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GANGE 1905

Continuing a series begun in 2015 with a triptych commemorating the New Caledonians who fought in the First World War, the OPT is proud to present a 110 XPF stamp issue showing a Kanak Skirmisher about to leave for France aboard the GANGE.
Military draughtsman Roberto Lunardo drew his inspiration from the wooden statue which stands in front of the Customary Senate, a work created by sculptor Armand Gorboredjo.
As natives of the colony of New Caledonia, the Kanaks were not eligible for mobilisation in 1914 because under the Indigenous Regime, in force since 1887, they were not entitled to the rights and liberties of citizenship. However, although France generally represented land-grabbing practices and restrictions, it also contributed the missionaries who often stood up for the Kanaks. A number of tribes opted to acknowledge the French Republic.
As from December 1915, under the policy of equality of treatment for all natives of the French colonies, the voluntary enlistment of one man out of ten paying the capitation tax was required of the Kanaks of New Caledonia. More than a thousand Kanaks from every tribe flocked to enlist between January 1916 and July 1918. Some were picked by their chiefs, others enlisted to see the war and many were driven by their faith in Christian values. However, as the recruitment campaigns continued, eagerness to enlist faded as a result, inter alia, of failures to pay allowances due to families and the heavy drain on the male population. Grouped according to their geographical origin and strictly supervised by the catechists, the Kanaks were assigned to the Bataillon des Tirailleurs des îles du Pacifique (Pacific Islands Rifle Battalion), founded in Noumea in January 1916.
Most of them were sent to France. Three major contingents left Noumea, on 4 June 1916 on board the GANGE, on 3 December 1916 on the same ship and 10 November 1917 on the EL KANTARA. They landed at Marseille and were posted to the camps at Fréjus.
The Bataillon Canaque or Bataillon de la Roussette was a “bataillon d’étapes”, attached to the Marseille Ports Commission and responsible for logistics work on the French Riviera. Although the Kanaks worked as dock labourers and roadmenders, they were given military training and quickly acquired skills in grenade throwing and weapons handling. In April 1917, numbers were swelled with the addition of an artillery company and the battalion became the Bataillon mixte du Pacifique (BMP). In July 1917, to the rear of Chemin des Dames, the Kanaks were assigned to maintaining trenches, installing and repairing telegraph and telephone lines, and working as stretcher bearers and trench cleaners. From August to October 1917, the BMP became an infantry battalion within the 72nd Infantry Division on the Champagne front and fought in the battles of the Matz and the Serre. However, like all soldiers from the colonies, in late October 1917 the Kanak fighters were sent back to spend the winter on the Riviera, where they again worked as labourers and dockhands.
From June 1918 onwards, the BMP was involved in the Battle of the Matz in the Oise, where small units fought alongside the 164th and the 365th Infantry Regiments. In August, the BMP was attached to the 418th Infantry Regiment and fought as an assault troop in the attack on Pasly plateau near Soissons, and in offensives along the line of the Ailette, to the rear of Chemin des Dames. In October, five companies of the BMP were reunited for the first time and saw front line action with the 164th Infantry Regiment at the Battle of the Serre to recapture the Hunding line. On 24 and 25 October, the BMP took part in the capture of the village of Vesles-et-Caumont and Petit Caumont farm, near Laon (Aisne). On 10 December 1918, a meritorious unit citation (10th Army Division) was awarded to the BMP. Following the armistice, the battalion returned to the French Riviera to await a ship back to Noumea. The BMP was dissolved on 9 May 1919. The next day, 908 Oceanian soldiers, including 92 Kanaks, returned home aboard the EL KANTARA. The remaining troops, including 601 Kanaks, were attached to the 73th Senegalese Rifle Batallion. They were shipped home on the KIA ORA in November 1919, and sometimes later.
In all, 383 Kanak soldiers gave their lives for France in the Great War (35.4% of those who enlisted); they formed the largest group of indigenous French subjects who died for France.
Sylvette Boubin-Boyer, PhD in History ... -1916-2016

As given by the New Caledonia Post the GANGE is depict on this stamp.

Built as a passenger-cargo vessel under yard No 121 by Messageries Maritimes, La Ciotat for Cie Des Messageries Maritimes, Marseille.
06 August 1905 launched as GANGE, two sisters the EUPHRATE and EL KANTARA.
Tonnage 6,876 gross, 8,170 dwt., dim. 141.35 x 16.06, length bpp. 136.3m.
Powered by 2 triple expansion steam engines, boilers coal fired, 3,800 hp, twin shafts, speed 13 knots.
Passenger accommodation for 40 first, 54 second and 1,200 tweendeck passengers.
December 1905 completed.

