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Built as a battleship by Stabilimento Tecnico San Marco, Trieste (San Marco) for the Austria Imperial Navy,
06 May 1863 keel laid down.
24 May 1865 launched as the ERZHERZOG FERDINAND MAX named after Archduke Ferdinand Max.
Displacement 5,140 ton standard, 5,210 ton full load. Dim. 83.75 x 15.96 x 7.14m. (draught). Length bpp. 79.97.
Powered by one 2-cyl.single-expansion steam engine, 2,925 ihp. (2,181 kW), one shaft, speed 12 knots. Bunker capacity 400 ton.
Armament when built: 16 – 48 pdr, 4 – 8 pdr. And 2 – 3 pdr, guns.
Sail area when built 1,959 m².
Crew 489.
21 June 1866 commissioned.
SMS ERZHERZOG FERDINAND MAX was the lead ship of the Erzherzog Ferdinand Max class of broadside ironclads built for the Austrian Navy in the 1860s. She was built by the Stabilimento Tecnico Triestino, with her keel laying in October 1863, launching in May 1865, and commissioning in June 1866 at the outbreak of the Third Italian War of Independence and the Austro-Prussian War, fought concurrently. The ship was armed with a main battery of sixteen 48-pounder guns, though the rifled guns originally intended, which had been ordered from Prussia, had to be replaced with old smoothbore guns until after the conflicts ended.
Stationed in the Adriatic Sea, ERZHERZOG FERDINAND MAX served as the flagship of the Austrian fleet under Rear Admiral Wilhelm von Tegetthoff. She saw action at the Battle of Lissa in July 1866, where she rammed and sank the Italian ironclad RE D’ITALIA. Slightly damaged in the collision, ERZHERZOG FERDINAND MAX had her bow repaired in Malta after the war. She remained in the Austro-Hungarian fleet for the next twenty years, but severely reduced naval budgets owing to Hungarian disinterest in naval matters led to an uneventful career. She was rearmed with newer guns in 1874 and again in 1882. Stricken from the naval register in May 1886, ERZHERZOG FERDINAND MAX was employed as a tender to the gunnery training school from 1889 to 1908. She remained in the inventory until 1916 when she was broken up for scrap.
ERZHERZOG FERDINAND MAX was 83.75 meters (274.8 ft) long overall; she had a beam of 15.96 m (52.4 ft) and an average draft of 7.14 m (23.4 ft). She displaced 5,130 metric tons (5,050 long tons; 5,650 short tons). She had a crew of 511. Her propulsion system consisted of one single-expansion steam engine, manufactured by the Stabilimento Tecnico shipyard in Fiume, that drove a single screw propeller. The number and type of her coal-fired boilers have not survived. Her engine produced a top speed of 12.54 knots (23.22 km/h; 14.43 mph) from 2,925 indicated horsepower (2,181 kW).
ERZHERZOG FERDINAND MAX was a broadside ironclad, and she was armed with a main battery of sixteen 48-pounder muzzle-loading guns. She also carried several smaller guns, including four 8-pounder guns and two 3-pounders. The ship's hull was sheathed with wrought iron armor that was 123 mm (5 in) thick on the battery and reduced to 87 mm (3.4 in) at the bow and stern.[1]
Service history
ERZHERZOG FERDINAND MAX was laid down at the Stabilimento Tecnico Triestino shipyard in Trieste on 6 May 1863. She was launched on 24 May 1865; the builders were forced to complete fitting-out work quickly, as tensions with neighboring Prussia and Italy erupted into the concurrent Austro-Prussian War and the Third Italian War of Independence in June 1866. ERZHERZOG FERDINAND MAX's rifled heavy guns were still on order from Krupp, and they could not be delivered due to the conflict with Prussia. Instead, the ship was armed with old smooth-bore guns. Rear Admiral Wilhelm von Tegetthoff, the commander of the Austrian Fleet, immediately began to mobilize his fleet. As the ships became fully manned, they began to conduct training exercises in Fasana. With his flag aboard ERZHERZOG FERDINAND MAX, Tegetthoff brought the Austrian fleet to Ancona on 26 June in an attempt to draw out the Italians, but the Italian commander, Admiral Carlo Pellion di Persano, refused to engage Tegetthoff. Tegetthoff made another sortie on 6 July, but again could not bring the Italian fleet to battle.
