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Slovenia issued an ms which depict the first cargo vessel owned by the shipping company Splosna Plovba at Koper, at that time Yugoslavia.
Built as a Victory-type cargo vessel under yard No 36 by Victoria Machinery Depot Ltd., Victoria BC, Canada for the British Government.
Laid down as the FORT BERENS, but before launching transferred to Park SS Co., Montreal (Canadian Transport Co. Vancouver) a Canadian Government Company.
Launched as the MISSION PARK.
Tonnage 7,164 grt, 4,295 net, 10,310 dwt, dim. 134.6 x 17.4 x 10.63, length bpp. 129.4m.
One triple expansion 3-cyl. steam engine, manufactured by Dominion Engineering Works Ltd., Montreal PQ. ?hp, speed 11 knots.
20 October 1944 completed.

1947 Sold to Montreal, Australia, New Zealand Line Ltd, Montreal, Canada and renamed OTTAWA VALLEY.
1950 Transferred to British flag and registry, with homeport London.
1954 Sold to Splosna Plovba, Koper, Yugoslavia and renamed ROG.
Under Yugoslavia flag did have a crew of 43, and used also as a training ship by the company for sailors and cadets.
She was the first Yugoslavian vessel which made a call at Tsingtao, China.
During a typhoon in the Pacific in February 1956, she lost a crew member and was damaged, made a call at Hakodate on Hokkaido Island , Japan for repairs.
1966 Sold to Wm Brandts (Leasing) Ltd., Hong Kong and renamed MILLS TRIDENT.
23 January 1969 arrived by Keun Hwa Iron & Steel Works, Kaohsiung, Taiwan for scrapping.

Slovenia 2015 1.33 Euro sg?, scott?
Source: Various internet sites.


The German Maritime Search and Rescue Service (German: Deutsche Gesellschaft zur Rettung Schiffbrüchiger - DGzRS) is responsible for Search and Rescue in German territorial waters in the North Sea and the Baltic Sea, including the Exclusive Economic Zone.
The DGzRS operates 61 vessels on 54 stations in the North Sea and Baltic. 20 of which are seagoing cruisers between 20 m and 46 m of length and 41 vessels are classified as inshore lifeboats.
A feature of the cruisers is that all but the 20-m class carry a fully equipped small lifeboat on deck which can quickly be released through a gate in the aft for conducting operations in shallow waters. This principle was developed by DGzRS in the 1950s. The 20-m class uses a rigid-hulled inflatable boat instead.
More than 80,000 people has already been rescued from dangerous situations since its creation in 1865 the DGzRS. They operate thanks to donations. Visit their website. You never know when YOU might need them to be ready. ... PEDIA.html

The stamp depict the WILHELM KAISEN.
Built as a lifeboat under yard No 6430 by Schweers at Bardenfleth (on the Weser River) for the Deutschen Gesellschaft zur Retting Schiffbrüchiger (DGzRS).(German Society for Sea Rescue.)
06 April 1987 christened in Bardenfleth as the WILHELM KAISEN (KRS11) named after a long serving mayor of the town Bremen. She was one of the 44-m class.
Displacement 185 ton, dim. 44.2 x 8.05 x 2.8m. (draught)
Powered by three diesel-engines 6,380 hp, three shafts, speed maximum 30 knots.
Crew 6.
She was also fitted out with a daughter boat built under yard No 6431 by the same yard which received the name HELEN (KRT11) she was named after the first name of the wife of the mayor.
Displacement 5.8 ton, dim. 8.5 x 2.7 x 0.9m (draught).
Powered by one diesel engine 240 hp. one shaft, speed 13 knots.

After completion based at the South harbour in Helgoland.
2000 Modernised and updated with the most modern nautical equipment, her crew quarters refitted and the hospital ward changed in a multipurpose room. The last can be used as additional accommodation or a meeting room.
Her stern section was widened mainly below the waterline to give her a better stability in the high seas from behind.
When a new lifeboat on 08 July 2003 took over the station in Helgoland, WILHELM KAISEN was relocated to Sassnitz on the island of Rügen in the Baltic.
18 May 2012 out of service.
22 October 2012 sold to Worldwide Procurement Serv Fze, Dubai, United Arab Emirates and renamed SHERRIE ANNE.
Registered under the Togo flag and used as security vessel against piracy off the East African coast.
She was refitted by Tamsen Maritim in Rostock, Germany as a security vessel, and sailed from Rostock on 21 December 2012.
2015 Her last position was in Dubai, IMO No 7700166, same name and owners, managed by Tier One Holdings Ltd., Dubai.