She and her sisters were built for the service from Marseille to Saigon and Haiphong.
1914 Requisitioned for the mail service.
April-May 1915 used in the Dardanelles Campaign where she came under fire of the enemy batteries.
April 1916 sailed from Marseille for a voyage in the South Pacific to transport a mix of European and Kanak troops to France.
04 June 1916 the GANGE sailed from Noumea and she arrived the 11 August in Marseille.
September 1916 she made another voyage to the South Pacific in which she brings almost 800 mobilized troops from Noumea to Marseille, she left Noumea 3 December 1916 and arrived Marseille on 12 February 1917.
14 April 1917 on a voyage from Marseille via Bizerte, Tunisia to the South Pacific she was sunk at 21.20 by a mine laid by the German submarine UC-37 under command of Otto Launburg in a position 4 mile north of Cape Blanc at the entrance canal to Bizerte. The GANGE sank with the loss of 1 sailor, 288 people were rescued.

New Caledonia 2016 110F sg?, scott?
Source: and internet.

RAINIER I and battle fleet

The stamp of 6 Frank issued by Monaco was issued for the EXPO Exposition in Genova in 1992 and shows us a portrait of Rainier I Lord of Cagnes 1267-1314 who was the first ruler what is now Monaco. According Navicula our German sister society the battle in the background of the stamp is designed after a fresco from the Spinola Palace in Genoa, which shows us Rainier’s I fleet but I can’t find this fresco on the internet.

Rainier I of Monaco, although not much remembered today, was quite the legend in his own lifetime, known for his daring exploits on land and sea as well as becoming the first Grimaldi sovereign of modern-day Monaco. The Grimaldi family had long been famous for their seafaring adventures. A Grimaldi had led the fleet that brought the kings of Jerusalem and Hungary to Egypt in the Fifth Crusade. Rainier was to earn much of his own swashbuckling reputation afloat as well. Rainier was born in 1267, the eldest of three sons of Lanfranco Grimaldi, French Vicar of Provence and the son of the Consul of Genoa Grimaldo Grimaldi, and Aurelia del Carretto who later married her nephew by that last marriage Francois Grimaldi. As he grew older he became a skilled naval leader in the service of King Charles II of Anjou in 1296 and the success of his galleys was so skillful that he gained a reputation throughout the Mediterranean for his dash and daring.

The following year, in 1297, Rainier went along with his stepfather and a group of armed men in taking the castle on the Rock of Monaco. This was the famous founding of Grimaldi rule over the area of modern Monaco. The men, led by Francois Grimaldi, disguised themselves as monks, concealing their sword under their long, brown robes. Requesting shelter from the Ghibellines who held the castle they were admitted and quickly sprung upon the guards, killing them and opening the way for the rest of their forces which quickly stormed in and took the castle. This was part of a long standing feud amongst the states of Italy between the Guelph and Ghibelline factions. It started out of a conflict between the Pope and the Holy Roman Emperor over who had final authority, over religious matters in particular. The Ghibellines supported the Emperor whereas the Guelphs (such as the Grimaldis) supported the Pope. The Guelph Grimaldis had been driven from Genoa by a Ghibelline victory but in 1297, in Monaco at least, they had gained the upper hand and Rainier became Lord Rainier I of Monaco.

In those days King Philippe IV of France embarked on a grand and ambitious campaign against the old enemy of England. Some might think that the Continental Blockade was the invention of Napoleon, but in fact it was a revival of the policy of Philippe IV who endeavored to forge alliances across the continent from the Baltic to Sicily to shut out English goods, turn back English merchants and hopefully leave an economically isolated England to wither on the vine. To a large extent the policy worked but the English monarch, the fierce King Edward I, was no man to trifle with and he found the weak point in the French plan which was Flanders. The policy of isolating England had effected them as well and Edward made an alliance with Count Guy of Flanders to monopolize trade between England and the continent. This quickly made other ports, especially French ports like Calais, see their profits dry up.