Battle of Lissa
On 16 July, Persano took the Italian fleet, with twelve ironclads, out of Ancona, bound for the island of Lissa, where they arrived on the 18th. With them, they brought troop transports carrying 3,000 soldiers. Persano then spent the next two days bombarding the Austrian defenses of the island and unsuccessfully attempting to force a landing. Tegetthoff received a series of telegrams between the 17 and 19 July notifying him of the Italian attack, which he initially believed to be a feint to draw the Austrian fleet away from its main bases at Pola and Venice. By the morning of the 19th, however, he was convinced that Lissa was in fact the Italian objective, and so he requested permission to attack. As Tegetthoff's fleet arrived off Lissa on the morning of 20 July, Persano's fleet was arrayed for another landing attempt. The latter's ships were divided into three groups, with only the first two able to concentrate in time to meet the Austrians. Tegetthoff had arranged his ironclad ships into a wedge-shaped formation, leading with ERZHERZOG FERDINAND MAX at the center; the wooden warships of the second and third divisions followed behind in the same formation.
While he was forming up his ships, Persano transferred from his flagship, RE D’ITALIA to the turret ship AFFONDATORE . This created a gap in the Italian line, and Tegetthoff seized the opportunity to divide the Italian fleet and create a melee. He made a pass through the gap, but failed to ram any of the Italian ships, forcing him to turn around and make another attempt. During the second attempt, Austrian gunfire had disabled RE D’ITALIA's rudder, leaving her incapable of maneuvering. Tegetthoff seized the opportunity to ram the Italian vessel, and ordered his ship to maximum speed. After two collisions that occurred at angles too oblique to inflict serious damage, ERZHERZOG FERDINAND MAX struck the ship more directly. The Austrian ship's ram tore a gaping hole in RE D’ITALIA's hull on the port side, though ERZHERZOG FERDINAND MAX sustained no significant damage herself. Tegetthoff reversed course, allowing the Italian ironclad to lurch back to port and quickly sink. Tegetthoff initially ordered his crew to lower boats to pick up the Italians struggling in the water, but the Italian ironclad SAN MARTIN was approaching, and he could not allow his ship to become a stationary target. Instead, he ordered the aviso KAISERIN ELIZABETH to remain behind and pick up the survivors while ERZHERZOG FERDINAND MAX engaged SAN MARTIN. The other Italian ships, however, did not realize KAISERIN ELIZABETH was attempting to pick up the Italian survivors, and so opened fire on her, driving her away from the men in the water.
By this time, RE D’ITALIA had been rammed and sunk the coastal defense ship PALESTRA was burning badly, soon to be destroyed by a magazine explosion. Persano broke off the engagement, and though his ships still outnumbered the Austrians, he refused to counter-attack with his badly demoralized forces. In addition, the fleet was low on coal and ammunition. The Italian fleet began to withdraw, followed by the Austrians; Tegetthoff, having gotten the better of the action, kept his distance so as not to risk his success. Additionally, the Austrian ships were slower than their Italian counterparts, and so they could not force a second engagement. As night began to fall, the opposing fleets disengaged completely, heading for Ancona and Pola, respectively. ERZHERZOG FERDINAND MAX had fired 156 shells in the course of the battle. She had kept boarding parties on her deck, ready to attack Italian vessels, but the opportunity had not presented itself in the engagement; steam powered ships could simply reverse course and disengage before a boarding party could...