Germany 2015 0.62 Euro sg?. Scott?


The 30p stamp of St Helena gives the inscription “1673 English Recapture” and shows a British warship on the road most probably Captain Richard Munden‘s ship the HMS ASISSTANCE when he recaptured the island in 1673.
He was a commodore of a small British squadron with an East India convoy on her way to India. Nearing St Helena he was warned that the Dutch had took possession of the island, and he attacked the island with his squadron and recaptured it again on 4 May 1673 for the British crown.
The ASSISTANCE was built by Henry Johnson at Deptford for the Royal Navy.
December 1649 ordered.
1650 Launched as the ASSISTANCE.
When buil: Tonnage 513 ton (bm), dim. 121 x 30.10 x 15.5ft, length of keel 101.6ft.
Armament 40 guns.
Crew 180.
1650 Commissioned under command of Captain John Bourne.
Most of her history is given on the web-site below. Her voyage to St Helena is not mentioned at all there.
07 January 1673 command was taken by Captain Richard Munden.
Under his command was she at the recapture of St Helena from the Dutch in May 1673.
1674 Was she back again in England. ... Assistance
Altogether she was four times rebuilt, in 1687, 1699, 1713 and 1725.
The ASSISTANCE was sunk as a breakwater in 1745 at Sheerness.

St Helena 2002 30p sg?, scott? (On the painting she is the vessel in the foreground.)
Sources: Internet and British Warships in the Age of Sail by Rif Winfield.


On 20th December 1672 four Dutch ships, led by Jacob de Gens, arrived off St. Helena from the Cape. A landing party came ashore at Lemon Valley but was repelled by English planters hurling rocks from above. Returning after dark, a light was seen near another landing place, Bennetts Point, close to Swanley Valley, on the western side of the Island. A traitor named William Coxe, accompanied by his slave, had lit a fire and was waiting to guide the Dutch invasion force onto the island. Five hundred men came ashore and were led up the precipitous cliffs by Coxe and his slave, who was then murdered to keep the treacherous story secret.
The Dutch met no opposition until they reached High Peak where they overpowered a small detachment of English troops stationed at the fort. The Dutch continued unchallenged to Ladder Hill where they now looked down on James Fort, knowing that if they took James Fort, they took the Island.
A detachment of Dutch troops made repeated advances towards James Fort but were driven back each time. However the small group in the fort were trapped; the Dutch were above them and also attacking them from the sea. Governor Anthony Beale realised the Dutch had the strategic advantage, being in possession of Ladder Hill Fort, and that he could not defend his weak position indefinitely. The governor spiked his guns, spoiled the gun powder and retreated with his entourage and their possessions to the ship HUMPHREY AND ELIZABETH which was anchored in James Bay. They set sail for Brazil.
According to Dutch records they gained little in monetary terms from their new posession, the most valuable items being an English slave ship, 220 slaves and 551 tusks of ivory. They repaired the fort and set a garrison of 100 men to defend the island.

St Helena 2002 25p sg?, scott?