Another result was that the increasingly wealthy merchants were rapidly becoming power rivals for the old nobility, especially in Flanders. Philippe IV backed the lords while Edward I tended to sympathize with the merchant democrats. When the situation came to blows in 1302 the aristocrats suffered a bloody defeat and Philippe IV was obliged to go looking for help. Remembering the service he had given to Charles of Anjou and Sicily, Philippe turned to Rainier Grimaldi. An arrangement was made and soon Rainier was off the French coast with 16 armed galleys to which the King added 20 of his own though they were less well built and not as expertly manned as Rainier’s veteran craft. Rainier began training the French sailors and preparing them for battle with the English who did not have quite the same reputation for naval excellence that they would gain later. Their Dutch and Flemish allies, however, had a superb naval reputation.

The confrontation came in August of 1304 at the battle of Zierikzee, Netherlands. Despite being outmatched by the enemy fleet the superior training and seamanship of Rainier and his forces won the day and he earned a great victory for France even capturing the Flemish admiral Guy de Dampierre. In gratitude King Philippe IV appointed Rainier to the rank of Admiral-General of France and granted him the title to Villeneuve in Normandy. A period of peace ensued broken only by the occasional skirmish while in the Mediterranean the feud between the Guelph and Ghibelline factions went on with first one side gaining the upper hand and then the other. In 1309 Rainier established a fortified base today known as Chateau Grimaldi. This was in the town of Cagnes and thereafter Rainier was titled Lord of Cagnes. Rainier had been married twice. His first marriage was to Salvatica, the daughter of the Margrave of Final Giacomo del Carretto. By her he had four children; Charles I, Vinci Guerra (who later married Constancia Ruffa), Salvaggia (who later married Gabriel Vento) and Luca, Lord of Villefranche. Rainier’s second marriage was to Andriola Grillo but they had no children. When Admiral Rainier died in 1314 the leadership of the Grimaldi clan passed to his son, Lord Charles I.

Monaco 1992 6.00F sg2088, scott1819
Downloaded from ... onaco.html

KETCH rigged cargo vessel

The 200 SH SO stamp of the Somali Republic depict a modern top-sail ketch rigged cargo vessel.
She is a two masted trader and identified by the size and position of the mizzenmast which is shorter than the mainmast. Stepped mostly just behind the main boom of the mainmast as seen on the stamp.
The mizzen sail area is roughly one half that of the mainsail.
Both the ketch and the yawl have two masts, with the main mast foremost; the distinction being that a ketch has the mizzen mast forward of the rudder post, whereas on a yawl, it is aft of the rudder post. Compared to a ketch, a similar size yawl's mizzen sail is much smaller than the main, because of the limitations of the mizzen sheet. So on a ketch, the principal purpose of the mizzen sail is to help propel the vessel, while on a yawl, the smaller mizzen mainly serves the purposes of trim and balance. Yawls tend to have mainsails almost as large as those of comparable sloops.
A ketch may be distinguished from a cutter or a sloop by virtue of having two masts rather than one, though a ketch with two foresails is sometimes called a "cutter-rigged ketch".
Both the ketch and the yawl differ from the two-masted schooner, whose aft mainmast is taller than the foremast. (It follows that a schooner does not have a mizzen mast.) If a vessel has two masts of approximately the same height, the rig with the larger sail forward is called a ketch, while the rig with the larger sail aft is a schooner. The American two-masted schooner is rare in Europe, where the ketch rig is preferred.

Somalia Republic 1998 200SH sg?, scott?
Source: Wikipedia and internet sites.


The stamp gives the ARMADALE there was an Australian passenger ship built in 1909 with this name but she had only one funnel, while the stamp shows a two funnel vessel. Comparing stamp with photos the Union Castle liner ARMADALE CASTLE is depict.

Built as a passenger-cargo vessel under yard No 423 by Fairfield Shipbuilding & Engineering Co. Ltd, Govan near Glasgow for the Union-Castle Mail Steamship Co. Ltd. London.
11 August 1903 launched as the ARMADALE CASTLE one sister the WALMER CASTLE.
Tonnage 12,973 gross, 7,263 net, dim. 173.76 x 19.65 x 11.88m., length bpp. 173.7m.
Powered by two 4-cyl. quadruple expansion steam engines manufactured by shipbuilder, 2.212 nhp.,(12,500 ihp.), twin shafts, speed 17 knots.
Passenger accommodation for 350 first, 200 second and 270 third class passengers.
Some of her holds were fitted out to carry reefer cargo.
November 1903 completed.