150th Anniversary of the Battle of Vis (Lissa) - Joint Issue Croatia - Slovenia

Parallel with the Austro-Prussian War (from June until August 1866), Italy initiated also the so called Third Italian War of Independence, in which it was defeated by the Habsburg Monarchy in the mainland Battle of Custozza (24 June) and in the debacle of its fleet in the sea Battle of Lissa/Vis (on 20 July). Due to the successes of Prussia also Italy got important territorial gains: Mantova, region Veneto and the greater part of Furlani.
Because of the failure of Italian mainland army and in order to defend their dignity in front of Prussia which won the key battle of Sadova (on 3 July), Italian political and military leaders demanded a decisive action of the Navy. Italian fleet, although superior in number, was badly equipped and with untrained crews while the war fleet of the Habsburg Monarchy had trained crews (mostly hired in Croatian parts of the country) with war experience (German-Danish War in 1864) and with a very capable commander, Wilhelm von Tegetthoff. Instead of sudden attack during night, Italian fleet sailed to Vis in the morning on 8 July; the attacks on defenders' positions on the island were weak and uncoordinated and because of decisive resistance of the defenders Italians hesitated to start disembarkation. Tegetthoff appeared with his fleet on 20. July and started the battle with 7 ironclad ships organised in a wedge-shaped formation which were followed by wooden ships. With its 11 ironclad ships Italian fleet positioned itself according to the old-fashioned “line” model, with the intention to start firing from cannons from the left wing, while other ships were at safe distance. Apart from that, Italian line was too elongated, so that the ships at both ends were not in position to attack. The Admiral Tegetthoff's flagship ran into the Italian ironclad “RE D’IALIA” (and sank it with its ram), the ironclad gunboat “PALESTRO” exploded, while only one Austrian wooden ship was damaged. The Italian commander, Admiral Carlo Pellion di Persano was condemned for the lost Battle of Lissa/Vis and also lost all his ranks, medals and retirement benefits.
Marino Manin Croatian Post.
Wikipedia has more on the battle:

The MS are designed after a painting made by Carl Frederick Sorensen of the battle. The sinking ship in the foreground is de RE D’ITALIA: viewtopic.php?f=2&t=12366&p=13368&hilit=d%27italia#p13368
Croatia 2016 7.60 HKR sgMS?, scott?
Slovenia 2016 FDC and MS 0.60 Euro sgMS?, scott?

ALLEN GARDINER schooner 1854

The Falkland Islands Post issued in 1994 a set of stamps for the South American Missionary Society, the 65p stamp shows us the wooden missionary schooner ALLEN GARDINER which was built in 1854, at the Kelly’s yard in Dartmouth,
01 November 1853 keel laid down.
11 July 1854 launched as the ALLAN GARDINER.
She was 50 ton burthen, dim. 19.5 x 5.2 x 3.2m.
It is given that she was first fitted out with an auxiliary engine which was removed around 1887.
24 October 1854 she sailed from Bristol under command of Captain William Parker Snow.
ALLEN GARDINER was a schooner owned by the South American Mission Society, based in England. Built in 1854, the schooner was named after Captain Allen Gardiner, the founder of the society. He had died of starvation with the rest of his mission party on Picton Island in the Tierra del Fuego archipelago in 1852, after resupply was delayed.
The schooner was sailed to Keppel Island, Falklands, to support the missionary effort there and in Tierra del Fuego. In the fall of 1858, it was used to return some Yahgan natives to Wulaia after their months-long visit on Keppel. After the ship did not return, the missionary society sent out the NANCY to try to discover what had happened. In 1860, the captain and crew found one British survivor at Wulaia. They learned that the captain and rest of the crew of the ALLEN GARDINER were all killed by the Yahgan on November 1, 1859 after a conflict. SAMS withdrew for some time from trying to establish a mission in Tierra del Fuego, but one was established in 1871.
In 1858 ALLEN GARDINER was used to return a Yahgan family to Wulaia, and it brought others to Keppel Island to study with missionaries. Homesick, they departed after several months in October 1858, again on the ALLEN GARDINER. The idea had been to educate the Yahgan in English and Christianity. They and the British suffered serious cultural misunderstandings. When the ALLEN GARDINER failed to return to Keppel Island, Captain William Horton Smyley was sent to Tierra del Fuego in 1860 on the ship NANCY to investigate. Smyley discovered the ship afloat at Wulaia, but stripped of all valuable possessions. He learned from the one survivor, the cook, that Captain Fell, four mates, two seaman, and the catechist, Garland Philips, were all killed by Yahgan while on shore on November 6, 1859.
The ship's cook and sole survivor of the massacre, Alfred Cole, was rescued by Captain Smyley. Cook later described the attack:
One of the sailors complained to Captain Fell that several articles belonging to the crew had been stolen. Captain Fell gave orders for the [natives'] bundles to be searched. When the bundles were examined, the missing property was found in them and returned to its rightful owners.
The Yahgan natives were angered by the search. While on board the ship, one attacked the captain, grasping him by the throat. Captain Fell threw off the man and sent all the Yahgan on the ship to shore. On November 6, 1859, Yahgan men attacked and killed Fell and most of the crew while they were holding church services on shore.
On August 10, 1893, ALLEN GARDINER, under command of Captain Robert Thompson, was seriously damaged during a storm. Captain Thompson was found to have acted wrongly by attempting to sail the ship in poor conditions. He received "severe censure".
The wreck report is given on this site: ... /16527.asp