The following I found in Log Book Volume 15 of May 1986 and written by Tom Lloyd.
Built as a wooden brig rigged ship at Falmouth for Lake & Co.
Launched as the MONTAGUE
180 Ton.
Armament 8 – 9pdrs, 2 – 6pdrs guns.
Captain George Tippet was appointed on 30th July 1810, before she actual completion, though he never commanded her while on postal duties.
She was chartered in 1811 as a Falmouth Packet by the Post Office.
In 1810 a ’Convention for the Agreements of Packets between His Britannic Majesty and His Royal Highness, the Prince Regent of Portugal was signed on February the 19th at Rio de Janeiro. This covered the packet route to the Brazilian port of Bahia and/or Rio de Janeiro, which was increased to the number of ports of call in Brazil; plus an extra ‘en-route’ stop. The final development meant that the route from England set off from Falmouth, called at Funchal, (Madeira) for one day; Santa Cruz (Tenerife) for a few hours, then Pernambuco, Bahia and Rio in Brazil. This proved successful and so continued to the route used until the year 1850.
It was on this South American Packet services that the 180 ton MONTAGUE found her main employment, first sailing from Falmouth on the tenth of October 1812, captained since the fifth of July 1811 by Johnathan A. Norway. She got there o.k. but on Christmas Day she departed from Rio on her first and rather eventful, return journey, during which she was attacked by a sixteen-gun, American pirate ship which she heroically beat off after a battle lasting three hours. Most of MONTAGUE’s ammunition, in the form of ‘shot’ was used up – to such an extent that it has been reported that one of her crew estimated that a mere extra quarter of an hour, would have meant certain defeat!!
Two of the MONTAGUE’s sailers were wounded and the ship herself suffered great damage to her rigging and sails. Limping slowly back she arrived at Torbay on the 27th of February 1813, and in the south Westerly gales the mail was taken ashore at Brixham. It was on Saint David’s Day (March 1st) that she finally made it into harbour at Falmouth.
On the 18th of October 1813, the MONTAGUE, sailed again from Falmouth and on landing at Madeira found that, quite unexpectedly, she had caught up with the previous South American Packet, the (first) LADY MARY PELHAM. They sailed from there together, but on the second of November they both came under attack from the GLOBE, another American schooner privateer, armed with ‘eight, nine-pounder’ guns, plus an extra, ‘long gun’ in the bows; and carrying about a hundred pirates.
Skippered by a Captain Moon, the GLOBE was from Baltimore and early in the battle, this ship ‘totally disabled’ the MONTAGUE which however, somehow continued in action. Her captain and four members of the crew were killed, while seven others were very seriously injured. The GLOBE was finally beaten off by the two courageous packets, which then immediately sailed to the shelter of Tenerife, where MONTAGUE left her wounded crewmen for hospitalization. The LADY MARY PELHAM went on to Brazil, from whence she set sail, back again on the 7th of January 1814, arriving eventually at Falmouth. The MONTAGUE on the other hand, left Tenerife on the 18th of December to return to Falmouth (Having I assume transferred the mail to the LADY MARY PELHAM); and called at Madeira on the 2nd of January 1814. Having been badly damaged, she was driven onshore at the Scilly Islands twelve days later; and was ‘holed in the bilges’. After attention, she struggled on to Falmouth, where she ‘docked’ on the last day of February.
After repairs, etc. the MONTAGUE set sail for the South Americas once more, leaving Falmouth on Christmas Day 1814 now commanded by her third, and last captain John Watkins (appointed on the fourth of February, whilst she had been on the way home from Madeira.)
This time the MONTAGUE is reported to have left England with a shortage of crew members and without all her stores on board. On Boxing Day, her luck (if she ever had any!) ran out again, for this time she ran foul of a brig at 9 o’clock, being put aground until about 2.30 p.m. The rest of this particular journey was however, quite peaceful, for she got herself to Rio in one piece, sailing for home once more on the 15th of March 1815, and arriving back at Falmouth on the 7th May.
The next recorded voyage of the MONTAGUE, for the South American Packet Service, that I can discover, commenced on her leaving Falmouth, on the tent of December 1817. This time she seems to have had a completely uneventful outward voyage; but after leaving Rio de Janeiro on the 26th of February 1818, she again came into contact with a pirate ship; this time one from Buenos Aires. This was the eighteen-gun RATTLER, whose captain, in complete contradiction to the commonly held ideas of ‘pirates’ and unlike the North American counterparts, is said to have behaved ‘ with the greatest politeness’ so the relieved crew of the MONTAGUE continued to sail her back to England, getting in to Falmouth on the 29th of April 1818.
The MONTAGUE seems then too have disappeared from the record books, until,that is, 1820, when she set sail for another ‘Packet trip’ on the 18th of October. Firstly under the direction of Lord Castereagh she was ordered to ‘tough-in’ at Lisbon, presumably to deliver or collect more mail. After leaving there, she became leaky and had to go to Gibraltar, for urgent repair work. She arrived at Pernambuco in Brazil on the 7th of February 1821; and then on the eleventh found herself being fired upon by the guns of the fort guarding the harbour at Bahia! She got ‘in’ and ‘out’ all right, however and the continued to Rio, from whence she re-sailed on the 18th of March. On the 27th of May, she docked once again at Falmouth.
During the year of 1823, the MONTAGUE, actually succeeded in sailing the ‘round trip’ from England to Brazil and back again without any reported trouble or misadventure leaving Cornwall on the fourteenth of May and Rio on the twentieth of July. She called at Bahia on the fourth of August. Pernambuco on the twelfth, and got back to Falmouth harbour on the tenth of September.
However, exactly one year later, the MONTAGUE sailed from the Cornish port on what was to become the last voyage as Packet Ship. This her final trip was to be very short duration, for, early in her voyage, she suddenly sprang such a serious leak, that on putting in at Tenerife only fifteen days ‘out’ she was surveyed and condemned by the authorities. The mail she was carrying was later added to that of the following packet ship, the EMULOUS which had left Falmouth on the fifteenth of October; and both lots of post arrived at Rio on the nineteenth of December, just in time for Christmas.
Letters taken by these Falmouth packets to and from Brazil can be identified by special marks which were applied to them and which can be found illustrated in Alan Robertson’s encyclopaedic work “A History of the Ship Letters of the British Isles”. There is for example, the Falmouth Packet Letter mark applied in capital letters, arranged in two lines; and measuring 52mm by 14mm overall, which was used from 1809 t0 1815. Also of interest to anyone looking for an example of MONTAGUE mail, is the circular mark with the work ‘Brazil’ curved above a ‘two line’ date and with the letter ‘F’ for the Falmouth Packet Service at the base; used from 1812 to 1850 most often applied in green though very occasionally found in red ink.
This then has been a mere sketch of the working life of one of the Post Office Packet ships, working the route to Brazil during the early part of the last century. I hope this has brought about the realization that being on board a ‘humble’ Post Office ship, such as the MONTAGUE was no picnic, for it was so fraught with danger, that it was quite often a miracle that the mail got through, but it almost always did....