She replaced the SCOTT in the mail service between the U.K. and South Africa.
05 December 1903 maiden voyage from Southampton to Cape Town where she arrived on 22 December.
26 June 1904 she was the first mail ship to cross the bar at Durban.
1908 She carried the first shipment of citrus fruit from the Cape to the U.K.
02 August 1914 chartered as an Armed Merchant Cruiser (AMC) armed with 8 – 6 inch guns and commissioned as HMS ARMADALE CASTLE and stationed in the Cape.
September 1914 took part in the South West Africa campaign. ... a_campaign
1915 On patrol off German East Africa.
1916 Carried gold and specie worth £7 million from Simon’s Town to Halifax. N.S., Canada.
April 1917 after a refit her armament given as 8 – 6 inch and 2 – 6pdr. guns. And she joined the 10th Cruiser Squadron for blockade patrols between the Shetland Islands and Norway.
1918 Escort duties on South, North American and West African routes.
11 September 1919 decommissioned and returned to owners, after a reconditioning on the Clyde and her passenger accommodation altered to 261 first, 271 second and 274 third class.
10 April 1936 her last sailing from Cape Town for the U.K.
June 1936 sold to Hughes Bolckow Shipbreaking Co. Ltd., Blyth where she arrived on 12 June 1936 for scrapping.

Liberia 2015 $30 sg?, scott?
Source: Union Castle Line a fleet history by Peter Newall. Armed Merchant Cruisers 1878-1945 by Osborne, Spong & Grover.

CHARLES GLEYRE and painting "Lost Illusions"

Lost Illusions is a painting by Charles Gleyre and his student Leon Dussart, commissioned by William Thompson Walters in 1865.
Charles Gleyre was known as an artist of classic methods but romantic tastes who often modified heroism into idyllic scenes. However, in execution he was not considered romantic, due to his use of pale colors, his delicate drawing style, and uncertain light.[1] At the 1843 Salon (in Paris), Gleyre received praise for The Evening. In 1865, William T. Walters would commission a replica of the painting which was completed by Gleyre and Dussart and is now also known as Lost Illusions.
Lost Illusions depicts a vision Gleyre experienced one evening while on the banks of the Nile. It represents a despondent scene and uses softened tones. In the scene, an aging poet watches as a mysterious "bark" drifts away with his youthful illusions. The illusions are represented by maidens playing instruments and a cupid scattering flowers.
Off the Wall
Currently, Lost Illusions is being featured in Off the Wall, an open-air exhibition on the streets of Baltimore, Maryland. A reproduction of the painting, the original is part of The Walters Art Museum collection, was on display through January 2014 in O'Donnell Square. The National Gallery in London began the concept of bringing art out of doors in 2007 and the Detroit Institute of Art introduced the concept in the U.S.. The Off the Wall reproductions of the Walters' paintings are done on weather-resistant vinyl and include a description of the painting and a QR code for smart phones.

France 2016 1.60 Euro sg?, scott?


The ancient Olympic Games were held over a period of 1500 years. The Games were reestablished in the late 19th century by Baron Pierre de Coubertin and the first modern Olympics took place in Athens in 1896.
Since then, the Olympic Games have been held regularly every four years, except during WWI and WWII.
The Summer Olympics constitute the largest event of any kind in the world.
The 31st modern Olympiad will commence in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil on August 5, 2016. This marks the first time that the Olympics have been hosted in South America.
Israel participated in the Olympic Games for the first time in Helsinki 1952. The infamous 1972 Munich games will eternally be mourned for the 11 members of the Israeli delegation who were murdered there - athletes, trainers and referees.
Israel won its first Olympic medal in Barcelona in 1992 and its first gold medal in Athens 2004.

Sailing - RS:X Windsurfing
Sailing is one of Israel's most prominent sports. The most prominent achievement in this field is the Olympic gold medal for windsurfing.
The RS:X windsurfer replaced the Mistral model in 2005. The RS:X was first used at the 2006 Israeli Championships and marked the transition to the younger generation of windsurfers: Gal Friedman, Olympic gold medalist from the Athens 2004 games (Mistral model) came in fourth, while Shahar Zubari won the competition. In the women's competition, Maayan Davidovich beat former World Champion Lee Korzits. Israel was represented at the 2008 Olympic Games in Beijing by Zubari and Davidovich, both of whom qualified for the medal sailings and Zubari even won a bronze medal.
Lee Korzits won four consecutive world championship titles and was ranked sixth in the London 2012 games. She is Israel’s most decorated athlete.
Israel will be represented at the Rio 2016 Olympic Games by Israeli windsurfers Maayan Davidovich and Shahar Zubari.
Smadar Pintov CEO, Israel Sailing Association.
Downloaded from: ... t&id=28849