Falkland Islands 1994 65p sg726, scott623. and various internet sites.


Built as a cargo vessel under yard no 473 by Taikoo Dock Yard & Engene Co. Ltd., Hongkong for China Navigation Co. Ltd, Hongkong.
12 September 1961 launched as the KWEILIN.
Tonnage 5,9092 grt, 3,213 nrt, 6,477 dwt, dim. 128.7 x 17.1 x 7.31m. (draught), length bpp.128.7m
One 4-cyl. Doxford diesel manufactured by the shipbuilder, 4,450 bhp., one shaft, speed 14.5 knots.
January 1962 delivered to owners.

After delivery used in the liner services of the company.
January 1974 sold to Rogers & Co Ltd, Port Louis, Mauritius and renamed ROGERS TRADER.
1982 Sold to Pacific International Lines (pte) Ltd,, Singapore and renamed in KOTA BERJAYA.
14 February 1986 arrived at Gadani Beach, Pakistan and was broken up by the Jilani Corp.

Uganda 2016 50000S sg?, scott?
Sources: Beancaker to Boxboat by Dick and Kentwell. Merchant ships World Built Vol. X 1962.


The coat of arms of Murmansk is a rectangular heraldic shield divided into two parts – azure and gold ones. There are golden silhouettes of aurora polaris and a ship in azure field, there is a silhouette of fish in golden field.

Colours on the shield have the following meanings: azure and gold represent the polar night and the day, the golden colour of the lower part represents the wealth of the seas, which lets Murmansk fishermen earn their living. The silhouette of a ship reflects Murmansk as a major seaport, and a silhouette of fish represents the main industry of the city – the fishing. Aurora polaris underlines the geographical location of the city – in the Arctic Circle.

Russia 2016 19R sg?, Scott? ... 30531.aspx

DUYFKEN (Australia)

The Duyfken Replica Project founder was Dutch-born Australian historian Michael John Young who became aware of Duyfken as early as 1976 and lobbied extensively for a new replica project after the launch of the Endeavour replica in Fremantle, Australia in the mid-1990s.

The Duyfken Replica committee was established in 1995 with Michael Young and the late Dr. Kees de Heer and late journalist James Henderson. This led to the establishment of the 'Friends of the Duyfken' group then ultimately with John Longley's support, the 'Duyfken 1606 Replica Foundation'. The Foundation was initially chaired by the dynamic late entrepreneur Michael G. Kailis of Perth, who led the charge in raising the $3.5 million building budget.

On 27 March 1997, Dutch Crown Prince William-Alexander laid the Duyfken Replica's Keel at the Duyfken Replica Ship Yard in front of the Fremantle Maritime Museum in Fremantle, Western Australia.

Decorated stern of the Duyfken replica in Cooktown harbour in 2009
A full size reproduction of the Duyfken was built by the "Duyfken 1606 Replica Foundation" jointly with the Maritime Museum of Western Australia and launched on 24 January 1999 in Fremantle. She then undertook goodwill tours to Sydney, Queensland, Indonesia, Sri Lanka, Mauritius, South Africa, and finally Texel in the Netherlands. While in the Netherlands, the floor of the hold was replaced by antique Dutch bricks.