Bracera is one of the most characteristic coastal sailing vessels of the Croatian Adriatic coast and one-mast bracera with the lug sail from the 19th century is the best known among all types. It seems that this solid and very mobile small ship developed as the result of the Liburnian traditional form. The Liburnians were actually for millenniums first class seamen and ship builders. Their shapes and solutions were adopted also by practical Romans and millenniums later also by Americans.
The vessel had wide applications because it was especially apt for trade and general communication between numerous Adriatic islands as well as between its neighbouring coasts.
Braceras were used to transport wine, olive oil and other agricultural products, but also people and cattle and they were used for fishing, harvesting sea sponges and excavating sand from the sea along the whole coast.
The vessels were oar-powered or wind-powered which for millenniums were the main power resources for vessels. It is presumed that the name bracera is derived from the word Brazza - a historic name for the island of Brač from the period of domination of the Venetian Republic of San Marco. Besides, it seems that bracera was also a more adequate response to the demands of the environment and the inhabitants of the eastern Adriatic coast preferred to build smaller and cheaper bracera vessels than the more expensive trabakul and pelig ships.
On the other hand, the hull of the vessel was a crucial factor of the inseparable hull-sail system. Therefore, in the Adriatic region the sails of ships changed according to the demands of the environment and customs: from the supported sail, over square, lateen, lug and gaff sail and the immovable staysail at the bowsprit. The number of masts could be one and in Istria two or three.
Velimir Salamon Post Croatia.
From Aak to Zumbra a dictionary of the World’s Watercraft gives: BRACERA or BRAZZERA a small fishing boat or a larger robust coaster (as seen on stamp) of the Adriatic, reported from the 18th century, having originated at the island of Brazza (Brac) on the central Dalmatian coast. Extinct. Sharp ends; flat floors, keel; bold sheer; curved stem which may be strongly recurved. Sometimes with a knob on the stemhead. Open except at ends. Mainly sailed but might be rowed, double banked with 6 pairs of oars. Early boat set square sails, later lug, lateen or gaff.
Crew of 2 – 6 Reported lengths 7 – 12m, widths 3 – 4 m, depths 0.5 – 2 m.

Croatia 2015 5.80K sg?, scott?

