SHIP STAMP SOCIETY

SHIP STAMP SOCIETY

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A free sample of Log Book is available on request.

GANGE 1905

Continuing a series begun in 2015 with a triptych commemorating the New Caledonians who fought in the First World War, the OPT is proud to present a 110 XPF stamp issue showing a Kanak Skirmisher about to leave for France aboard the GANGE.
Military draughtsman Roberto Lunardo drew his inspiration from the wooden statue which stands in front of the Customary Senate, a work created by sculptor Armand Gorboredjo.
As natives of the colony of New Caledonia, the Kanaks were not eligible for mobilisation in 1914 because under the Indigenous Regime, in force since 1887, they were not entitled to the rights and liberties of citizenship. However, although France generally represented land-grabbing practices and restrictions, it also contributed the missionaries who often stood up for the Kanaks. A number of tribes opted to acknowledge the French Republic.
As from December 1915, under the policy of equality of treatment for all natives of the French colonies, the voluntary enlistment of one man out of ten paying the capitation tax was required of the Kanaks of New Caledonia. More than a thousand Kanaks from every tribe flocked to enlist between January 1916 and July 1918. Some were picked by their chiefs, others enlisted to see the war and many were driven by their faith in Christian values. However, as the recruitment campaigns continued, eagerness to enlist faded as a result, inter alia, of failures to pay allowances due to families and the heavy drain on the male population. Grouped according to their geographical origin and strictly supervised by the catechists, the Kanaks were assigned to the Bataillon des Tirailleurs des îles du Pacifique (Pacific Islands Rifle Battalion), founded in Noumea in January 1916.
Most of them were sent to France. Three major contingents left Noumea, on 4 June 1916 on board the GANGE, on 3 December 1916 on the same ship and 10 November 1917 on the EL KANTARA. They landed at Marseille and were posted to the camps at Fréjus.
The Bataillon Canaque or Bataillon de la Roussette was a “bataillon d’étapes”, attached to the Marseille Ports Commission and responsible for logistics work on the French Riviera. Although the Kanaks worked as dock labourers and roadmenders, they were given military training and quickly acquired skills in grenade throwing and weapons handling. In April 1917, numbers were swelled with the addition of an artillery company and the battalion became the Bataillon mixte du Pacifique (BMP). In July 1917, to the rear of Chemin des Dames, the Kanaks were assigned to maintaining trenches, installing and repairing telegraph and telephone lines, and working as stretcher bearers and trench cleaners. From August to October 1917, the BMP became an infantry battalion within the 72nd Infantry Division on the Champagne front and fought in the battles of the Matz and the Serre. However, like all soldiers from the colonies, in late October 1917 the Kanak fighters were sent back to spend the winter on the Riviera, where they again worked as labourers and dockhands.
From June 1918 onwards, the BMP was involved in the Battle of the Matz in the Oise, where small units fought alongside the 164th and the 365th Infantry Regiments. In August, the BMP was attached to the 418th Infantry Regiment and fought as an assault troop in the attack on Pasly plateau near Soissons, and in offensives along the line of the Ailette, to the rear of Chemin des Dames. In October, five companies of the BMP were reunited for the first time and saw front line action with the 164th Infantry Regiment at the Battle of the Serre to recapture the Hunding line. On 24 and 25 October, the BMP took part in the capture of the village of Vesles-et-Caumont and Petit Caumont farm, near Laon (Aisne). On 10 December 1918, a meritorious unit citation (10th Army Division) was awarded to the BMP. Following the armistice, the battalion returned to the French Riviera to await a ship back to Noumea. The BMP was dissolved on 9 May 1919. The next day, 908 Oceanian soldiers, including 92 Kanaks, returned home aboard the EL KANTARA. The remaining troops, including 601 Kanaks, were attached to the 73th Senegalese Rifle Batallion. They were shipped home on the KIA ORA in November 1919, and sometimes later.
In all, 383 Kanak soldiers gave their lives for France in the Great War (35.4% of those who enlisted); they formed the largest group of indigenous French subjects who died for France.
Sylvette Boubin-Boyer, PhD in History
https://caledoscope.opt.nc/en/stamps-an ... -1916-2016

As given by the New Caledonia Post the GANGE is depict on this stamp.