For a period in 2005, the Duyfken was berthed alongside the Old Swan Brewery on the Swan River in Perth, Western Australia. The replica was open for visits by the public.

In 2006, Western Australia played a big role in the 400th anniversary of the original Duyfken's visit to Australia and a national group, Australia on the Map: 1606–2006, was formed to commemorate the arrival of the Duyfken and to mark this important milestone in Australia's history, by also giving recognition to all who followed her and contributed to the mapping of the Australian coast.

The Duyfken was berthed at the Queensland Maritime Museum in Southbank, Brisbane, Queensland until early 2011, when she was then placed on display at the Australian National Maritime Museum in Sydney. In September 2012 the Western Australian Government committed funds for 10 years to see the "Duyfken" stay in Perth.
Displacement:110 tons, L:19,90m. (65.4’) B:6m. (19.7’) Draft:2,40m. (8’) 7 kn. Armament:8 cannons.

Duyfken (Dutch pronunciation: [ˈdœyfkən]; Little Dove), also spelled Duifken or Duijfken, was a small ship built in the Dutch Republic. She was a fast, lightly armed ship probably intended for shallow water, small valuable cargoes, bringing messages, sending provisions, or privateering. The tonnage of Duyfken has been given as 25-30 lasten (50-60 tons)

In 1606, during a voyage of discovery from Bantam (Banten), Java, captained by Willem Janszoon, she encountered the Australian mainland. Janszoon is credited with the first authenticated European discovery of Australia. In 1608, the ship was damaged beyond repair.

(Nederland 2016, 1, StG.?)


The full index of our ship stamp archive


Postby aukepalmhof » Tue Dec 22, 2009 8:16 pm

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Built under yard no 438 as a crude tanker (VLCC) by National Steel & Shipbuilding Co (NASSCO), San Diego for the Exxon Shipping Co., Philadelphia.
29 July 1985 keel laid down.
June 1986 launched under the name EXXON VALDEZ.
Tonnage 110,831 gross, 71,330 net, 214,861 dwt., dim. 300.8 x 50.6 x 38.2m., draught 26.8m.
One Sulzer Oil 2SA, 8-cyl engine, 31,650 bhp, speed 16.25 knots, crew 21.
10 December 1986 completed.

Built for the transport of crude oil from Valdez to Panama for subsequent transportation to Gulf and east Coast ports in the USA, as well as crude to West Coast USA ports.

On 23 March 1989, the supertanker EXXON VALDEZ pulled out of Valdez, Alaska, loaded with more than 56 million gallons of crude oil.
Captain Joseph Hazelwood, the master of the vessel had spent the day drinking with crew members.
Bartenders testified that he had consumed at least eight vodka doubles, and Coast Guard tests showed his blood alcohol level stood at 241- more than six times the permissible level under Coast Guard regulations.
Third mate Gregory Cousins was on duty beyond the limits specified by federal fatigue laws.
Hazelwood, Cousins and the rest of the crew faced a night voyage through ice in the Prince William Sound.

Hazelwood intoxication was evident from the alcohol on his breath, his speech (captured on audiotape) and, most of all, his actions as his ship navigated the Sound. While passing through fishing grounds, Hazelwood took the EXXON VALDEZ outside established shipping lanes to avoid ice. He put the vessel on automatic pilot accelerating directly at Bligh Reef.
Hazelwood then left the bridge in violation of federal pilotage regulations. As he went below, he gave vague instructions to the inexperienced and fatigued Cousins.
At four minutes past midnight on 24 March 1989 the supertanker struck Bligh Reef, (about 25 mile from Valdez) spilling 11 million gallons of oil, “the largest oil spill and greatest environmental disaster in American history,” claimed news report.
The grounding punctured eight of the eleven cargo tanks, and within four hours 5.8 million gallons had been lost.
By the time the tanker was refloated on 5 April 260.000 barrels had been lost and 2.600 square miles of the country’s greatest fishing grounds and the surrounding virgin shoreline were sheated in oil.