Endurance (Shackleton)

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Endurance (Shackleton)

Postby shipstamps » Wed Aug 20, 2008 4:26 pm

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FID G34.jpg
SG G34
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The Endurance, of the British Imperial Trans-Antarctic Expedition of 1914-16, was built in 1912 by Framnes Mek. Verks, at Sandefjord, and engined by Akers of Christiania. Her gross tonnage was 348 on dimensions 140ft. x 26.4ft. x 14.1ft., and she was the typical Norwegian whaler type of vessel, barquentine-rigged and launched 1912, as Polaris, a 3-masted barquentine with auxiliary steam for polar tourism and polar bear hunting!
Purchased by Shackleton and renamed Endurance. She was ready to sail under the direction of Sir Ernest Shackleton, C.V.O., on August 1, 1914. When the Naval mobilisation order was published on August 3, Shackleton, with the consent of the crew, offered the services of the ship and her crew to the Government. However, the Admiralty did not think the war would last longer than six months and Sir Ernest was told to go ahead with his Antarctic plans.
The Endurance carried a crew of 27 men in addition to the scientific staff. She sailed after Shackleton had been received by the King and assured of his Majesty's approval of the expedition. On this expedition a new coastline was discovered which Sir Ernest named Caird Coast in honour of Sir James Caird, who had subscribed £24,000 towards the cost of the expedition. Like the Deutschland, the Endurance was caught in pack ice, but the conditions were more severe than those experienced by the German ship. The British vessel was trapped on January 19, 1915, and crushed on October 27, 1915, finally sinking beneath the ice 25 days later.
The crew took to the ice, which drifted across the Weddell Sea. When it was obvious the pack ice was breaking up, they took to the ship's boats which had been saved when the Endurance went down and on April 16, reached Elephant Island.
What followed is an epic of the Antarctic—how Sir Ernest Shackleton left 22 men on Elephant Island, while he chose five men to accompany him in an open boat (the James Caird) to cross 800 miles of Antarctic seas to bring food and relief to the shipwrecked crew. Having successfully accomplished the almost impossible in a voyage of a fortnight, a mountain range of three ridges had to be crossed, one 5,000ft. high and covered in ice with dangerous precipices, before civilisation could be reached. It took them 36hrs. to overcome this obstacle. Eventually, Sir Ernest was able to effect the rescue of the Endurance's crew on Elephant Island, but it was not until several attempts had been made by the whaler, Southern Sky, the Uruguayan Government trawler Institute de Pesca, the British schooner Emma, and the Chilean Navy tender Yelcho, all led by Shackleton, that a way through the ice was found and the crew were picked up 41/2 months after their leader had left them. During the whole of that time Shackleton had thought of nothing but their relief.

Detail from BAT philatelic
Sir Ernest Henry Shackleton 1874-1922

Expeditions: British National Antarctic Expedition 1901-04 in Discovery. British Antarctic Expedition 1907-09 in Nimrod. Imperial Trans-Antarctic Expedition 1914-17 in Endurance. Shackleton-Rowett Antarctic Expedition 1921-22 in Quest. Discoveries: Beardmore Glacier, South Magnetic Pole, Caird Coast.
Voyage: British Imperial Trans-Antarctic Expedition 1914-17.

Aus Ant SG45, Brit Ant SG75,249 Chile 1375 Fal Is Dep SG G34 Ross Dep SG36 South Georgia SG32.
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Re: Endurance (Shackleton)

Postby aukepalmhof » Sun Mar 01, 2015 3:56 am

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Built under yard 87 by Framnæs Mek. Verks., Sandefjord, Norway for a company formed by Lars Christensen from Norway and Adrien de Gerlach from Belgian.
17 December 1912 launched as the POLARIS.
Tonnage 348 gross, dim. 42.67 x 8.04 x 4.28m.
One auxiliary coal fired triple expansion steam engine, 350 hp, one shaft, speed 10.2 knots.
Rigged as a three-masted barkentine.
24 August 1913 completed.