Built as a passenger-cargo vessel under yard No 121 by Messageries Maritimes, La Ciotat for Cie Des Messageries Maritimes, Marseille.
06 August 1905 launched as GANGE, two sisters the EUPHRATE and EL KANTARA.
Tonnage 6,876 gross, 8,170 dwt., dim. 141.35 x 16.06, length bpp. 136.3m.
Powered by 2 triple expansion steam engines, boilers coal fired, 3,800 hp, twin shafts, speed 13 knots.
Passenger accommodation for 40 first, 54 second and 1,200 tweendeck passengers.
December 1905 completed.

She and her sisters were built for the service from Marseille to Saigon and Haiphong.
1914 Requisitioned for the mail service.
April-May 1915 used in the Dardanelles Campaign where she came under fire of the enemy batteries.
April 1916 sailed from Marseille for a voyage in the South Pacific to transport a mix of European and Kanak troops to France.
04 June 1916 the GANGE sailed from Noumea and she arrived the 11 August in Marseille.
September 1916 she made another voyage to the South Pacific in which she brings almost 800 mobilized troops from Noumea to Marseille, she left Noumea 3 December 1916 and arrived Marseille on 12 February 1917.
14 April 1917 on a voyage from Marseille via Bizerte, Tunisia to the South Pacific she was sunk at 21.20 by a mine laid by the German submarine UC-37 under command of Otto Launburg in a position 4 mile north of Cape Blanc at the entrance canal to Bizerte. The GANGE sank with the loss of 1 sailor, 288 people were rescued.

New Caledonia 2016 110F sg?, scott?
Source: http://www.messageries-maritimes.org/gange.htm and internet.

RAINIER I and battle fleet

The stamp of 6 Frank issued by Monaco was issued for the EXPO Exposition in Genova in 1992 and shows us a portrait of Rainier I Lord of Cagnes 1267-1314 who was the first ruler what is now Monaco. According Navicula our German sister society the battle in the background of the stamp is designed after a fresco from the Spinola Palace in Genoa, which shows us Rainier’s I fleet but I can’t find this fresco on the internet.

Rainier I of Monaco, although not much remembered today, was quite the legend in his own lifetime, known for his daring exploits on land and sea as well as becoming the first Grimaldi sovereign of modern-day Monaco. The Grimaldi family had long been famous for their seafaring adventures. A Grimaldi had led the fleet that brought the kings of Jerusalem and Hungary to Egypt in the Fifth Crusade. Rainier was to earn much of his own swashbuckling reputation afloat as well. Rainier was born in 1267, the eldest of three sons of Lanfranco Grimaldi, French Vicar of Provence and the son of the Consul of Genoa Grimaldo Grimaldi, and Aurelia del Carretto who later married her nephew by that last marriage Francois Grimaldi. As he grew older he became a skilled naval leader in the service of King Charles II of Anjou in 1296 and the success of his galleys was so skillful that he gained a reputation throughout the Mediterranean for his dash and daring.

The following year, in 1297, Rainier went along with his stepfather and a group of armed men in taking the castle on the Rock of Monaco. This was the famous founding of Grimaldi rule over the area of modern Monaco. The men, led by Francois Grimaldi, disguised themselves as monks, concealing their sword under their long, brown robes. Requesting shelter from the Ghibellines who held the castle they were admitted and quickly sprung upon the guards, killing them and opening the way for the rest of their forces which quickly stormed in and took the castle. This was part of a long standing feud amongst the states of Italy between the Guelph and Ghibelline factions. It started out of a conflict between the Pope and the Holy Roman Emperor over who had final authority, over religious matters in particular. The Ghibellines supported the Emperor whereas the Guelphs (such as the Grimaldis) supported the Pope. The Guelph Grimaldis had been driven from Genoa by a Ghibelline victory but in 1297, in Monaco at least, they had gained the upper hand and Rainier became Lord Rainier I of Monaco.

In those days King Philippe IV of France embarked on a grand and ambitious campaign against the old enemy of England. Some might think that the Continental Blockade was the invention of Napoleon, but in fact it was a revival of the policy of Philippe IV who endeavored to forge alliances across the continent from the Baltic to Sicily to shut out English goods, turn back English merchants and hopefully leave an economically isolated England to wither on the vine. To a large extent the policy worked but the English monarch, the fierce King Edward I, was no man to trifle with and he found the weak point in the French plan which was Flanders. The policy of isolating England had effected them as well and Edward made an alliance with Count Guy of Flanders to monopolize trade between England and the continent. This quickly made other ports, especially French ports like Calais, see their profits dry up.