RS:X sailboard was made after a design by One Design, Neil Pryde, the designers are Jean Bouldoires & Robert Stroj and the board is made of GRP & Carbon.
Dim. 2.86 x 0.93m.
Hull weight 15.5 kg.
The mast height different between a male and female sailer, male 5.2m., female 4.9m. and also the sail area, male 9.5m², female 4.9m².
RS:X is a windsurfing discipline selected by the ISAFto replace the Mistral One Design Class class for the 2008 Summer Olympics. The discipline has similarities to formula windsurfing - mainly in that the equipment used was designed to allow windsurfing in low and moderate wind conditions with good performance.
RS:X equipment includes a board with a daggerboard, and a sail of a specified size. The board measures 286 cm in length and 93 cm in width. Unlike formula boards, it is quite heavy - 15.5 kg, which is almost twice that of regular competition formula boards, but is very similar to the weight of Raceboards such as the previous Olympic board, Mistral One Design Class. Although the Mistral board has a weight of 17 kg ready to sail, the RS:X board weighs more than 19 kg.
The RS:X seems to be a compromise between traditional Raceboards which work well in 5-35 knots, and Formula boards which go fast in 12-30 knots, and has shown itself to be competitive with past Raceboards in the medium wind range.
The shape and design of the RS:X sail is based on that of the Neil Pryde formula windsurfing sail RS4.

Israel 2016 4s10 sg?, scott?

Inanda (T&J Harrison)

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Inanda (T&J Harrison)

Postby shipstamps » Mon Jun 23, 2008 5:57 pm

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Launched 24th February 1925 by Swan Hunter and sailed on her maiden voyage from London to West Indies.
13th August 1936 the two Osborne brothers, who had earlier absconded from Britain with the fishing vessel GIRL PAT, were placed in custody by the master of Inanda and transferred to the authorities in London.
21st June 1940 she sailed on the final voyage of Harrison passenger service to West Indies.
27th Aug 1940. On return requisitioned by Admiralty as an Ocean Boarding Vessel. In September she was struck by bombs from German aircraft whilst fitting out in Royal Albert Dock, London.
She was refloated and taken over by UK government and rebuilt as a cargo vessel.
11th Feb 1942 registered under the ownership of the Ministry of War Transport and renamed EMPIRE EXPLORER.
8yh July 1942 torpedoed by German submarine U575 on passage from Demerara to Barbados. Hit by a second torpedo and then the Uboat shelled her until she sank.
Only 3 of the 71 crew were reported missing.
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Re: Inanda (T&J Harrison)

Postby D. v. Nieuwenhuijzen » Fri Feb 28, 2014 8:46 pm

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Built in 1925 by Swan, Hunter & Wigham Richardson Ltd., Newcastle upon Tyne for Charente Steamship Co Ltd. (operated by T & J Harrison Ltd.)
Cargo/passenger ship, Gt:5985, Nt:3746, Dw:6900, L:124,05m. (407’) B:15,90m. (52’2”) D:8,66m. (28’5”) draught:7,80m. (25’7¼”) Wallsend Slipway Co. Ltd. quadruple expansion steam engine:606 nhp. 13 kn. passengers:100, crew:130.