She was designed for the new formed company as a polar safari ship with paying guests, but when delivered the new formed company could not made the last payment, and the POLARIS was laid up waiting for a new buyer.
When Shackleton also short by cash was looking for a polar expedition vessel, and he did not have to pay for the POLARIS straight away but after some time, bought her for 225.000NKroner.
She was renamed in ENDURANCE.
The ENDURANCE was the three-masted barquentine in which Sir Ernest Shackleton sailed for the Antarctic on the 1914 Imperial Trans-Antarctic Expedition. She was launched in 1912 from Sandefjord in Norway and was crushed by ice, causing her to sink, three years later in the Weddell Sea off Antarctica.
Designed by Ole Aanderud Larsen, the ENDURANCE was built at the Framnæs shipyard in Sandefjord, Norway and fully completed 24 August 1913. She was built under the supervision of master wood shipbuilder Christian Jacobsen, who was renowned for insisting that all men employed under him not just be skilled shipwrights, but also be experienced in seafaring aboard whaling or sealing ships. Every detail of her construction had been scrupulously planned to ensure maximum durability, for example every joint and every fitting cross-braced each other for maximum strength
She was launched on December 17, 1912 and was initially christened the POLARIS (eponymous with Polaris, the North Star). She was 144 feet (44 m) long, with a 25 feet (7.6 m) beam and weighed 350 short tons (320 t). Though her black hull looked from the outside like that of any other vessel of a comparable size, it was not. She was designed for polar conditions with a very sturdy construction. Her keel members were four pieces of solid oak, one above the other, adding up to a thickness of 85 inches (2,200 mm), while her sides were between 30 inches (760 mm) and 18 inches (460 mm) thick, with twice as many frames as normal and the frames being of double thickness. She was built of planks of oak and Norwegian fir up to 30 inches (760 mm) thick, sheathed in greenheart, a notably strong and heavy wood. Her bow, where she would meet the ice head-on, had been given special attention. Each timber had been made from a single oak tree chosen for its shape so that is natural shape followed the curve of her design. When put together, these pieces had a thickness of 52 inches (1,300 mm).
Of her three masts, the forward one was square-rigged while the after two carried fore and aft sails, like a schooner. As well as sails, ENDURANCE had a 350 horsepower (260 kW) coal-fired steam engine capable of driving her at speeds up to 10.2 knots (18.9 km/h; 11.7 mph).
By the time she was launched on December 17, 1912, POLARIS was perhaps the strongest wooden ship ever built, with the possible exception of the FRAM, the vessel used by Fridtjof Nansen and later by Roald Amundsen. However, there was one major difference between the ships. The FRAM was bowl-bottomed, which meant that if the ice closed in against her she would be squeezed up and out and not be subject to the pressure of the ice compressing around her. But since the POLARIS was designed to operate in relatively loose pack ice she was not constructed so as to rise out of pressure to any great extent.
She was built for Adrien de Gerlache and Lars Christensen. They intended to use her for polar cruises for tourists to hunt polar bears. Financial problems leading to de Gerlache pulling out of their partnership meant that Christensen was happy to sell the boat to Ernest Shackleton for GB£11,600 (approx US$67,000), less than cost. He is reported to have said he was happy to take the loss in order to further the plans of an explorer of Shackleton's stature 'After Shackleton's purchasing her, she was rechristened ENDURANCE after the Shackleton family motto "Fortitudine vincimus" (By endurance we conquer).
Shackleton sailed with ENDURANCE from Plymouth, England on August 6, 1914 and set course for Buenos Aires, Argentina. This was ENDURANCE's first major cruising since her completion and amounted to a shakedown cruise. The trip across the Atlantic took more than two months. Built for the ice, her hull was considered by many of its crew too rounded for the open ocean.
On October 26, 1914 ENDURANCE sailed from Buenos Aires to her last port of call, the Grytviken whaling station on the island of South Georgia off the southern tip of South America, where she arrived on November 5. She departed from Grytviken for her final voyage on December 5, 1914 towards the southern regions of the Weddell Sea.
Two days after leaving from South Georgia, ENDURANCE encountered polar pack ice and progress slowed down. For weeks Endurance twisted and squirmed her way through the pack. She kept moving but averaged less than 30 miles (48 km) per day. By January 15, Endurance was within 200 miles (320 km) of its destination, Vahsel Bay. However by the following day heavy pack ice was sighted in the morning and in the afternoon a blowing gale developed. Under these conditions it was soon evident progress could not be made, and ENDURANCE took shelter under the lee of a large grounded berg. During the next two days ENDURANCE dogged back and forth under the sheltering protection of the berg.