Another result was that the increasingly wealthy merchants were rapidly becoming power rivals for the old nobility, especially in Flanders. Philippe IV backed the lords while Edward I tended to sympathize with the merchant democrats. When the situation came to blows in 1302 the aristocrats suffered a bloody defeat and Philippe IV was obliged to go looking for help. Remembering the service he had given to Charles of Anjou and Sicily, Philippe turned to Rainier Grimaldi. An arrangement was made and soon Rainier was off the French coast with 16 armed galleys to which the King added 20 of his own though they were less well built and not as expertly manned as Rainier’s veteran craft. Rainier began training the French sailors and preparing them for battle with the English who did not have quite the same reputation for naval excellence that they would gain later. Their Dutch and Flemish allies, however, had a superb naval reputation.

The confrontation came in August of 1304 at the battle of Zierikzee, Netherlands. Despite being outmatched by the enemy fleet the superior training and seamanship of Rainier and his forces won the day and he earned a great victory for France even capturing the Flemish admiral Guy de Dampierre. In gratitude King Philippe IV appointed Rainier to the rank of Admiral-General of France and granted him the title to Villeneuve in Normandy. A period of peace ensued broken only by the occasional skirmish while in the Mediterranean the feud between the Guelph and Ghibelline factions went on with first one side gaining the upper hand and then the other. In 1309 Rainier established a fortified base today known as Chateau Grimaldi. This was in the town of Cagnes and thereafter Rainier was titled Lord of Cagnes. Rainier had been married twice. His first marriage was to Salvatica, the daughter of the Margrave of Final Giacomo del Carretto. By her he had four children; Charles I, Vinci Guerra (who later married Constancia Ruffa), Salvaggia (who later married Gabriel Vento) and Luca, Lord of Villefranche. Rainier’s second marriage was to Andriola Grillo but they had no children. When Admiral Rainier died in 1314 the leadership of the Grimaldi clan passed to his son, Lord Charles I.

Monaco 1992 6.00F sg2088, scott1819
Downloaded from http://madmonaco.blogspot.co.nz/2009/08 ... onaco.html

KETCH rigged cargo vessel

The 200 SH SO stamp of the Somali Republic depict a modern top-sail ketch rigged cargo vessel.
She is a two masted trader and identified by the size and position of the mizzenmast which is shorter than the mainmast. Stepped mostly just behind the main boom of the mainmast as seen on the stamp.
The mizzen sail area is roughly one half that of the mainsail.
Both the ketch and the yawl have two masts, with the main mast foremost; the distinction being that a ketch has the mizzen mast forward of the rudder post, whereas on a yawl, it is aft of the rudder post. Compared to a ketch, a similar size yawl's mizzen sail is much smaller than the main, because of the limitations of the mizzen sheet. So on a ketch, the principal purpose of the mizzen sail is to help propel the vessel, while on a yawl, the smaller mizzen mainly serves the purposes of trim and balance. Yawls tend to have mainsails almost as large as those of comparable sloops.
A ketch may be distinguished from a cutter or a sloop by virtue of having two masts rather than one, though a ketch with two foresails is sometimes called a "cutter-rigged ketch".
Both the ketch and the yawl differ from the two-masted schooner, whose aft mainmast is taller than the foremast. (It follows that a schooner does not have a mizzen mast.) If a vessel has two masts of approximately the same height, the rig with the larger sail forward is called a ketch, while the rig with the larger sail aft is a schooner. The American two-masted schooner is rare in Europe, where the ketch rig is preferred.

Somalia Republic 1998 200SH sg?, scott?
Source: Wikipedia and internet sites.

ARMADALE CASTLE HMS 1903

The stamp gives the ARMADALE there was an Australian passenger ship built in 1909 with this name but she had only one funnel, while the stamp shows a two funnel vessel. Comparing stamp with photos the Union Castle liner ARMADALE CASTLE is depict.

Built as a passenger-cargo vessel under yard No 423 by Fairfield Shipbuilding & Engineering Co. Ltd, Govan near Glasgow for the Union-Castle Mail Steamship Co. Ltd. London.
11 August 1903 launched as the ARMADALE CASTLE one sister the WALMER CASTLE.
Tonnage 12,973 gross, 7,263 net, dim. 173.76 x 19.65 x 11.88m., length bpp. 173.7m.
Powered by two 4-cyl. quadruple expansion steam engines manufactured by shipbuilder, 2.212 nhp.,(12,500 ihp.), twin shafts, speed 17 knots.
Passenger accommodation for 350 first, 200 second and 270 third class passengers.
Some of her holds were fitted out to carry reefer cargo.
November 1903 completed.