After the spill and the removal of the oil from the tanker the EXXON VALDEZ sailed to San Diego, under command of a new captain, for repairs by NASSCO.

Captain Hazelwood, who had a record of drunk driving arrests, was charged with criminal mischief, driving a watercraft while intoxicated, reckless endangerment, and negligent discharge of oil.
He was found guilty of the last count and fined $ 51.000 and sentenced to 1.000 hours of community service in lieu of six months in prison.

In 1990 the American Congress passed the Oil Pollution Act of 1990, which barred the EXXON VALDEZ and 17 other vessels from Alaskan waters. A provision banning entry by any ship that had spilled more than 1 million gallons after 22 March 1989 was tacked onto the Act.
As a result, Exxon sent the renamed vessel EXXON MEDITERRANEAN, after repair, to carry oil from the Middle East to Europe and the Far East ports.

In 1990, Exxon Shipping Co., President Gus Elmer said “Due to declining Alaskan crude oil, the vessel will enter foreign service, most likely loading crude oil in the Mediterranean or the Middle East. It is consistent with our policy that the vessel be named according to their location.

Exxon officials declined to retrofit the ship with a double hull because it was not feasible from an engineering standpoint, an Exxon spokeswoman said in March 1990.
However a National Steel spokesman said, “It’s feasible to put a double hull. The question is the cost and the time.”

In the mid 1990’s Sea River Maritime (Exxon’s shipping subsidiary) filed a lawsuits to allow the former EXXON VALDEZ to return to Alaskan waters. They stated that the vessel was not financially viable trading in foreign waters.
In 1998, a judge upheld the ban. In a recent Appeal Court case in October 2002 the ban was again upheld.
It has been reported that in 1993 she was renamed in S/R MEDITERRANEAN and that she was mothballed (laid up) and anchored off a foreign port that the owners will not name.
From being repaired in 1990 until its lay-up, the vessel made 190 voyages around the world.
April 2005 renamed in MEDITERRANEAN, owned by Seariver International Inc., Marshall Islands flag and registry.
February 2008 sold to Hong Kong Bloom Shipping Ltd., renamed DONG FANG OCEAN, she was refitted in a ore carrier, managed by Cosco Shanghai Ship Management, Shanghai.
2008 Registered at Panama.
April 2012 sold to Best Oasis Ltd. Mumbai, India, renamed ORIENTAL NICETY, under Sierra Leone flag. She was sold for scrapping.
The same month renamed by owners in ORIENTAL N., Sierra Leone registry. (source )

Exxon Valdez denied the right to die in India

09 May 2012 Lloyds List
BULK carrier Oriental Nicety is refusing to bow out of shipping quietly, after the Indian authorities denied it entry to Alang for recycling following a row that only adds to the vessel’s notoriety.
The bulker that was formerly the very large crude carrier Exxon Valdez caused one the worst oil spills in history in Alaska in 1989. Renamed Oriental Nicety, it was scheduled to arrive in Alang today, according to broker reports.
However, vessel-tracking data from Lloyd’s List Intelligence shows that the vessel is at anchor near Malaysia.
According to international media reports, the authorities denied the ship entry until India’s Supreme Court rules on a petition by the Research Foundation for Science urging the authorities to turn the vessel away, alleging that it contains toxic waste.
The court is expected to hear the case on August 13.
Converted into an ore carrier in 2007, the 1986-built vessel, now operated by Coshipman, was reported sold on an as-is basis in Singapore for $460 per ldt, or $15.8m, at the end of March.
If the vessel cannot make it to India, it is likely to turn to China or to end its days on the beaches of Bangladesh.

IMO No. 8414520

Marshall Islands 1998 60c sg?, scott?
Sao Thome et Principe 2010 15000 DBMS sg?, scott?, (the other ship is the ATLANTIC EMPRESS on 35000 Db.)

Source: Watercraft Philately Vol. 49/50 P.Crichton. Ships of the World by Lincoln P.Paine. Marine News.
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