On January 18 the gale began to moderate and thus ENDURANCE, one day short of her destination, set the topsail with the engine at slow. The pack had blown away. Progress was made slowly until hours later ENDURANCE encountered the pack once more. It was decided to move forward and work through the pack, and at 5pm ENDURANCE entered it. However it was noticed that this ice was different from what had been encountered before. The ship was soon engulfed by thick but soft ice floes. The ship floated in a soupy sea of mushy brash ice. The ship was beset. The gale now increased its intensity and kept blowing for another six days from a northerly direction towards land. By January 24, the wind had completely compressed the ice in the whole Weddell Sea against the land. The ice had packed snugly around ENDURANCE. All that could be done was to wait for a southerly gale that would start pushing, decompressing and opening the ice in the other direction. Instead the days passed and the pack remained unchanged.
ENDURANCE drifted for months while remaining beset in the ice in the Weddell Sea and drifted with it. The ice kept compressing it until ENDURANCE could not endure the pressure and was crushed on October 27, 1915. On the morning of November 21, 1915, the ENDURANCE bow began to sink under the ice. Like RMS TITANIC, the Endurance went vertical, her stern rising into the air, then disappearing beneath the ice. The ENDURANCE is considered the last ship of her kind.
It is said that Shackleton placed advertisements in London newspapers that read:
"MEN WANTED: For hazardous journey. Small wages, bitter cold, long months of complete darkness, constant danger, safe return doubtful. Honour and recognition in case of success. Sir Ernest Shackleton."
The crew of the Endurance in its final voyage was made up of the 28 men Blackborrow was originally refused a post aboard the vessel due to his young age and inexperience and decided to stow away, helped to sneak aboard by William Blakewell, a friend of his, and Walter How. By the time he was found, the expedition was far enough out that Shackleton had no choice but to make him a steward. Blackborrow eventually proved his worth, earning the Bronze Polar Medal, and the honour of becoming the first human being ever to set foot on Elephant Island. His name is also the matter of some debate—it is sometimes spelled Percy, or Blackboro, or in other ways.
Alfred Lansing wrote a book titled Endurance: Shackleton's Incredible Voyage about the ordeal that Shackleton and his men endured aboard the ship. It became a bestseller when first published in 1959. Subsequent reprints have made it a recurrent bestseller; the last time being in the late 1990s.
Two Antarctic patrol ships of the British Royal Navy have been named ENDURANCE in honour of Shackleton's ship. The first HMS ENDURANCE (originally named ANITA DAN) was launched in May 1956 and awarded Pennant number A171 sometime later. She acted as an ice patrol and hydrographic survey ship until 1986. Today's modern HMS ENDURANCE, nicknamed The Red Plum, is a class 1A1 ice-breaker bought from Norway in 1992 where she had been known as MV POLAR CIRCLE. She is based at Portsmouth but makes annual forays to Antarctica where she can penetrate through 0.9 metres (2 ft 11 in) of ice at a speed of 3 knots (5.6 km/h; 3.5 mph). She has a complement of 126 marine personnel and carries two Westland Lynx helicopters.
In 1998 wreckage found at Stinker Point on the south western side of Elephant Island was incorrectly identified as flotsam from the ship. It in fact belonged to the 1877 wreck of the Connecticut sealing ship CHARLES SHEARER In 2001 wreck hunter David Mearns unsuccessfully planned an expedition to find the wreck of the Endurance By 2003 two rival groups were making plans for an expedition to find the wreck, however no expedition was actually mounted. In 2010 Mearns announced a new plan to search for the wreck. The plan is sponsored by the National Geographic Society but is subject to finding sponsorship for the balance of the U.S. $10 million estimated cost.

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The 10p stamp features Ernest Shackleton and his Imperial Transantarctic Expedition ship ENDURANCE. The Weddell Sea party of the expedition visited South Georgia in November 1914 to take on coal and other stores and refit the ship before sailing for Antarctica. While in Buenos Aires, Shackleton was warned that it might be a bad year for ice in the Weddell Sea so he delayed his departure from South Georgia for a month. This gave time for scientific work to be carried out. Unfortunately most of the records and specimens were lost when ENDURANCE was crushed by the ice and sank. Shackleton is buried in the cemetery at Grytviken.

Source: South Georgia Post.

South Georgia & Sandwich Islands 2015 10p sg?, scott?
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