She replaced the SCOTT in the mail service between the U.K. and South Africa.
05 December 1903 maiden voyage from Southampton to Cape Town where she arrived on 22 December.
26 June 1904 she was the first mail ship to cross the bar at Durban.
1908 She carried the first shipment of citrus fruit from the Cape to the U.K.
02 August 1914 chartered as an Armed Merchant Cruiser (AMC) armed with 8 – 6 inch guns and commissioned as HMS ARMADALE CASTLE and stationed in the Cape.
September 1914 took part in the South West Africa campaign. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/South-Wes ... a_campaign
1915 On patrol off German East Africa.
1916 Carried gold and specie worth £7 million from Simon’s Town to Halifax. N.S., Canada.
April 1917 after a refit her armament given as 8 – 6 inch and 2 – 6pdr. guns. And she joined the 10th Cruiser Squadron for blockade patrols between the Shetland Islands and Norway.
1918 Escort duties on South, North American and West African routes.
11 September 1919 decommissioned and returned to owners, after a reconditioning on the Clyde and her passenger accommodation altered to 261 first, 271 second and 274 third class.
10 April 1936 her last sailing from Cape Town for the U.K.
June 1936 sold to Hughes Bolckow Shipbreaking Co. Ltd., Blyth where she arrived on 12 June 1936 for scrapping.

Liberia 2015 $30 sg?, scott?
Source: http://www.clydeships.co.uk http://www.miramarshipindex.org.nz Union Castle Line a fleet history by Peter Newall. Armed Merchant Cruisers 1878-1945 by Osborne, Spong & Grover.

CHARLES GLEYRE and painting "Lost Illusions"

Lost Illusions is a painting by Charles Gleyre and his student Leon Dussart, commissioned by William Thompson Walters in 1865.
History
Charles Gleyre was known as an artist of classic methods but romantic tastes who often modified heroism into idyllic scenes. However, in execution he was not considered romantic, due to his use of pale colors, his delicate drawing style, and uncertain light.[1] At the 1843 Salon (in Paris), Gleyre received praise for The Evening. In 1865, William T. Walters would commission a replica of the painting which was completed by Gleyre and Dussart and is now also known as Lost Illusions.
Composition
Lost Illusions depicts a vision Gleyre experienced one evening while on the banks of the Nile. It represents a despondent scene and uses softened tones. In the scene, an aging poet watches as a mysterious "bark" drifts away with his youthful illusions. The illusions are represented by maidens playing instruments and a cupid scattering flowers.
Off the Wall
Currently, Lost Illusions is being featured in Off the Wall, an open-air exhibition on the streets of Baltimore, Maryland. A reproduction of the painting, the original is part of The Walters Art Museum collection, was on display through January 2014 in O'Donnell Square. The National Gallery in London began the concept of bringing art out of doors in 2007 and the Detroit Institute of Art introduced the concept in the U.S.. The Off the Wall reproductions of the Walters' paintings are done on weather-resistant vinyl and include a description of the painting and a QR code for smart phones.

France 2016 1.60 Euro sg?, scott?
Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lost_Illusions_(painting)

WINDSURFING RS:X board

The ancient Olympic Games were held over a period of 1500 years. The Games were reestablished in the late 19th century by Baron Pierre de Coubertin and the first modern Olympics took place in Athens in 1896.
Since then, the Olympic Games have been held regularly every four years, except during WWI and WWII.
The Summer Olympics constitute the largest event of any kind in the world.
The 31st modern Olympiad will commence in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil on August 5, 2016. This marks the first time that the Olympics have been hosted in South America.
Israel participated in the Olympic Games for the first time in Helsinki 1952. The infamous 1972 Munich games will eternally be mourned for the 11 members of the Israeli delegation who were murdered there - athletes, trainers and referees.
Israel won its first Olympic medal in Barcelona in 1992 and its first gold medal in Athens 2004.

