would later discover from a prisoner that the Nourice had a crew of 160 men and the Giraffe a crew of 140 men.
There being no wind, the three British captains had their boats tow their ships into range of the French vessels. After an hour and a half of bombardment by the British ships, the guns on shore were silent and all three French vessels were on fire. The British withdrew to avoid being damaged when the two French warships blew up.
Returning from the Mediterranean with Sir Harford Jones, the British Ambassador to Persia, on board, as well as some Arab stallions that the Shah of Persia had sent as a present to King George III, Pomone struck on The Needles at seven o'clock on Monday, 14 October 1811. Unfortunately, the master mistook the light at The Needles for the light at Hurst Castle. When the light was seen, Barrie feared that Pomone was too far south. He went forward but by the time land was spotted it was too late; someone shouted out a warning but the helmsman could not get turn her in time.
Pomone struck a sunken rock about two cables' length to the southwest of Needles point. Pomonetraversed the rock but she had lost her rudder and was holed in several places, leading her to immediately fill with water. Full of water and having lost her rudder, Pomone was sluggish. As a result, the waves then forced her onto Needle Point. The crew cut away her masts but could not get her off.
Fortunately there was no wind. As a result, boats from the guardship Tisiphone and pilot boats from Yarmouth were able to get alongside in an hour and take off the crew. The gunbrig Escort took Sir Hartford to Portsmouth. Over the next three days Pomone 's cannon, masts, cargo and valuables were all salvaged, with the Shah's horses being manhandled out through the gun ports. A court martial on 25 October absolved Barrie and his officers of blame. However the board severely reprimanded the master for failing to take accurate bearings of Hurst Castle and for having not paid sufficient attention to Barrie's warnings about the lighthouse. In response to the wrecking the Admiralty ordered that its ships should not attempt the Needle Passage at night. Barrie was appointed to the 74-gun third rate,Dragon. Pomone wrecking, from the Hampshire and Wight Trust for Maritime Archaeology
Djibouti2009;500f;SG?
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/HMS_Pomone_(1805)
$post_attachment_names[$j]$post_attachment_names[$j]$post_attachment_names[$j]$post_attachment_names[$j]$post_attachment_names[$j]$post_attachment_names[$j]$post_attachment_names[$j]

Endurance (Shackleton)

The full index of our ship stamp archive

Endurance (Shackleton)

Postby shipstamps » Wed Aug 20, 2008 4:26 pm

Endurance.jpg
Click image to view full size
SG45.jpg
SG45
Click image to view full size
ba 75a.jpg
SG75
Click image to view full size
FID G34.jpg
SG G34
Click image to view full size
SG36.jpg
SG36
Click image to view full size
SG32.jpg
SG32
Click image to view full size
Endurance.jpg
Click image to view full size
SG1375.jpg
SG1375
Click image to view full size
The Endurance, of the British Imperial Trans-Antarctic Expedition of 1914-16, was built in 1912 by Framnes Mek. Verks, at Sandefjord, and engined by Akers of Christiania. Her gross tonnage was 348 on dimensions 140ft. x 26.4ft. x 14.1ft., and she was the typical Norwegian whaler type of vessel, barquentine-rigged and launched 1912, as Polaris, a 3-masted barquentine with auxiliary steam for polar tourism and polar bear hunting!
Purchased by Shackleton and renamed Endurance. She was ready to sail under the direction of Sir Ernest Shackleton, C.V.O., on August 1, 1914. When the Naval mobilisation order was published on August 3, Shackleton, with the consent of the crew, offered the services of the ship and her crew to the Government. However, the Admiralty did not think the war would last longer than six months and Sir Ernest was told to go ahead with his Antarctic plans.
The Endurance carried a crew of 27 men in addition to the scientific staff. She sailed after Shackleton had been received by the King and assured of his Majesty's approval of the expedition. On this expedition a new coastline was discovered which Sir Ernest named Caird Coast in honour of Sir James Caird, who had subscribed £24,000 towards the cost of the expedition. Like the Deutschland, the Endurance was caught in pack ice, but the conditions were more severe than those experienced by the German ship. The British vessel was trapped on January 19, 1915, and crushed on October 27, 1915, finally sinking beneath the ice 25 days later.
The crew took to the ice, which drifted across the Weddell Sea. When it was obvious the pack ice was breaking up, they took to the ship's boats which had been saved when the Endurance went down and on April 16, reached Elephant Island.
What followed is an epic of the Antarctic—how Sir Ernest Shackleton left 22 men on Elephant Island, while he chose five men to accompany him in an open boat (the James Caird) to cross 800 miles of Antarctic seas to bring food and relief to the shipwrecked crew. Having successfully accomplished the almost impossible in a voyage of a fortnight, a mountain range of three ridges had to be crossed, one 5,000ft. high and covered in ice with dangerous precipices, before civilisation could be reached. It took them 36hrs. to overcome this obstacle. Eventually, Sir Ernest was able to effect the rescue of the Endurance's crew on Elephant Island, but it was not until several attempts had been made by the whaler, Southern Sky, the Uruguayan Government trawler Institute de Pesca, the British schooner Emma, and the Chilean Navy tender Yelcho, all led by Shackleton, that a way through the ice was found and the crew were picked up 41/2 months after their leader had left them. During the whole of that time Shackleton had thought of nothing but their relief.