Inanda was launched on 24 February 1925 and was completed in May. She was built for the Charente Steamship Co Ltd and placed under the management of T & J Harrison Ltd. Her port of registry was Liverpool. She was allocated the United Kingdom Official Number 137410 and Code Letters KSNF. On 3 February 1932, Inanda was on a voyage from London to the West Indies when she suffered a broken propellor. She put into Swansea, Glamorgan for repairs.Following the changes to Code Letters in 1934, Inanda was allocated GLMB.
Inanda was a member of Covnoy OA 7, which departed from Southend, Essex on 19 September 1939 and dispersed at sea on 22 September. She was bound for Antigua, where she arrived on 3 October. She departed that day and sailed to Saint Kitts, arriving later that day. On 4 October, Inanda sailed for Grenada arriving on 6 October and departing that day for Trinidad, where she arrived the next day. On 9 October, she sailed for Demarara, British Guiana, arriving the next day and departing on 14 October for Trinidad, where she arrived on 15 October. Departing on 20 October, Saint Vincent and Grenada were visited before Inanda arrived at Saint Lucia, from where she sailed on 25 October for Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada. She arrived on 2 November, sailing on 8 November as a member of Convoy HXF 8, which arrived at Dover, Kent, United Kingdom on 21 November. Inanda was carrying general cargo, rum and sugar. She then sailed to Southend to join Convoy FN 46, which departed on 1 December and arrived at Methil, Fife the next day. She left the convoy at Middlesbrough, Yorkshire on 2 December.
Inanda sailed from Middlesbrough on 11 December to join Convoy FS 53, which had sailed from Methil that day and arrived at Southend on 12 December. She then joined Convoy OA 53, which sailed on 14 December and dispersed at sea on 16 December. She was carrying a cargo of sulphite as well as a number of passengers and her captain was the convoy's Vice Commodore. Inanda was bound for Demerara, which was reached on 9 January 1940 via Barbados and Trinidad. She departed on 13 January for Montserrat, from where she sailed on 15 January for Trinidad. She departed on 16 January for Galveston, Texas, United States, arriving on 22 January and sailing on 3 February for Halifax, where she arrived on 13 February. Inanda was a member of Convoy HX 20, which departed on 16 February and arrived at Liverpool on 4 March. She was carrying general cargo.
Inanda departed from Liverpool on 29 March as a member of Convoy OB 119, which dispersed at sea on 1 April. She was performing the rôle of a convoy rescue ship and sailed to London after the convoy had dispersed. She then sailed to Southend, from where she departed on 8 April as a member of Convoy OA 125G, which formed Convoy OG 25 on 10 April. Inanda was carrying general cargo bound for Antigua, arriving on 24 April and sailing that day for Saint Kitts, where she arrived on 24 April. She sailed the next day for Saint Lucia, from where she departed on 26 April for Grenada, arriving on 29 April. She spent the next few weeks sailing around the West Indies, arriving at Bermuda on 20 May. Carrying general cargo, Inanda was a member of Convoy BHX 64, which departed on 7 August and joined with convoy HX 64 on 12 August. Convoy HX 64 departed from Halifax on 8 August and arrived at Liverpool on 23 August. Inanda was bound for London, which was reached by leaving the convoy and sailing to the Methil Roads, where she arrived on 24 August. She then joined Convoy FS 262, which departed on 25 August and arrived at Southend on 27 August.
Inanda was then hired by the Royal Navy for use as an ocean boarding vessel. On 7 September, she was berthed at London Docks when she was sunk in an air raid.
She was salvaged and rebuilt as a cargo ship, Inanda was renamed Empire Explorer, she was passed to the MoWT and placed under the management of T & J Harrison Ltd. Her port of registry was changed to London although she retained the Code Letters GLMB.
Empire Explorer was a member of Convoy FN 632, which departed from Southend on 15 February 1942 and arrived at Methil two days later. She left the convoy at the Tyne on 16 February, to load general cargo. She sailed four days later to join Convoy FN 636, which had departed from Southend on 19 February and arrived at Methil on 21 February. She then joined Convoy EN 50, which departed the next day and arrived at Oban, Argyllshire on 23 February. She left the convoy at Loch Ewe and sailed to Saint Kitts, arriving on 17 March. Empire Explorer spent the next five weeks sailing around the West Indies, arriving at the Cape Verde Islands on 20 April and sailing two days later for Halifax, where she arrived on 30 April. She joined Convoy HX 188, which departed on 3 May and arrived at Liverpool on 15 May. She was carrying general cargo, sugar and 38 bags of mail. She left the convoy at the Clyde, arriving on 15 May.
Empire Explorer sailed on 1 June to join Convoy OS 30, which departed from Liverpool that day and arrived at Freetown, Sierra Leone on 19 June. She was in ballast and armed with a 4-inch or 4.7-inch gun, eight machine guns and a number of kites. She was stated to be bound for George, South Africa. She arrived at Demerara on 21 June, sailing nine days later for Trinidad, where she arrived on 1 July. Empire Explorer sailed from Trinidad on 8 July, carrying 200 bags of mail, 1,000 long tons (1,000 t) of pitch and 4,000 long tons (4,100 t) of sugar and bound for Barbados. At 02:47 German time on 9 July, Empire Explorer was torpedoed, shelled and sunk at
11°40′N 60°55’W. by the U-575, which was in the command of Günther Heydemann. Of her 70 crew and 8 DEMS gunners, three crew were killed. The survivors were rescued by HMS MTB 337 and landed at Tobago.
(Barbados 1994, 70 c. StG.1033; St. Kitts 1990, 40 c. StG.316)
D. v. Nieuwenhuijzen
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