Sailing - RS:X Windsurfing
Sailing is one of Israel's most prominent sports. The most prominent achievement in this field is the Olympic gold medal for windsurfing.
The RS:X windsurfer replaced the Mistral model in 2005. The RS:X was first used at the 2006 Israeli Championships and marked the transition to the younger generation of windsurfers: Gal Friedman, Olympic gold medalist from the Athens 2004 games (Mistral model) came in fourth, while Shahar Zubari won the competition. In the women's competition, Maayan Davidovich beat former World Champion Lee Korzits. Israel was represented at the 2008 Olympic Games in Beijing by Zubari and Davidovich, both of whom qualified for the medal sailings and Zubari even won a bronze medal.
Lee Korzits won four consecutive world championship titles and was ranked sixth in the London 2012 games. She is Israel’s most decorated athlete.
Israel will be represented at the Rio 2016 Olympic Games by Israeli windsurfers Maayan Davidovich and Shahar Zubari.
Smadar Pintov CEO, Israel Sailing Association.
Downloaded from: http://wopa-stamps.com/index.php?contro ... t&id=28849

RS:X sailboard was made after a design by One Design, Neil Pryde, the designers are Jean Bouldoires & Robert Stroj and the board is made of GRP & Carbon.
Dim. 2.86 x 0.93m.
Hull weight 15.5 kg.
The mast height different between a male and female sailer, male 5.2m., female 4.9m. and also the sail area, male 9.5m², female 4.9m².
RS:X is a windsurfing discipline selected by the ISAFto replace the Mistral One Design Class class for the 2008 Summer Olympics. The discipline has similarities to formula windsurfing - mainly in that the equipment used was designed to allow windsurfing in low and moderate wind conditions with good performance.
RS:X equipment includes a board with a daggerboard, and a sail of a specified size. The board measures 286 cm in length and 93 cm in width. Unlike formula boards, it is quite heavy - 15.5 kg, which is almost twice that of regular competition formula boards, but is very similar to the weight of Raceboards such as the previous Olympic board, Mistral One Design Class. Although the Mistral board has a weight of 17 kg ready to sail, the RS:X board weighs more than 19 kg.
The RS:X seems to be a compromise between traditional Raceboards which work well in 5-35 knots, and Formula boards which go fast in 12-30 knots, and has shown itself to be competitive with past Raceboards in the medium wind range.
The shape and design of the RS:X sail is based on that of the Neil Pryde formula windsurfing sail RS4.

Israel 2016 4s10 sg?, scott?
Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/RS:X
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Endurance (Shackleton)

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Endurance (Shackleton)

Postby shipstamps » Wed Aug 20, 2008 4:26 pm

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SG45
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SG75
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The Endurance, of the British Imperial Trans-Antarctic Expedition of 1914-16, was built in 1912 by Framnes Mek. Verks, at Sandefjord, and engined by Akers of Christiania. Her gross tonnage was 348 on dimensions 140ft. x 26.4ft. x 14.1ft., and she was the typical Norwegian whaler type of vessel, barquentine-rigged and launched 1912, as Polaris, a 3-masted barquentine with auxiliary steam for polar tourism and polar bear hunting!
Purchased by Shackleton and renamed Endurance. She was ready to sail under the direction of Sir Ernest Shackleton, C.V.O., on August 1, 1914. When the Naval mobilisation order was published on August 3, Shackleton, with the consent of the crew, offered the services of the ship and her crew to the Government. However, the Admiralty did not think the war would last longer than six months and Sir Ernest was told to go ahead with his Antarctic plans.
The Endurance carried a crew of 27 men in addition to the scientific staff. She sailed after Shackleton had been received by the King and assured of his Majesty's approval of the expedition. On this expedition a new coastline was discovered which Sir Ernest named Caird Coast in honour of Sir James Caird, who had subscribed £24,000 towards the cost of the expedition. Like the Deutschland, the Endurance was caught in pack ice, but the conditions were more severe than those experienced by the German ship. The British vessel was trapped on January 19, 1915, and crushed on October 27, 1915, finally sinking beneath the ice 25 days later.
The crew took to the ice, which drifted across the Weddell Sea. When it was obvious the pack ice was breaking up, they took to the ship's boats which had been saved when the Endurance went down and on April 16, reached Elephant Island.
What followed is an epic of the Antarctic—how Sir Ernest Shackleton left 22 men on Elephant Island, while he chose five men to accompany him in an open boat (the James Caird) to cross 800 miles of Antarctic seas to bring food and relief to the shipwrecked crew. Having successfully accomplished the almost impossible in a voyage of a fortnight, a mountain range of three ridges had to be crossed, one 5,000ft. high and covered in ice with dangerous precipices, before civilisation could be reached. It took them 36hrs. to overcome this obstacle. Eventually, Sir Ernest was able to effect the rescue of the Endurance's crew on Elephant Island, but it was not until several attempts had been made by the whaler, Southern Sky, the Uruguayan Government trawler Institute de Pesca, the British schooner Emma, and the Chilean Navy tender Yelcho, all led by Shackleton, that a way through the ice was found and the crew were picked up 41/2 months after their leader had left them. During the whole of that time Shackleton had thought of nothing but their relief.