Detail from BAT philatelic
Sir Ernest Henry Shackleton 1874-1922

Expeditions: British National Antarctic Expedition 1901-04 in Discovery. British Antarctic Expedition 1907-09 in Nimrod. Imperial Trans-Antarctic Expedition 1914-17 in Endurance. Shackleton-Rowett Antarctic Expedition 1921-22 in Quest. Discoveries: Beardmore Glacier, South Magnetic Pole, Caird Coast.
Voyage: British Imperial Trans-Antarctic Expedition 1914-17.

Aus Ant SG45, Brit Ant SG75,249 Chile 1375 Fal Is Dep SG G34 Ross Dep SG36 South Georgia SG32.
shipstamps
Site Admin
 
Posts: 19
Joined: Fri Mar 13, 2009 8:12 pm

Re: Endurance (Shackleton)

Postby aukepalmhof » Sun Mar 01, 2015 3:56 am

2015 South Georgia.JPG
Click image to view full size
Built under yard 87 by Framnæs Mek. Verks., Sandefjord, Norway for a company formed by Lars Christensen from Norway and Adrien de Gerlach from Belgian.
17 December 1912 launched as the POLARIS.
Tonnage 348 gross, dim. 42.67 x 8.04 x 4.28m.
One auxiliary coal fired triple expansion steam engine, 350 hp, one shaft, speed 10.2 knots.
Rigged as a three-masted barkentine.
24 August 1913 completed.