Detail from BAT philatelic
Sir Ernest Henry Shackleton 1874-1922

Expeditions: British National Antarctic Expedition 1901-04 in Discovery. British Antarctic Expedition 1907-09 in Nimrod. Imperial Trans-Antarctic Expedition 1914-17 in Endurance. Shackleton-Rowett Antarctic Expedition 1921-22 in Quest. Discoveries: Beardmore Glacier, South Magnetic Pole, Caird Coast.
Voyage: British Imperial Trans-Antarctic Expedition 1914-17.

Aus Ant SG45, Brit Ant SG75,249 Chile 1375 Fal Is Dep SG G34 Ross Dep SG36 South Georgia SG32.
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Re: Endurance (Shackleton)

Postby aukepalmhof » Sun Mar 01, 2015 3:56 am

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Built under yard 87 by Framnæs Mek. Verks., Sandefjord, Norway for a company formed by Lars Christensen from Norway and Adrien de Gerlach from Belgian.
17 December 1912 launched as the POLARIS.
Tonnage 348 gross, dim. 42.67 x 8.04 x 4.28m.
One auxiliary coal fired triple expansion steam engine, 350 hp, one shaft, speed 10.2 knots.
Rigged as a three-masted barkentine.
24 August 1913 completed.

She was designed for the new formed company as a polar safari ship with paying guests, but when delivered the new formed company could not made the last payment, and the POLARIS was laid up waiting for a new buyer.
When Shackleton also short by cash was looking for a polar expedition vessel, and he did not have to pay for the POLARIS straight away but after some time, bought her for 225.000NKroner.
She was renamed in ENDURANCE.
The ENDURANCE was the three-masted barquentine in which Sir Ernest Shackleton sailed for the Antarctic on the 1914 Imperial Trans-Antarctic Expedition. She was launched in 1912 from Sandefjord in Norway and was crushed by ice, causing her to sink, three years later in the Weddell Sea off Antarctica.
Designed by Ole Aanderud Larsen, the ENDURANCE was built at the Framnæs shipyard in Sandefjord, Norway and fully completed 24 August 1913. She was built under the supervision of master wood shipbuilder Christian Jacobsen, who was renowned for insisting that all men employed under him not just be skilled shipwrights, but also be experienced in seafaring aboard whaling or sealing ships. Every detail of her construction had been scrupulously planned to ensure maximum durability, for example every joint and every fitting cross-braced each other for maximum strength
She was launched on December 17, 1912 and was initially christened the POLARIS (eponymous with Polaris, the North Star). She was 144 feet (44 m) long, with a 25 feet (7.6 m) beam and weighed 350 short tons (320 t). Though her black hull looked from the outside like that of any other vessel of a comparable size, it was not. She was designed for polar conditions with a very sturdy construction. Her keel members were four pieces of solid oak, one above the other, adding up to a thickness of 85 inches (2,200 mm), while her sides were between 30 inches (760 mm) and 18 inches (460 mm) thick, with twice as many frames as normal and the frames being of double thickness. She was built of planks of oak and Norwegian fir up to 30 inches (760 mm) thick, sheathed in greenheart, a notably strong and heavy wood. Her bow, where she would meet the ice head-on, had been given special attention. Each timber had been made from a single oak tree chosen for its shape so that is natural shape followed the curve of her design. When put together, these pieces had a thickness of 52 inches (1,300 mm).
Of her three masts, the forward one was square-rigged while the after two carried fore and aft sails, like a schooner. As well as sails, ENDURANCE had a 350 horsepower (260 kW) coal-fired steam engine capable of driving her at speeds up to 10.2 knots (18.9 km/h; 11.7 mph).
By the time she was launched on December 17, 1912, POLARIS was perhaps the strongest wooden ship ever built, with the possible exception of the FRAM, the vessel used by Fridtjof Nansen and later by Roald Amundsen. However, there was one major difference between the ships. The FRAM was bowl-bottomed, which meant that if the ice closed in against her she would be squeezed up and out and not be subject to the pressure of the ice compressing around her. But since the POLARIS was designed to operate in relatively loose pack ice she was not constructed so as to rise out of pressure to any great extent.
She was built for Adrien de Gerlache and Lars Christensen. They intended to use her for polar cruises for tourists to hunt polar bears. Financial problems leading to de Gerlache pulling out of their partnership meant that Christensen was happy to sell the boat to Ernest Shackleton for GB£11,600 (approx US$67,000), less than cost. He is reported to have said he was happy to take the loss in order to further the plans of an explorer of Shackleton's stature 'After Shackleton's purchasing her, she was rechristened ENDURANCE after the Shackleton family motto "Fortitudine vincimus" (By endurance we conquer).
Shackleton sailed with ENDURANCE from Plymouth, England on August 6, 1914 and set course for Buenos Aires, Argentina. This was ENDURANCE's first major cruising since her completion and amounted to a shakedown cruise. The trip across the Atlantic took more than two months. Built for the ice, her hull was considered by many of its crew too rounded for the open ocean.
On October 26, 1914 ENDURANCE sailed from Buenos Aires to her last port of call, the Grytviken whaling station on the island of South Georgia off the southern tip of South America, where she arrived on November 5. She departed from Grytviken for her final voyage on December 5, 1914 towards the southern regions of the Weddell Sea.
Two days after leaving from South Georgia, ENDURANCE encountered polar pack ice and progress slowed down. For weeks Endurance twisted and squirmed her way through the pack. She kept moving but averaged less than 30 miles (48 km) per day. By January 15, Endurance was within 200 miles (320 km) of its destination, Vahsel Bay. However by the following day heavy pack ice was sighted in the morning and in the afternoon a blowing gale developed. Under these conditions it was soon evident progress could not be made, and ENDURANCE took shelter under the lee of a large grounded berg. During the next two days ENDURANCE dogged back and forth under the sheltering protection of the berg.
On January 18 the gale began to moderate and thus ENDURANCE, one day short of her destination, set the topsail with the engine at slow. The pack had blown away. Progress was made slowly until hours later ENDURANCE encountered the pack once more. It was decided to move forward and work through the pack, and at 5pm ENDURANCE entered it. However it was noticed that this ice was different from what had been encountered before. The ship was soon engulfed by thick but soft ice floes. The ship floated in a soupy sea of mushy brash ice. The ship was beset. The gale now increased its intensity and kept blowing for another six days from a northerly direction towards land. By January 24, the wind had completely compressed the ice in the whole Weddell Sea against the land. The ice had packed snugly around ENDURANCE. All that could be done was to wait for a southerly gale that would start pushing, decompressing and opening the ice in the other direction. Instead the days passed and the pack remained unchanged.
ENDURANCE drifted for months while remaining beset in the ice in the Weddell Sea and drifted with it. The ice kept compressing it until ENDURANCE could not endure the pressure and was crushed on October 27, 1915. On the morning of November 21, 1915, the ENDURANCE bow began to sink under the ice. Like RMS TITANIC, the Endurance went vertical, her stern rising into the air, then disappearing beneath the ice. The ENDURANCE is considered the last ship of her kind.
It is said that Shackleton placed advertisements in London newspapers that read:
"MEN WANTED: For hazardous journey. Small wages, bitter cold, long months of complete darkness, constant danger, safe return doubtful. Honour and recognition in case of success. Sir Ernest Shackleton."
The crew of the Endurance in its final voyage was made up of the 28 men Blackborrow was originally refused a post aboard the vessel due to his young age and inexperience and decided to stow away, helped to sneak aboard by William Blakewell, a friend of his, and Walter How. By the time he was found, the expedition was far enough out that Shackleton had no choice but to make him a steward. Blackborrow eventually proved his worth, earning the Bronze Polar Medal, and the honour of becoming the first human being ever to set foot on Elephant Island. His name is also the matter of some debate—it is sometimes spelled Percy, or Blackboro, or in other ways.
Alfred Lansing wrote a book titled Endurance: Shackleton's Incredible Voyage about the ordeal that Shackleton and his men endured aboard the ship. It became a bestseller when first published in 1959. Subsequent reprints have made it a recurrent bestseller; the last time being in the late 1990s.
Two Antarctic patrol ships of the British Royal Navy have been named ENDURANCE in honour of Shackleton's ship. The first HMS ENDURANCE (originally named ANITA DAN) was launched in May 1956 and awarded Pennant number A171 sometime later. She acted as an ice patrol and hydrographic survey ship until 1986. Today's modern HMS ENDURANCE, nicknamed The Red Plum, is a class 1A1 ice-breaker bought from Norway in 1992 where she had been known as MV POLAR CIRCLE. She is based at Portsmouth but makes annual forays to Antarctica where she can penetrate through 0.9 metres (2 ft 11 in) of ice at a speed of 3 knots (5.6 km/h; 3.5 mph). She has a complement of 126 marine personnel and carries two Westland Lynx helicopters.
In 1998 wreckage found at Stinker Point on the south western side of Elephant Island was incorrectly identified as flotsam from the ship. It in fact belonged to the 1877 wreck of the Connecticut sealing ship CHARLES SHEARER In 2001 wreck hunter David Mearns unsuccessfully planned an expedition to find the wreck of the Endurance By 2003 two rival groups were making plans for an expedition to find the wreck, however no expedition was actually mounted. In 2010 Mearns announced a new plan to search for the wreck. The plan is sponsored by the National Geographic Society but is subject to finding sponsorship for the balance of the U.S. $10 million estimated cost.

Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Endurance_(1912_ship)"

The 10p stamp features Ernest Shackleton and his Imperial Transantarctic Expedition ship ENDURANCE. The Weddell Sea party of the expedition visited South Georgia in November 1914 to take on coal and other stores and refit the ship before sailing for Antarctica. While in Buenos Aires, Shackleton was warned that it might be a bad year for ice in the Weddell Sea so he delayed his departure from South Georgia for a month. This gave time for scientific work to be carried out. Unfortunately most of the records and specimens were lost when ENDURANCE was crushed by the ice and sank. Shackleton is buried in the cemetery at Grytviken.

Source: South Georgia Post.

South Georgia & Sandwich Islands 2015 10p sg?, scott?
Maldives 2015 20M and 60M sg?, scott?
Solomon Islands 2015 $40 sgMS?, scott?
Sierra Leone 2015 6000L sgMS?, scott? sgMS?, scott?
Guina 2015 10.000f sgMS?, scott?
aukepalmhof
 
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Re: Endurance (Shackleton)

Postby ptvisnes » Sat Feb 06, 2016 8:11 pm

More issues with "Endurance" (1912)

British Antarctic Territory
1994. 76p+4p. Mi 234. SG 249. Sc B4
2000. 35p. Mi 298. SG 312. Sc 285
2000. 40p. Mi 299. SG 313. Sc XXX
2005. 42p. Mi 397. SG 400. Sc 350
2005. 55p. Mi 410. SG 409. Sc 363
2005. £1. Mi 411. SG 410. Sc 364
2008. 4v. Mi Bl 15. SG MS 473. Sc 399d
2013. 6v. Mi (640-45) Bl 25. SG xxx. Sc 470 a-f
2013. 75p. Mi 645. SG xxx. Sc 470f
2014. 65p. Mi xxx. SG xxx. Sc 471
2014. 65p. Mi xxx. SG xxx. Sc 472
Falkland Islands
2000. 17p. Mi 776. SG 867. Sc 758
2000. 45p. Mi 777. SG 868. Sc 759
Ireland
2004. 48c/48c. Mi 1569/70. SG 1637/38. Sc xxx
2004. 65c/65c. Mi 1573/74 Bl 15. In margin
Great Britain
2003. 42p. Mi 2107. SG 2363. Sc 2121
South Georgia & SSI
2009. 55p. Mi 473. SG 472. Sc 385
2011. £1.15. Mi 549. SG 549. Sc 442b
2014. 12v.
Ross Dependency
2015. 80c. Mi xxx. SG xxx. Sc xxx
ptvisnes
 
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Re: Endurance (Shackleton)

Postby D. v. Nieuwenhuijzen » Sun May 22, 2016 6:54 pm

endurance 1.jpg
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endurance in ijs.jpg
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endurance ierland.png
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British Antarctic Territory 2014, 2x 65 p. StG.?
Ireland 2004, 2x 48 c. StG.1637/38
D. v. Nieuwenhuijzen
 
Posts: 567
Joined: Fri Sep 24, 2010 7:46 pm


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