She was designed for the new formed company as a polar safari ship with paying guests, but when delivered the new formed company could not made the last payment, and the POLARIS was laid up waiting for a new buyer.
When Shackleton also short by cash was looking for a polar expedition vessel, and he did not have to pay for the POLARIS straight away but after some time, bought her for 225.000NKroner.
She was renamed in ENDURANCE.
The ENDURANCE was the three-masted barquentine in which Sir Ernest Shackleton sailed for the Antarctic on the 1914 Imperial Trans-Antarctic Expedition. She was launched in 1912 from Sandefjord in Norway and was crushed by ice, causing her to sink, three years later in the Weddell Sea off Antarctica.
Designed by Ole Aanderud Larsen, the ENDURANCE was built at the Framnæs shipyard in Sandefjord, Norway and fully completed 24 August 1913. She was built under the supervision of master wood shipbuilder Christian Jacobsen, who was renowned for insisting that all men employed under him not just be skilled shipwrights, but also be experienced in seafaring aboard whaling or sealing ships. Every detail of her construction had been scrupulously planned to ensure maximum durability, for example every joint and every fitting cross-braced each other for maximum strength
She was launched on December 17, 1912 and was initially christened the POLARIS (eponymous with Polaris, the North Star). She was 144 feet (44 m) long, with a 25 feet (7.6 m) beam and weighed 350 short tons (320 t). Though her black hull looked from the outside like that of any other vessel of a comparable size, it was not. She was designed for polar conditions with a very sturdy construction. Her keel members were four pieces of solid oak, one above the other, adding up to a thickness of 85 inches (2,200 mm), while her sides were between 30 inches (760 mm) and 18 inches (460 mm) thick, with twice as many frames as normal and the frames being of double thickness. She was built of planks of oak and Norwegian fir up to 30 inches (760 mm) thick, sheathed in greenheart, a notably strong and heavy wood. Her bow, where she would meet the ice head-on, had been given special attention. Each timber had been made from a single oak tree chosen for its shape so that is natural shape followed the curve of her design. When put together, these pieces had a thickness of 52 inches (1,300 mm).
Of her three masts, the forward one was square-rigged while the after two carried fore and aft sails, like a schooner. As well as sails, ENDURANCE had a 350 horsepower (260 kW) coal-fired steam engine capable of driving her at speeds up to 10.2 knots (18.9 km/h; 11.7 mph).
By the time she was launched on December 17, 1912, POLARIS was perhaps the strongest wooden ship ever built, with the possible exception of the FRAM, the vessel used by Fridtjof Nansen and later by Roald Amundsen. However, there was one major difference between the ships. The FRAM was bowl-bottomed, which meant that if the ice closed in against her she would be squeezed up and out and not be subject to the pressure of the ice compressing around her. But since the POLARIS was designed to operate in relatively loose pack ice she was not constructed so as to rise out of pressure to any great extent.
She was built for Adrien de Gerlache and Lars Christensen. They intended to use her for polar cruises for tourists to hunt polar bears. Financial problems leading to de Gerlache pulling out of their partnership meant that Christensen was happy to sell the boat to Ernest Shackleton for GB£11,600 (approx US$67,000), less than cost. He is reported to have said he was happy to take the loss in order to further the plans of an explorer of Shackleton's stature 'After Shackleton's purchasing her, she was rechristened ENDURANCE after the Shackleton family motto "Fortitudine vincimus" (By endurance we conquer).
Shackleton sailed with ENDURANCE from Plymouth, England on August 6, 1914 and set course for Buenos Aires, Argentina. This was ENDURANCE's first major cruising since her completion and amounted to a shakedown cruise. The trip across the Atlantic took more than two months. Built for the ice, her hull was considered by many of its crew too rounded for the open ocean.
On October 26, 1914 ENDURANCE sailed from Buenos Aires to her last port of call, the Grytviken whaling station on the island of South Georgia off the southern tip of South America, where she arrived on November 5. She departed from Grytviken for her final voyage on December 5, 1914 towards the southern regions of the Weddell Sea.
Two days after leaving from South Georgia, ENDURANCE encountered polar pack ice and progress slowed down. For weeks Endurance twisted and squirmed her way through the pack. She kept moving but averaged less than 30 miles (48 km) per day. By January 15, Endurance was within 200 miles (320 km) of its destination, Vahsel Bay. However by the following day heavy pack ice was sighted in the morning and in the afternoon a blowing gale developed. Under these conditions it was soon evident progress could not be made, and ENDURANCE took shelter under the lee of a large grounded berg. During the next two days ENDURANCE dogged back and forth under the sheltering protection of the berg.
On January 18 the gale began to moderate and thus ENDURANCE, one day short of her destination, set the topsail with the engine at slow. The pack had blown away. Progress was made slowly until hours later ENDURANCE encountered the pack once more. It was decided to move forward and work through the pack, and at 5pm ENDURANCE entered it. However it was noticed that this ice was different from what had been encountered before. The ship was soon engulfed by thick but soft ice floes. The ship floated in a soupy sea of mushy brash ice. The ship was beset. The gale now increased its intensity and kept blowing for another six days from a northerly direction towards land. By January 24, the wind had completely compressed the ice in the whole Weddell Sea against the land. The ice had packed snugly around ENDURANCE. All that could be done was to wait for a southerly gale that would start pushing, decompressing and opening the ice in the other direction. Instead the days passed and the pack remained unchanged.
ENDURANCE drifted for months while remaining beset in the ice in the Weddell Sea and drifted with it. The ice kept compressing it until ENDURANCE could not endure the pressure and was crushed on October 27, 1915. On the morning of November 21, 1915, the ENDURANCE bow began to sink under the ice. Like RMS TITANIC, the Endurance went vertical, her stern rising into the air, then disappearing beneath the ice. The ENDURANCE is considered the last ship of her kind.
It is said that Shackleton placed advertisements in London newspapers that read:
"MEN WANTED: For hazardous journey. Small wages, bitter cold, long months of complete darkness, constant danger, safe return doubtful. Honour and recognition in case of success. Sir Ernest Shackleton."
The crew of the Endurance in its final voyage was made up of the 28 men Blackborrow was originally refused a post aboard the vessel due to his young age and inexperience and decided to stow away, helped to sneak aboard by William Blakewell, a friend of his, and Walter How. By the time he was found, the expedition was far enough out that Shackleton had no choice but to make him a steward. Blackborrow eventually proved his worth, earning the Bronze Polar Medal, and the honour of becoming the first human being ever to set foot on Elephant Island. His name is also the matter of some debate—it is sometimes spelled Percy, or Blackboro, or in other ways.
Alfred Lansing wrote a book titled Endurance: Shackleton's Incredible Voyage about the ordeal that Shackleton and his men endured aboard the ship. It became a bestseller when first published in 1959. Subsequent reprints have made it a recurrent bestseller; the last time being in the late 1990s.
Two Antarctic patrol ships of the British Royal Navy have been named ENDURANCE in honour of Shackleton's ship. The first HMS ENDURANCE (originally named ANITA DAN) was launched in May 1956 and awarded Pennant number A171 sometime later. She acted as an ice patrol and hydrographic survey ship until 1986. Today's modern HMS ENDURANCE, nicknamed The Red Plum, is a class 1A1 ice-breaker bought from Norway in 1992 where she had been known as MV POLAR CIRCLE. She is based at Portsmouth but makes annual forays to Antarctica where she can penetrate through 0.9 metres (2 ft 11 in) of ice at a speed of 3 knots (5.6 km/h; 3.5 mph). She has a complement of 126 marine personnel and carries two Westland Lynx helicopters.
In 1998 wreckage found at Stinker Point on the south western side of Elephant Island was incorrectly identified as flotsam from the ship. It in fact belonged to the 1877 wreck of the Connecticut sealing ship CHARLES SHEARER In 2001 wreck hunter David Mearns unsuccessfully planned an expedition to find the wreck of the Endurance By 2003 two rival groups were making plans for an expedition to find the wreck, however no expedition was actually mounted. In 2010 Mearns announced a new plan to search for the wreck. The plan is sponsored by the National Geographic Society but is subject to finding sponsorship for the balance of the U.S. $10 million estimated cost.

Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Endurance_(1912_ship)"

South Georgia & Sandwich Islands 2015 10p sg?, scott?
aukepalmhof
 
Posts: 4026
Joined: Thu Apr 02, 2009 1:28 am


Return to Ship Stamps Collection

Who is online

Users browsing this forum: Baidu [Spider], Exabot [Bot], Google [Bot] and 17 guests

Sponsored Links